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All About Geography - Chapter 3 - Tropical Rainforests

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Information about All About Geography - Chapter 3 - Tropical Rainforests
Education

Published on February 17, 2014

Author: judyliew

Source: slideshare.net

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Characteristics and importance of the Tropical Rainforest
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“ phy, Chapter 3, p.72 All About Geogra ”

1. Identify where tropical rainforests are found 2. Describe the characteristics of a tropical rainforest biome 3. Explain the uses and importance of the rainforest

Why/why not?

Why? Why not?

Why? Why not?

“ H o w a r e Tro p i c a l Ra i n fo re s t s from other types of forests? ”

 Rainfo rests a luxuriant forere very thick and st s.  They a re found in ar eas with high rainfall and h igh temperatu res.  The tre es in the rainf orest have broad leaves evergreen. which are  It is es timated tha F T! AC t about half o all the earth’s plant and anim f life lives in ra al inforests.

Where are tropical rainforests found? Tropical Rainforests are found in areas which experience the Equatorial Climate. These areas are found 20°North and 20°South of the Equator! The average temperatures here are above 26°C and the total annual rainfall is between 1500 to 2000 millimetres (mm)!

Example of countries with rainforests: - Mexico - Venezuela - Suriname - Columbia - Brazil - Peru - Bolivia - Congo - Indonesia - Papua New Guinea

Amazon Basin! South East Asian Countries! Refer to p.88 Congo Basin!

“ W h at a re t h e t y pical of a tropical rainfor est? ”

Emergent > 50 m Canopy 20 – 30 m Structure of a TRF Undergrowth < 20 m

Emergent The tallest trees in the forest. They rise several meters above the canopy.

Emergent The tallest trees in the forest. They rise several meters above the canopy. Key Feature 2: Smooth bark allows water to drain off easily Key Feature 1: Tall straight trunks that can grow > 50m to compete for sunlight Key Feature 3: Large buttress roots to support the tree

Buttress roots can grow 1 – 5 metres above the ground

However, they are also shallow (do not grow deep into the ground) as nutrients in the TRF soil is mostly found in the top layer

Canopy 20 – 30 m

The Canopy

Also known as the ‘roof’ of the rainforest. This layer is very thick and dense. Interlocking top crowns of the trees block up to 90% of the sun’s rays. Numerous vines (lianas) and other ‘cling-on’ plants (epiphytes) can also be found here.

The Canopy Layer Viewed from inside

The Canopy Layer Viewed from inside Epiphytes are plants that grow on other plants. Examples include ferns and orchids

Lianas are thick woody vines that climb up tree trunks to reach sunlight.

Undergrowth < 20 m

    Dark and dense Little sunlight reaches the ground (due to the canopy) Plants in this layer are small and thin (e.g. fungi, mosses etc) Many dangerous animals can also be found here!

  A voracious eater, it will attempt to swallow anything that moves close to its wide mouth. When threatened by humans, these frogs will jump and deliver a painful bite

   Very small in size, but poisonous enough to kill up to 100 people! It has one of the most powerful poison known to man, but harmless if left alone. Also come in red, yellow and green

   Both fungi and mosses obtain their nutrients from dead plants and animals. Some are poisonous. Through their decomposition, the nutrient cycle is restored.

1 dea th 2 t de a h death 3 4

Emergent > 50 m Canopy 20 – 30 m Structure of a TRF Undergrowth < 20 m

 Leaves o Wide and bro sunlight o Waxy or hair ad – to compete for y surface – minimizes water loss o Drip-tips – a llow excess water to run off easily and preve nt growth of bacteria

 Fruits and flowers o Colourful and strong-smell lp to attract animals to he disperse the seeds  ing – les you name some examp Can s and flowers found in of fruit the tropics?

“ Why should we s av e t h e w o r l d ’s ” All About Geography , p.80 - 85

Water Catchment Area Refers to an area drained by a river and the tributaries The forest also helps to filter off any impurities so that the groundwater is kept clean. When rain falls on a forest, the water helps it to slowly seep into the ground where it can be stored as groundwater

   Rainforests are responsible for 28% of the world's oxygen! More than 20% of the earth’s oxygen is generated by the Amazon rainforest alone! They are vital to the stability of the Earth’s climate

Many unique animals live there… Tree Kangaroo Pink River Dolphin! Giant Leaf Frog Tapir

See: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7XiQDgNUEMw

Thousands of plants can be found there! No other place on Earth has such rich BIODIVERSITY (the range of plants and animals found in the area)

 Over 3000 species have been found to have cancer fighting properties in the Amazon!

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