Published on March 4, 2014
Institutional models of co-production in the African city The Case of Development Workshop Angola Second meeting of the African Urban Research Initiative (AURI) Nairobi, Kenya - 18–19 February 2014
Co-production of urban research for evidence-based advocacy Development Workshop uses the co-production of urban research to engage with other Angolan non-state actors in ongoing advocacy with public policy makers on: • land tenure and urban land markets, • the informal economy that employs more than half of the population, • housing strategies and finance • economic justice issues, • civil society space and post-conflict peace and reconciliation, • urban transformations and Chinese financing, • urban adaptations to environmental & climate change • community-lead basic services
Angola’s Post-War Urban Challenges • In four decades of war, millions of Angolans fled the countryside for the relative safety of the big cities and their crowded shantytowns. • With their meager resources, they built dwellings on land obtained by mostly informal mechanisms, often with little security of tenure. • Massive destruction of social and physical infrastructure. • Rapid urban growth, largely due to the war continues even after conflict ended. • Population growth today fuelled by high birth rate and movements from centre to periphery • 60% are under 18.
Research Methodologies & Partners Qualitative research & household surveys with semi-structured interviews in peri-urban areas in capital and secondary cities, using some of the following tools: • Poverty assessment on the bases of access to resources/services and household assets (score-cards) • Migration histories • Land access mechanisms & tenure security • Attitudes in relation to civic & land rights • Conflict & vulnerability assessment • Participatory mapping, GIS & remote sensing • Social media monitoring
Geographic Information Systems Participatory and spatial mapping Remote sensing
Post-Conflict Informal Economy
Informal Economy & Livelihoods Research Framework
Gender & Informal Economy Market, Street & Bairro Research • • • • • • • The most notable feature of the informal market is its female gender composition, 63.9% of working women were employed in the informal sector The informal economy in Luanda employs about 52% of the province’s work force. Over half of those are women micro-entrepreneurs. Research focuses on three forms of informal sector entrepreneurship: Home/Bairro Based Enterprises in the (Gendered) Urban Informal Economy Urban Marketplace Networks in Transformation Hawkers (Street Vendors) in Informal Economy
Informal Urban Water Market • The formal para-statal water company can only deliver piped water to less that 50% of Luanda’s population. • An informal water market has emerged that has a value of more than $250 million per year (2008).
Informal Water Market A complex multi-actor water market has emerged in Luanda as a response to the failure of the state and formal sector to meet basic water supply needs. Actors include: • • • • River water pump owners Treated water bulk supplieres (girafas) Tanker truck bulk suppliers Private bairro-level cistern owner resellers • Community water enterprise associations • Ambulant water street sellers
Water Price Mapping • The commercial retail price of water varies by bairro from $0.15 to $0.60 per 20 litre bucket • The bulk wholesale price of water when sold by tanker truck varies between $6 to $18 per cubic meter • Price to the retailer and consumer depends on: • • • distance from the source quality (untreated river water or treated water from the treatment plant) Current demand / shortage / season
Poverty and Environmental Vulnerability in Angola’s Growing Slums
Research Objectives • Use action research to better understand the relationships between poverty and environmental vulnerability in a first, second and third tier city in Angola, through five specific indicator areas: 1. 2. 3. 4. land tenure and land markets environmental burdens access to basic services (water and sanitation) settlement density, demography and overcrowding 5. housing quality and location
Analytical Framework Research Matrix Urban Typology > Level of Urbanisation 1st Tier Capital City 2nd Tier Provincial City 3rd Tier Municipal Town Luanda Huambo Katchiungo Focus Urban Settlements Vulnerability Indicators (MDGs) a) Land Tenure b) Environmental Burdens c) Water & Service Access d) Housing Quality e) Density & Overcrowding
9030000 9 Participatory Poverty Mapping of MDGs Pescadore Farol Das Lagostas Bairro Da Paz Dala Muleba NGOLA KILUANJE Barro Sao Pedro Da Ilha Do Cabo Kawelele Anteiro Mulemba SAMBIZANGA Candua Porto Pesquerio Petrangol ILHA D O CABO Forno de Cal Cacuaco Sede Boa Esperanca Salinas Imbondeiros Ecocampo Chapas Marconi Kikolo Sede Val Saroca Cemiterio Nguanha Encibi Ossos 11 De Novembre Compao Bandeira CampismoDa Madeira Cardoso Ilha Boa Vista Roque Santeiro Cardoso Augusto Ngangula Paraiso HOJI YA H ENDA Sao Joao Mabor ???? Lixeira Santo Antonio Combustiveis Miramar SAMBIZANGA Chicala I Mota Bairro Operario Bairro Cruzeiro Sambizanga KIKOLO Sao Pedro Chicala II Ingombota C.T.T Zangado Adriano Moreira CAZENGA Saneamento Praia De Bispo MARCAL Paulo Maianga Sao Marcal Comandante Bula Cazenga Popular KINANGA Rangel Coreia (???) Bairro Azul RAN GEL Precol Cazenga Municipal Nelito Soares Tungango Catambor Samba Pequena TERRA NOVA MAIAN GA Calemba Policia Mulemvos Prenda Bairro MilitarBairro da Terra Nova Madame Berma Tala Hadi Sagrada Esperanca Bairro De Kifangondo Novo Cariango Cemiterio Anangola Lourenco Sujo Samba Grande MartirCassequel Popular PRENDA Sarmento Rogrigues Camuxiba Cassequel Buraco Anangola 1 SAMBA NEVES BENDINHA ???? TALA HAD I Mata Sector Vila Da Cassenda Sector 3 Cassequel do Banga Imbondeiro CASSEQUEL Malanginho We Sector2 Km 9B Sagrada Esperanca Rocha Pinto 12B Mulemvos Sector 4 Grafanil Corimba PALANCA Golf I INGOMBOTA Ceramica CACUA CAZENGA RANGEL 9020000 No MAIANGA ROCHA PINTO vermelha Terra Imbondeiro Sapú INORAD Imbondeiro Bairro do Gamek Vila de Estoril Maria Eugenia Neto Morro Bento I GOLFE 28 de Agosto Vitoria e Certa Morro Bento II Morro Bento I Weji Maca Nova Vida ESTORIL Kawelele Cambamba I Futungo de Belas Cambamba I Chimbicato FUTU NGO Cambamba I Cambamba II Mbondo Chapeu Futungo de Belas Camama Sede Partido Cidade Universitario Nova Esperanca Cabolombo Mussulo KILAMBA KIAXI 9010000 MUSSULO Caop C Caop A 14B(Cambire) Vila de Estoril Ca Km 9A 12A Km 14 A Vila Nova B A D C E 15 Boa Esperança 1 De Maio (4 de Abril) Jemba Luanda Sul Regedoria Viana II 500 casas Bairro chines Ngola Kiluanje Chinguar VIANA SEDE CAMAMA Bem Vindo 10 de Dezembro Nova Esperanca SAMBA Nova Esperanca Tanque Serra Kikuxi I Tanque Serra BENFICA VIANA 9000000 KM 32 Cateba Tanque II Tanque I Tanque Serra Zona A Moxico Agostinho Neto Quenguela Norte C RAMIRO Casa Branca Zona A Mateia II Faz Sol Calivoto Quenguela Norte Tanque Serra Guengue Tanque Serra 8990000 Cass Vitrona Palmeirinhas Terra Nova I Tombo Quingolo Rapado 290000 300000 310000 320000 Quinzenz
Findings: Migration Demography and Low expectations of future emigration out of peri-urban areas Migration from rural areas ins not the main factor for urban expansion. The population of the peripheral bairros of Luanda is growing mainly due to natural population increases and city-internal migration.
Densification & growth in urban periphery 13°20'30"E 13°21'0"E 13°21'0"E 13°21'30"E 13°21'30"E BAIRRO PARAISO: ANO DE 2009 8°48'0"S 8°48'30"S 8°49'0"S Numero de casas: 10.856 2006 8°49'30"S Numero de casas: 5.700 Numero de Habitantes: 22.151 13°21'0"E 34,200 population 13°21'30"E 2008 Numero de Habitantes: 73.000 13°20'30"E 38% Annual Growth 13°21'0"E 65,136 population 8°49'30"S 8°49'0"S 8°49'0"S 8°49'0"S 8°48'30"S 8°48'30"S 8°48'30"S 8°48'0"S 8°48'0"S 8°48'0"S 8°47'30"S 8°47'30"S 8°47'30"S 8°47'30"S BAIRRO PARAISO: ANO DE 2006 13°21'30"E 28% Annual Growth 2010 106,566 population
Density & Overcrowding
Secure Land Tenure Indicator of land tenure security is the percentage of families holding title documents
Findings: Access to Land Rapid development of informal markets for the purchase and renting of land and property Formal titling is very rare, but levels of perceived tenure security is high (based on informal documents in Luanda and testimonies in Huambo) The majority of peri-urban residents acquired their and houses through informal mechanisms and don't have access to mechanisms to regularize their land.
Land Values 2010
Findings • The poor occupy much of the valuable inner-city land that is rapidly increasing in value. • Most of poor families accumulated savings are tied up in the land they occupy and the house they built or purchase. • More conflicts about land in periurban areas are to be expected in the future unless occupancy rights are secured • Recognising the poor’s tenure is a strategy for poverty reduction
Luanda poverty & environment matrix INDICATOR 1 Ranking INDICATOR 2 Ranking INDICATOR 3 Ranking INDICATOR 4 Ranking INDICATOR 5 Ranking MDG URBAN INDICATOR Secure tenure Durable structures (Building and roof material) Access to safe water (Source of water) Access to improved sanitation Overall ranking Settlement Typology Overcrowding (People per km2) Old Urban Centre 1 1 1 1 1 1.0 New Suburbs 1 1 1 1 1 1.0 Bairro Popular 1 1 1 2 2 1.4 Social Housing Zones 1 1 1 2 2 1.4 Owner-built 1 1 1 2 2 1.4 Transitional musseques 2 2 2 3 3 2.4 Organized musseques 2 2 2 3 3 2.4 Old musseques 3 3 2 3 3 2.8 Peripheral musseques 1 3 2 3 3 2.4 Rural Settlements 1 3 3 3 3 2.6 Industrial Zone n/a 1 1 2 2 1.2 Weighted Average 2.0 2.5 1.9 2.8 2.8 2.4
Luanda Poverty Map
Implementation of pilot projects
Participatory Planning • Municipal development plans using consultative mechanisms of involving civil society and residents committees through forums and local councils in Kilamba Kiaxi, Sambizanga and Cacuaco.
Pilot Projects Objective: • To test models for participatory management of urban land with simple and decentralized methods Interventions: • Huambo, Benguela, Cabinda, Lunda Norte • Recognition of rights • Demarcation and Titling
Advocacy Challenges – Moving to Scale • Ensure that process of action research and the results of pilot projects influence Government policy and development planning. • There is a need for DW’s Monitoring and Research Unit to make the vast amount of documentary and other resources that DW has, available to a wider public. • DW needs to ensure that its work and that of civilsociety partners influence and adapt to the changing donor environment and remain sustainable and thus able to continue to play a role within Angolan civil society in the future.
Community Media 2001 - 2014
Media & Public Awareness of Land Issue DW’s CEDOC monitoring of the media has demonstrated that land issues and rights have been clearly placed in the public domain over the last decade. SISTEMA NACIONAL DE INFORMAÇÃO TERRITORIAL
Dissemination of Lessons Publication of Results in book “TERRA”
Feeding the Public Domain CEDOC monthly Media Scan Fevereiro 2007 CEDOC’s Thematic CDs Media compilation since 2001
Outcomes on Influencing Legislation DECREE FOR LAND TENURE LEGALISATION IN PERI-URBAN AREAS The aim is to bring Angolan land legislation into closer alignment with international good practice and to improve the land tenure rights of citizens living in peri-urban districts who risk losing their assets under the existing law.
Development of a Social Media Strategy • DW is working with Municipal Forums and Community newspapers in the innovative application of social media. • Municipal Atlases are being developed for each urban municipality under the auspices of the Municipal Forums. • Interactive web sites are being created to monitor water accessibility by water associations and committees. • A real-time GSMA mobile-phone feed is being piloted in Huambo to provide monitoring of water access and quality and make reports to the provincial water company by consumers.
#cazengaH2O Purpose: Provide an online Facebook platform for sharing information about water access in Cazenga and other basic services and governance issues. Features: Google API map with locations of standpipes and 100- and 200-meter access areas; blog created by “Ecos do Henda” community newspaper; comments area to respond to and discuss blog articles; twitter feed pulling posts by @DW_AGUA and any tweet using #cazengaH2O hash-tag.
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