Alcohol related violence

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Information about Alcohol related violence

Published on June 17, 2016

Author: MariaPauMPHBestSelli

Source: slideshare.net

1. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Alcohol-related violence: What works and what do we need to do? A/Prof Peter Miller 1 School of Psychology, Deakin University 2 National Addiction Centre, Institute of Psychiatry, King's College London, UK 3 NDRI, Curtin University 4 Commissioning Editor, Addiction 5 Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Ontario, Canada

2. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Funded by the National Drug Law Enforcement Research Fund: An Initiative of the National Drug Strategy

3. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Collaborators • POINTED: – Dr Amy Pennay – Inspector Bill Mathers – Nicolas Droste – Dr Rebecca Jenkinson – Prof Tanya Chikritzhs – Prof Stephen Tomsen – Phillip Wadds – Prof Sandra C. Jones – A/Prof Darren Palmer – Lance Barrie – Dr Tina Lam – William Gilmore – Prof Dan I. Lubman • DANTE: – Inspector Bill Mathers – A/Prof Darren Palmer – Jennifer Tindall – Anders Sønderlund – Daniel Groombridge – Christophe Lecathelinais – Karen Gillham – Emma McFarlane – Florentine de Groot – Nicolas Droste – Amy Sawyer – Dr Ian Warren – Prof John Wiggers Dr Lucy Zinkiewicz, Dr Beth Costa, Dr Shannon Hyder, Dr Lucy Busija

4. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research 4 studies Dealing with Alcohol and the Night Time Economy - (DANTE) 2008-2011  4,000 patron interviews (90% response rate)  700 telephone surveys  129 Venue Observations  123 Key informants Patron Offending and Intoxication in Night-Time Entertainment Districts - (POINTED) 2011-12  7,000 patron interviews (96% response rate)  129 Venue Observations NSW street intercept 2012  722 patron interviews POINTED Schoolies 2012  1265 patron interviews

5. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research • Explored the relationship between experience of parenting styles, alcohol use and aggression in bars.

6. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research • Trends • Risk factors • What works

7. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Harm, Risk and Aggression DANTE POINTED SCHOOLIES NSW Street Retrospective period (12 months) (3 months) (1 month) (12 months) Experience Aggression Physical 15.5% 11.0% 4.8% 10.8% Verbal - 9.0% 5.7% 11.5% Sexual - 2.0% 0.5% 1.7% Alcohol Related Injury or Accident - 14.0% 22.8% - DUI - 14.0% - 10.7% Unprotected Sex - - 22.2% -

8. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research BAC levels for all sites per hour

9. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Risk factors • Pre-drinking • Illicit drugs • Energy drinks • Parental ‘discipline styles’

10. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research DANTE Pre-drinking • People who pre-drank were significantly more likely to be in a fight (χ2=25.47, p<.000). – 5+ drinks = 2 times more likely – 11-25 drinks = 2.8-3.8 times more likely – 25+ drinks = 4.5 times more likely • side drinking- ‘loading’ also the norm.

11. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Illicit drugs • 16% of the overall sample reported using substances other than alcohol during their current night out (prior to interview) • A small number of participants (n=44, <1%) refused to answer Drug TOTAL n % Ecstasy 231 3 Cannabis 196 3 Methamphetamine 179 3 Cocaine 97 1 Pharmaceutical stimulants 30 <1 LSD 15 <1 Opiates 10 <1 Benzodiazepines 8 <1 GHB 8 <1 Mephedrone 6 <1 Ketamine 5 <1 Other 32 1 ANY 1,072 16 • 20% of people tested positive for illicit drugs. • 20% declined. • Estimated 20-40% of people taking drugs

12. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Illicit drugs • People who used illicit drugs were significantly more likely to: – Physical aggression – Verbal aggression – Sexual aggression – Property Crime – Drink-driving – Any alcohol-related injury

13. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Energy drinks • 23% of participants had consumed energy drinks • 14.6 % combined energy drinks with alcohol. • Males and females similar. • Participants who consumed energy drinks with alcohol: • consumed significantly more energy drinks • consumed significantly more alcohol • significantly more likely to report illicit drug use

14. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Energy drinks (cont) • participants who reported consuming energy drinks with/without alcohol prior to interview were significantly more likely to experience all forms of harm Daily recommended limit

15. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Parental ‘discipline styles’ • The only significant predictors of violence were – a more abusive paternal relationship – drinking quantity. • Young men who experienced abuse were almost 2 times more likely to perpetrate bar fights. • There are 24,000 alcohol-related cases of child abuse every year.

16. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Predictors Bivariate regressions Stage 1 Random slopes¹ ExpB² 95% CI P- value ExpB² 95%CI P- value ExpB² 95% CI P- value Age group (years) .048 .173 .178 Male sex 1.13 (1.08- 1.17) <.001 0.94 (0.85- 1.04) .229 0.95 (0.86- 1.04) .268 Interview after midnight 1.13 (1.08- 1.17) <.001 1.07 (1.02- 1.12) .006 1.07 (1.02- 1.12) .011 Engagement in pre- drinking 1.18 (1.14- 1.23) <.001 1.12 (1.07- 1.18) <.001 1.14 (1.09- 1.2) <.001 Number of pre-drinks 1.02 (1.01- 1.03) .001 0.99 (0.98- 1.01) .321 0.99 (0.98- 1.01) .345 Length of drinking session 1.05 (1.04- 1.06) <.001 1.02 (1.02- 1.03) <.001 1.04 (1.03- 1.05) <.001 Number of standard drinks 1.04 (1.04- 1.05) <.001 1.04 (1.03- 1.04) <.001 1.04 (1.04- 1.05) <.001 Cannabis consumption 0.93 (0.80- 1.06) .300 0.84 (0.71- 0.97) .007 0.84 (0.70- 0.97) .011 Stimulants consumed Illicit stimulants 1.12 (1.02- 1.22) .021 0.92 (0.80- 1.05) .198 Energy drinks (yes/no) 1.08 (1.02- 1.13) .009 1.09 (0.99- 1.2) .112 Number of energy drinks 1.02 (1.00- 1.04) .065 0.98 (0.95- 1.00) .098 Illicit stimulants by hours 0.96 (0.94- <.001 0.97 (0.95- .013

17. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research What works?

18. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Closing venues earlier • Previous research confirmed • And extended

19. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Injury during high alcohol hours by year, 2005-2011 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 1 Q 2005 2 Q 2005 3 Q 2005 4 Q 2005 1 Q 2006 2 Q 2006 3 Q 2006 4 Q 2006 1 Q 2007 2 Q 2007 3 Q 2007 4 Q 2007 1 Q 2008 2 Q 2008 3 Q 2008 4 Q 2008 1 Q 2009 2 Q 2009 3 Q 2009 4 Q 2009 1 Q 2010 2 Q 2010 3 Q 2010 4 Q 2010 1 Q 2011 2 Q 2011 Rate(HAH) Newcastle Geelong IDScanners RadioNetwork Finesstrategy/SoYouKnow Nightlife2 JustThinkcampaign S104Intervention SafeTaxirank Interventionintegration Risk-basedlicensing

20. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Impact on drinking culture? • Interviews commenced in Newcastle at 9pm, • Could not start in Geelong until 11:30pm Item Geelong Newcastle Total Money spent tonight ($):  0–20  21–50  51–100  101–200 44.8% 27.7% 16.7% 7.5% 35.2% 30.1% 21.8% 8.4% 39.6% 29.0% 19.4% 8.0%

21. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Venue closures • Newcastle • Reported that 2 venues closed due to implementation of S104 conditions. • Newcastle now has MORE licenses than before 2008 (small bars) • Geelong • No trading hours or mandatory conditions in place • 12 venues closed since 2009, 1 by court order

22. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research When then? 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 9-10pm 10-11pm 11pm-12am 12-1am 1-2am 2-3am 3-4am 4-5am BAC(mean) Time Total Male Female Post-hoc testing using standardised residuals revealed that there were significantly less highly intoxicated participants prior to midnight (p < .05). After midnight, significantly larger prevalence of intoxicated participants than would be expected by chance (p < .05). By 12 am over one quarter (26.4%) of patrons interviewed had a BAC ≥ 0.10 mg/100ml . Similar trends were observed in both males and females. Sample proportion of people with BAC over .10 by hour

23. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Lockouts

24. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Lockouts

25. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Liquor Accords • Geelong since 1990/1 • Impact dependent on dynamics • Poor membership in past 5 years • No effective measures introduced • Voluntary participation means it is vulnerable to ‘capture’ • Time for further research and debate – Cost effectiveness – Impact

26. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research

27. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research DANTE Conclusions • Newcastle intervention had an immediate effect which has continued to push trends downwards, 5 years later • AT NO COST • The Geelong interventions studied had no positive effect, and even possibly a negative effect • AT SUBSTANTIAL COST • Geelong rates finally show non-significant decline (Fines) • Ideally, a mandatory combination of measures will prevent, detect and solve crime.

28. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research POINTED conclusions • Pre-drinking is a major – and growing – problem with very few viable approaches • Illicit drug use predicts much greater harm • People who use energy drinks are typically higher risk nightlife patrons • Responsible Service of Alcohol laws are failing demonstrably and need far greater enforcement

29. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research What do we do? 1. Focus on interventions across the life course and intervention points where people drink a) EARLY parenting support b) FASD c) Education as a part of national curriculum 2. ENFORCEMENT (and decent laws) 3. An integrated strategy with a clearly-defined enforcement pyramid. 4. Trading hour restrictions, applied consistently across regions 5. Consequence policing strategies for intoxication and anti-social behaviour 6. Levies on packaged liquor outlets to recover costs (or raise taxes) 7. For every alcohol advertisement, a mandatory government-produced public health message immediately follows (or 7% on print) a) funded via a levy on all sales by alcohol producers

30. Centre for Mental Health and Wellbeing Research Thank you! petermiller.mail@gmail.com

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