Published on August 30, 2007
Egg Product Functionality : Egg Product Functionality Shelly McKee, Auburn University American Egg Board USAPEEC Slide2: Egg Industry Structure Producers Shell Egg Grading Further Processors Bakery Supply Food Manufacturers Food Brokers End Users 1.2 Slide3: The design and construction of EGG PROCESSING EQUIPMENT meets E-3-A or 3-A Sanitary Standards HOLDING Refrigerated no longer than 7 to 10 days BREAKING and separating yolks, whites, shells – Filtered – Mixed – Chilled REFRIGERATED LIQUID EGG PRODUCTS FROZEN EGG PRODUCTS DRIED EGG PRODUCTS Egg Products Processing Overview PASTEURIZATION PACKAGING 1.3 Processed Egg Products: Processed Egg Products Refrigerated (as liquid) Frozen (as liquid) Dried Specialty Products Processed to fit foodservice and food industry ingredient specifications. 3.1 Advantages of Using Processed Egg Products: Advantages of Using Processed Egg Products Reduced Risk of Contamination All Liquid, Frozen and Dried egg products are pasteurized There has never been a food-borne illness associated with pasteurized egg products Extended shelf-life Refrigerated liquid egg products – 12 weeks at 4 C Frozen egg products- 1 year or more Dried egg products - 1 year or more with no refrigeration required Advantages of Using Processed Egg Products: Advantages of Using Processed Egg Products Convenience Easy Storage No extra labor for breaking shell eggs Always ready to use Consistent Baking Performance Uniform egg solid consistency Ease of formulation Product stability over time Egg Nutrition: Egg Nutrition Egg Nutrition Profile - medium to large egg Calories 80 Protein 6.3 g Total fat 5 g monounsaturated 2 g polyunsaturated 0.7 g saturated fat 1.5 g cholesterol 213 mg carbohydrates 0.6 g sodium 63 mg Slide8: Frozen Egg Product Equivalency to Shell Eggs Refrigerated Liquid Egg Products- 12 week shelf-life: Refrigerated Liquid Egg Products- 12 week shelf-life Whole eggs, whites or yolks Sugared egg yolks Salted whole eggs or yolks Scrambled egg mix Cooked scrambled eggs Extended shelf life whole eggs, whites or scrambled egg mix 3.2 Frozen Egg Products- up to 1 year shelf-life: Frozen Egg Products- up to 1 year shelf-life Whole eggs, whites or yolks Scrambled egg mix Salted whole egg or yolks Sugared egg yolks Whole eggs and yolks with corn syrup Whole eggs with citric acid Whole eggs with corn syrup 3.3 Egg Nutrients – Liquid/Frozen: Egg Nutrients – Liquid/Frozen Source: Agricultural Research Service, USDA, 1994. Liquid/Frozen (per 100g) Protein – g Moisture – g Fat (Total Lipid) – g Ash – g Carbohydrate – g Calories – cal Cholesterol – mg Whole Egg 11.95 75.85 10.2 0.95 1.05 148 432 Yolk 15.5 56.2 25.6 1.55 1.15 303 1075 White 9.8 88.55 0 0.6 1.05 47 0 Salted Yolk 14 50.8 23 10.6 1.6 274 955 Sugared Yolk 13.8 51.25 22.75 1.4 10.8 307 959 2.6 Slide12: Usage: Foodservice and the commercial food industry Availability: Bulk tank trucks, totes, metal or plastic containers, polyethylene coated fiber or laminated foil and paper cartons, and hermetically sealed polyethylene bags. Container size from small bags to cartons (8 oz. to 5 lb.) and lacquer coated tins and plastic pails up to 40 lb. Advantages: Pasteurized, quick and easy to use, 12 week shelf- life at 4 C (only when not opened) Storage andamp; Handling: Store according to processor’s recommendations. Use within four to five days once opened except for extended shelf life products for which the supplier’srecommendations should be followed Refrigerated Liquid Eggs 3.2 Slide13: Slide14: Usage: As an ingredient for the food industry Availability: 4, 5, 8 and 10 lb. pouches or waxed plastic cartons, and 30 lb. containers Advantages: Long shelf life (1 year), functionality, variety blends Storage andamp; Handling: Keep frozen at temperatures below 10°F (-12°C). Use as soon as possible Frozen Egg Products 3.3 Slide15: Dried Egg Products: Dried Egg Products Whole egg or yolk solids Dried egg or scrambled egg mix Various types of whole egg solids Free flowing whole egg or yolk solids Stabilized (glucose free) whole egg or yolk solids Blends of whole egg and/or yolk with carbohydrates 3.4 Slide17: Egg Nutrients – Dried Source: Agricultural Research Service, USDA, 1994. Dried (per 100g) Protein – g Moisture – g Fat (Total Lipid) – g Ash – g Carbohydrate – g Calories – cal Cholesterol – mg Whole Egg 47.35 3.1 40.95 3.65 4.95 594 1715 Yolk 34.25 2.95 55.8 3.4 3.6 666 2335 White 81.1 5.8 0 5.3 7.8 382 0 2.6 Dried Egg Products: Usage: As an ingredient especially for the food industry Availability: Foodservice – 6 oz. pouches, 3 and 25 lb. poly packs Commercial – 25 and 50 lb. boxes, 150, 175 and 200 lb. drums Advantages: Long shelf life (andgt;1 yr), stable and mixable Storage andamp; Handling: Keep in dry storage away from extreme temperatures and strong odors. Use pallets Dried Egg Products 3.4 Slide19: Slide20: Specialty Egg Products Marketed to institutional and consumer users. Diced hard-cooked, peeled eggs* Refrigerated whole hard-cooked, peeled eggs, plain or pickled* Frozen hard-cooked eggs* Frozen quiche mixes Frozen scrambled egg mix Dried scrambled egg mix Other frozen pre-cooked products* Ultra-pasteurized liquid egg products *Cooked egg products are not processed under USDA supervision. 3.5 FUNCTIONS: FUNCTIONS COAGULATION EMULSIFICATION FOAMING RETARD CRYSTALLIZATION 4.0 Slide22: Coagulation/ Gelation changes in structure of egg proteins (yolk and albumen) resulting in thickening or change from a fluid to solid or semi-solid state Thickening & Coagulation: Thickening andamp; Coagulation Whipping or heating allows products that contain eggs to thicken and/or coagulate, converting the mixture from a liquid state to a solid or semi-solid state. Can use both yolks and whites Binds products naturally Suspends other ingredients Gelling agents in custards Thickening agents in soft pie fillings when the egg custard is heated Creates texture and height When the egg foam is heated, creates structural stability 4.1 Slide24: Coagulation/ Gelation induced by: Heat - protein denaturation Mechanical means - beating, chopping Sugar - raises temp. of coagulation Acids- decrease temperature of coagulation Alkali- high alkali can induce gelling of egg white Slide25: Eggs For Coating And Binding With heat, egg coagulation imparts rigidity causing mixtures to gel and ingredients to adhere. Egg white is an excellent binding ingredient No essential differences are found in binding properties of dried whole egg and yolk and those of fresh liquid eggs 4.5 Slide26: Emulsions/Surface activity- a stable mixture of two immiscible liquid phases, one which is dispersed in the other Mayonnaise Emulsification: Emulsification The phospholipids, lipoproteins and proteins found in egg yolks are surface active agents that enable the formation of emulsions from immiscible liquids such as oil and water. 4.6 Slide28: Emulsions/Surface activity 3 Components necessary for an oil-in-water emulsion a) oil b) water c) interface, proteins, phospholipids, lipoproteins Oil Proteins, phospholipids, lipoproteins Water Factors Affecting Emulsification: Factors Affecting Emulsification Freezing Temperature Acid Salt Drying 4.7 Slide30: Eggs For Aeration Distinct cellular structure from eggs’ leavening action Structural framework helps to hold product together Increased volume for lighter foods Airy texture and smooth mouth-feel More integrated, sponge-like texture When eggs are beaten, air is incorporated, creating a lighter, more air-filled product. 4.8 Slide31: Foaming/Surface activity- colloidial dispersion in which a gaseous phase is dispersed in a liquid phase air trapped during beating air bubbles decrease in size and increase in number as more air is incorporated the foam becomes stiff Slide32: Factors Affecting Egg Foams Degree of beating Blending Homogenizing Temperature pH Fat Salt Water Manipulation Heat Copper Sugar Acid 4.9 Slide33: Foaming/Surface activity- egg white foam ability (volume) due to ovalbumin foam stability due to ovomucin yolk contamination -'fat bullets' destroy foam Slide34: Additives Affecting Foams Acid Water NaCl Sugar Egg yolk Oil Surfactant Ester Chemical modifier Emulsifier Stabilizer 4.11 Slide35: Control Of Crystallization Eggs are used in confectionery products and ice creams to control crystallization of water molecules and create smooth texture and mouth-feel 4.13 APPLICATIONS: APPLICATIONS BAKING CATEGORIES EGG USAGE FLAVOR andamp; COLOR HUMECTANCY andamp; SHELF LIFE BENEFITS BREAD EFFECTS SWEET BAKED GOODS HEALTH BARS 5.0 Egg Baking Categories: Egg Baking Categories 5.1 Industry Breads Sweet Goods Cakes Cookies andamp; Specialty Items Muffins andamp; Popovers Frostings Frozen Products Healthy Snack Bars Product Usage Used in standard breads and buns Used in egg custard fillings and tarts Eggs add volume and height to cakes of all sorts Used in meringues and other items where lighter texture is required Creates unique pastry effect obtainable only through use of eggs Used to thicken frosting and fillings Used in frozen dough and other items to control crystallization Adds protein and makes them a meal replacement Functional Rationale • Used as an egg wash to brown the crust and for flavor and structure in specialty breads and rolls • Gels filling and adds color and richness to mass • Excellent emulsifier • Works to aerate and build ingredients into product matrix • Eggs provide structure • Eggs allow for aeration of baked goods • Eggs provide structural benefits • Binds and produces desirable texture and mouth-feel • Aeration of eggs build volume • Coagulates and creates firm, smooth base • Creates desirable characteristics in reheating and bake-off • Eggs are one of the highest quality protein sources available Egg Usage: Egg Usage 5.1 Industry Baking Dairy Confectionery Sauces Meal Replacements Beverages Prepared Foods Nutraceuticals Product Usage Breads, pastries, custards, cakes, cookies Ice cream, frozen desserts Bars, fondants, fillings Mayonnaise, salad dressings, dips and prepared foods Energy bars for active and elderly Pourable yogurts, dietary drinks and alcoholic beverages As an ingredient in frozen and prepared entrées and side dishes Used as a protein supplement and as a source for extraction of beneficial substances Functional Rationale • Adds richness, increases volume and improves machine flexibility • Improves texture, decreases melting point, eliminates crystallization • Improves interior texture, stabilizes, adds richness and flavor • Binds sauces and emulsifies mixtures of oil and water • Provides excellent protein source as well as other functional benefits • Adds creamy texture and clarifies certain wines and juices • Improves texture and freeze/thaw microwave capabilities • Used for the extraction of lysozyme and other substances such as yolk lecithin and sialic acid Flavor And Color: Flavor And Color Eggs contain fats which carry and meld flavors in food products Eggs add flavor and enhance other flavors Egg yolks impart rich color and are used to fortify whole egg blends for a deeper color in baked products 5.2 Humectancy And Shelf Life Benefits: Humectancy And Shelf Life Benefits Eggs improve cell structure and enable products to maintain structure during baking, thus reducing moisture loss from baked products Egg proteins also bind water, making it less available for microorganisms to grow and cause spoilage 5.3 Slide41: Breads Functional Rationale: Browning qualities (e.g., golden brown crust) Structural desirability Egg white imparts crisper crust to hard rolls and hearth rolls Adds flavor benefits Adheres seeds and grains to the outside of bread Adds color to egg breads and varieties Adds nutritional benefits 5.4 Slide42: Frostings And Glazes Functional Rationale: Structural desirability and binding benefits; create texture and height (volume) Adds rich flavor to mass Allows other ingredients to adhere Emulsifies Helps prevent crystallization in boiled frostings 5.5 Glaze Variations: Glaze Variations Glaze Egg + Salt Egg + Milk Egg + Water Egg yolk + Water Egg yolk + Cream Egg white Egg white + Water and nuts and/or seeds Egg white + Milk Result Shiny surface Medium shiny surface Less intense shine, golden surface Shiny golden surface Shiny brown surface Light colored, crisp surface Sticky surface for adhering nuts and/or seeds Transparent shiny surface 5.5 Slide44: Sweet Baked Goods Functional Rationale: Browning qualities (e.g., golden brown crust) Structural desirability and binding benefits Aeration of baked goods Adds rich flavor to mass Adds color to yellow cakes, cookies and Danish pastry Gels fillings such as custards 5.6 Slide45: Health Bars Functional Rationale: Structural desirability and binding benefits Binds other ingredients Improves nutritional value One of the highest protein sources available Flavor carrier Adds richness to mass 5.7 Egg Replacers: Egg Replacers Consumer research has shown that Americans know it is okay to eat eggs American Egg Board research indicates manufacturers’ aversion to egg replacers No replacer can adequately perform all the functions of real eggs 6.4 Slide47: Additives 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) by FDA SUGAR (10%) – used as sweetener in an endless list of food products. SALT (10%) – used to stabilize frozen salted egg yolk SODIUM LAURYL SULFATE (andlt;0.1%)- improves whipping properties of dried egg whites TRIETHYL CITRATE- (0.25%) improving whipping properties of egg whites CITRIC ACID (0.11%)– protect color and improve protein functionality CORN SYRUP – sweetener, flavoring, used to increase solids Slide48: TEXTURIZERS/STABILIZERS/THICKENERS – (andlt;3.0%) used in foods to help maintain uniform texture or consistency. These are substances that are commonly called binders. Examples are gelatin and carrageenan SODIUM BENZOATE and POTASSIUM SORBATE (0.1%) – mold inhibitor used in preservation of hard boiled and peeled eggs SODIUM SILICOALUMINATE(andlt;2.0%) – used as an anticaking agent Additives 'generally recognized as safe' (GRAS) by FDA Slide49: Liquid or Frozen Egg Products ALL MUST BE SALMONELLA NEGATIVE Slide50: Dried Solids Total Yeast Mold Coliforms Salmonella Slide51: A GOOD FOAM DOES NOT FALL
Shelly McKee, Auburn University American Egg Board USAPEEC Processed Egg Products Refrigerated (as liquid) Frozen (as liquid) Dried Specialty Products ...