Ajanta Carves印度阿占塔石窟

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Information about Ajanta Carves印度阿占塔石窟

Published on January 31, 2009

Author: pfying0620

Source: slideshare.net

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Ajanta Carves印度阿占塔石窟

Ajanta Caves 阿占塔石窟 1983 年登錄 / 文化遺產 阿占塔石窟位於印度的佛教石窟群馬哈拉斯特拉 (Maharashtra) 邦北部文達雅山的懸崖上,也是印度最大的石窟遺址。建造於西元前一至二世紀。石窟始建時,正值阿育王時代。石窟內的壁畫及雕塑被視為是佛教藝術及世界繪畫藝術裡的經典,具有相當重要的藝術影響。 西元五至六世紀的笈多時期( Gupta period ),大規模擴建,並在原址上,增加許多絢麗多彩的石窟。 yy 2008-10-16

1819 年,海德拉巴邦的藩王招待英國軍官約翰 · 史密斯一起獵虎,史密斯追蹤一頭巨大的老虎來到溪穀,在斷崖上舉槍瞄準對岸之際,老虎在佈滿植物的岩壁上消失不見了。史密斯仔細觀察岩壁,似乎看到一些雕塑,於是報告了藩王。藩王下令清理岩壁上的植物,原先在植物遮掩下的石窟終於顯露出來。第 10 窟的岩壁上至今刻著“約翰 · 史密斯, 1819” ,據說那只老虎就是在這裏逃遁的。

阿占塔石窟是印度文化黃金時期笈多王朝的佛教聖地,歷經公元 1 世紀 ~ 公元 7 世紀歷經 700 多年,佛教中落,一度淹末叢林中,直到 1819 年無意間發現,才重見天日。 Ajanta Caves 阿占塔石窟

石窟主要由舉行佛教儀式的支提( chaitya ,塔廟, 9 , 10 , 19 , 26 , 29 號窟)與供僧侶修行用的毗訶羅( vihara ,精舍、僧房之意)兩種類型,共有 29 座石窟。

Visitors outside the cave

Cave No.1

Cave No.1

Cave No.1 一號石窟的釋迦牟尼雕像正面表現沉思、左面表現微笑、後面表現凝視,其拱門及石柱上雕刻有飛天仙女,大廳牆壁繪有五百羅漢像。

 

 

Cave 19 exterior

第 1 窟正面 Prayer Hall Cave 19 stupa

 

Cave 4 sculptures

阿占塔石窟的不僅是藝術成就的極至,也是重要的史料,阿占塔石窟深深影響中國、韓國、日本的佛教藝術。

中國唐代僧人玄奘曾對它作了最早的史料記載,相傳約為公元前 2 世紀左右開鑿而成。該石窟今存洞窟約 29 座,在早期的支提窟中有十分明顯的仿竹木造構痕跡,且裝飾儉約單純,至中晚期後則趨向較為精美。

 

Ajanta Caves 阿占塔石窟

Ajanta Caves 阿占塔石窟

THE END yy 2008-10-16

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