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Published on November 28, 2007

Author: Pravez

Source: authorstream.com

Poverty, Participation and Panchayats Anirudh Krishna, Duke University:  Poverty, Participation and Panchayats Anirudh Krishna, Duke University SELECTED FROM RESEARCH ON:  SELECTED FROM RESEARCH ON Panchayats and Collective Action Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan Democratic Participation Andhra, M.P, Rajasthan Poverty, Education and Social Mobility Andhra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Karnataka Poverty: A Dynamic Property:  Poverty: A Dynamic Property Slide4:  Escape and Descent are parallel and concurrent Reasons for Escape differ from Reasons for Descent Separate policies are needed – to prevent descent, and to promote escape The News about Poverty Slide5:  Major Reasons for Descent Health and health-related expenses (59% in Rajasthan; 88% in Gujarat; 75% in Andhra) Social expenses: death feasts, marriages (37% in Rajasthan; 49% in Gujarat; 69% Andhra) High-interest private debt (86% in Rajasthan; 52% in Gujarat; 60% in Andhra) Other location-specific reasons (24% in Andhra: non-delivering irrigation schemes in particular villages) Slide6:  Major Reasons for Escape Diversification of Income Sources (45% Gujarat, 70% Rajasthan, 51% Andhra) Irrigation and farm improvement (29% Gujarat, 27% Rajasthan, 25% Andhra) Jobs (many fewer) Government assistance programs (paltry: 6% Gujarat, 7% Rajasthan, 6% Andhra) Poverty Reduction:  Poverty Reduction Panchayats can make critical impacts by Improving Healthcare Promoting Upward Mobility… (also specific local causes…) The Good News: Rapid Rise in Education Achievement:  The Good News: Rapid Rise in Education Achievement Source: Original data collected in 2006 from 20 Rajasthan and 20 Karnataka villages Rising Functional Literacy (11-15-year-olds by caste group and gender):  Rising Functional Literacy (11-15-year-olds by caste group and gender) Source: Original data collected in 2006 from 20 Rajasthan and 20 Karnataka villages Slide10:  But severely limited upward mobility… Sharp Drop after Elementary Education:  Sharp Drop after Elementary Education Karnataka villages: Only 5.5 percent have more than 11 years of education Rajasthan villages: Only 3.1 percent have more than 11 years of education (These percentages nearly the same among 21-25 year-olds) Source: Original data EDUCATION AND ASPIRATIONS:  EDUCATION AND ASPIRATIONS Rapidly rising demand for education, but A sharp drop-off occurs soon after elementary school, and Achievements and aspirations are both severely limited Stated Career Aspirations (Percent of 556 villagers, 14-22 years old and attending school):  Stated Career Aspirations (Percent of 556 villagers, 14-22 years old and attending school) Slide15:  PARALLEL STUDY: WHO BECOMES A SOFTWARE PROFESSIONAL? Detailed interviews with 150 newly recruited software engineers (random selection from three Bangalore-based firms) and HRD managers of these and other firms THREE SIGNIFICANT GAPS Rural Gap Wealth Gap Generational Education Gap – most significant Only between 4% and 7% of Indians qualify Upward Mobility:  Upward Mobility Panchayats’ roles? Employment exchanges? Secure transportation to high schools? Teaching quality and quantity Promoting role models (most promising) Slide17:  Health Higher Education Upward Mobility www.pubpol.duke.edu/krishna What do you expect: If you were to make contact with a government official or political leader, will you get a response or will you be ignored?:  What do you expect: If you were to make contact with a government official or political leader, will you get a response or will you be ignored? Rajasthan Andhra 1: Will get a response: 41% 46% 2: Will be ignored: 59% 54% Access is a key issue… Access is a problem, but faith in democracy remains strong::  Access is a problem, but faith in democracy remains strong: Question: Suppose a political leader arranges to increase your income by 50 percent forever but also asks to stay in power forever: no more elections will be held. Will you support this leader? Strong party identification, but parties do not solve the Access Problem for ordinary citizens::  Strong party identification, but parties do not solve the Access Problem for ordinary citizens: 91% of 2,291 respondents strongly identified themselves with one or another political party Increase in party identification over seven years But parties are centralized, top-down organizations, with no permanent presence at the grassroots Rarely enable access upward Who helps with Access in the following situations? (Rajasthan, 1997-98 data):  Who helps with Access in the following situations? (Rajasthan, 1997-98 data) Similar result in Andhra: more than 60% rely upon Naya Netas.

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