Published on December 5, 2013
Surveying Surveillance @ KISSS : Castlefield Gallery 26 . 10 . 08
alex haw : atmos
Home Office website Q: “Is surveillance effective? A: In 1996 and 1997, lawful interception of communications played a crucial part in police operations leading to: -1200 arrests -seizure of nearly three tonnes of class A drugs, and 112 tonnes of other drugs, with a combined street value of over £600 million -seizure of over 450 firearms
In June America’s Departments of Justice and Homeland Security and a grouping of American police chiefs released the “Suspicious Activity Report—Support and Implementation Project”. Inspired in part by the approach of the Los Angeles Police Department, it urges police to question people who, among other things, use binoculars, count footsteps, take notes, draw diagrams, change appearance, speak with security staff, and photograph objects “with no apparent aesthetic value.”
INSTITUTIONS GOVERNING REG. OF CCTV & SURVEILLANCE: 1a Home Office & 1b Information Commissioner -produce the overarching guidelines and codes 2a Councils -operate with above guidelines 2b Constabularies -control e.g. licensing agreements -each police force at liberty to set its own requirements; some simply refer people to ICO 3 Other institutions -CamerWatch -CCTV User Group -Many cities, shopping centres and even car parks have their own Codes of Practice
LEGISLATION GOVERNING REG. OF CCTV & SURVEILLANCE: -Human Rights Act 1998: 2nd October 2000; section 8 -Data Protection Act 1998, initiated 1st March 2000: - CCTV Code of Practice July 2000: -Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act (RIPA) 2000 -Private Security Industry Act 2001 -Prevention of Terrorism Act -Freedom of Information Act
Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO) CCTV Code of Practice -Signs should be placed warning the public that they are entering an area surveyed by CCTV BUT: (1c) an exemption may be found... for any of the following purposes: a) prevention or detection of crime b) apprehension or prosecution of offenders” ... NB These are the very first principles justifying the use of surveillance in the 1st Data Principle of the DPA98; the majority of actions covered are exempt from the laws that are supposed to govern them.
Vexatious and repeated requests (ICO Freedom of Information Act Awareness Guidance No 22: ) a request can be treated as vexatious where it would impose a significant burden on the public authority in terms of expense or distraction, and meets at least one of the following criteria: • It clearly does not have any serious purpose or value • It is designed to cause disruption or annoyance • It has the effect of harassing the public authority • It can otherwise fairly be characterised as obsessive or manifestly unreasonable.
Vexatious and repeated requests (ICO Freedom of Information Act Awareness Guidance No 22: ) The Commissioner found that the request in case FS50086298 (BBC) could be characterised as obsessive because, although the requests were not linked to a dispute, after 90 previous requests “It appears that there is no outcome within the realms of realistic possibility that is likely to satisfy the complainant.”.”
The Data Protection Act 1998 protects individuals’ information held in organisational data systems. Domestic properties are exempt. You have rights when being spied on by organisations but not by homeowners; the privacy of voyeurism is sacrosanct.
P300 "Brain Fingerprinting": A Very Freaky Future Indeed http://jeffjonas.typepad.com/jeff_jonas/2007/01/p300_brain_fing.html We may not be far away from the thoughtcrime described in 1984. “Apparently, your brain creates a very specific electrical brain response, known as P300, when one is presented with information that is already contained in one’s mind. If you recognize the information (i.e., it is familiar to you), you will have a P300 response. There is no way to avoid this; it is a biological/electrical stimulus response event. Sort of like a lie detector, only (reportedly) always accurate. P300 is already being used in court as admissible evidence by both defense and prosecuting attorneys.” On March 5, 2001 Pottawattamie County, Iowa District Court Judge Tim O'Grady ruled that Brain Fingerprinting® testing is admissible in court.
Hsinchun Chen, head of the Artificial Intelligence Lab at the University of Arizona says “sentiment analysis”, which he performs for American and international intelligence agencies, is an emerging and booming field. The goal is to identify changes in the behaviour and language of internet users that could indicate that angry young men are becoming potential suicide-bombers. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU), a lobby, says the list maintained by the Terrorist Screening Centre at the FBI now has more than 900,000 names, with 20,000 more every month. Abdul Bakier, a former official in Jordan’s General Intelligence Department, says that tips to foil data-mining systems are discussed at length on some extremist online forums. Tricks such as calling phone-sex hotlines can help make a profile less suspicious.
“Meat tagged in readiness for crime surge” 20 October 08 Alan Hyder “Retailers preparing for a rapid rise in crime due to the credit crunch are placing electronic tags on expensive cuts of meat.”
COTS Dust GOALS: • Create a network of sensors • Explore system design issues • Provide a platform to test Dust components • Use off the shelf components
COTS Dust - RF Motes – Atmel Microprocessor – RF Monolithics transceiver • 916MHz, ~20m range, 4800 bps – 1 week fully active, 2 yr @1% N W E S 2 Axis Magnetic Sensor 2 Axis Accelerometer Light Intensity Sensor Humidity Sensor Pressure Sensor Temperature Sensor
1 Mbps CMOS imaging receiver 10mW, 1mrad Optical Filter Collection Lens 64x64 CMOS Imager 10cm 5mm 200m Photosensor CRC Check SIPO Shift Local Bus Driver Register 2 km Field of View of Single Pixel Signal Processing A/D Conversion Off Chip Bus Driver Pixel Array
2D beam scanning AR coated dome lens Steering Mirror laser CMOS ASIC
Dust Delivery • Floaters • Autorotators – solar cells • Rockets – thermopiles MOTE • MAVs
Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) http://www.acpo.police.uk/ “There are no definitive performance criteria for video to be legally admissible. It is for the court to decide whether the pictures are accepted, and this is done on the grounds of relevance to the case, reliability of the evidence, etc. The appropriate resolution, level of compression and number of pictures per second will be determined by what you wish to see in the recording. A good way to ensure that the system is capable of achieving the requirement: do a subjective test.”
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Quarta turma do workshop de Infografia, ministrado por Beatriz Blanco e Marcos Sin...