Ajal UPQC

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Education

Published on March 5, 2014

Author: ajal4u

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UNITY POWER-FACTOR QUALITY CONDITIONER,D-STATCOM,Active Filters, Passive Filters , IGBT ,IGCT , ETO

UPQC a novel method to efficiently utilize Sustainable / Alternate Energy Sources AJAL.A.J Assistant Professor –Dept of ECE, UNIVERSAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE MAIL: ec2reach@gmail.com Mob: 8907305642 PSERC

THE GRAND CHALLENGES PSERC

DISTRIBUTED GENERATION FUEL CELLS MICROTURBINES DIESEL SETS RELIABILITY ENHANCEMENT ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES MOTIVATION COGEN TRANSMISSION APPLICATIONS CONGESTION PSERC

ELECTRONIC SOLUTIONS FOR POWER CONDITIONING Inject series voltage for phase control / exchange energy between phases Back - to - back rectifier / DC link / inverter Shunt positioning in system to inject current PSERC

What is Power quality ?   Definition : “Power quality problem is any power problem manifested in voltage, current, or frequency deviation that results in failure or misoperation of customer equipment”. Power quality can be simply defined as shown in the interaction diagram: •Voltage Sags •Voltage Swells •Blackouts/Brownout s •Transient Voltage Quality Current Quality •Flickering •Waveform Distortion Power Quality •Arc Type •Temporal •Converter Type •Inrush •Overcurrent •Harmonics Electrical Grid Utility Nonlinear Loads Industrial/Commercial/Residential Consumers •Saturation Type •NLL-Analog/Digital Switching 6

What causes power quality problems? • Internal factors: faults o lightning strikes on transmission lines or distribution feeders, equipment failures etc External factors: Transformer energisation. Capacitor or feeder switching, Power electronic loads, Arc furnace and induction heating systems switching on or off of large loads etc.

Why are we concerned about PQ All nonlinear and time varying temporal type electric loads fall generally in two wide categories, namely the analog arc (inrush/saturation) type and digital converter (power electronic) switching type. Key Problems: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Damage to sensitive equipment Interference Malfunction Extra losses Personnel Safety issues Poor Utilization Poor Power Factor. 8

power quality audit of a business? • Does the facilities wiring and grounding meet code and more impor tantly is it adequate to meet their power   needs from a power quality stand point ? • What is the quality of the ac voltage supplying the equipment ?

Electricity Market De-Regulation Means:  Service Security  Service Quality  Competition  Efficient Utilization  Demand Side Management 10

Voltage Power Quality Problems • • • • • • • • • Voltage Sag Voltage Swell Voltage Interruption Under/ Over Voltage Voltage Flicker Harmonic Distortion Voltage Notching Transient Disturbance Outage and frequency variation

Current Based Power Quality Problems • Reactive Power Compensation • Voltage Regulation • Current Harmonics Compensation • Load Unbalancing (for 3-phase systems) • Neutral Current Compensation (for 3-phase 4-wire systems)

Power quality issues in a typical industrial installation

Two Main Power Quality Problems  Harmonics and Reactive current drawn by the loads.  Voltage Sag,Swell,Unbalance etc.

Power Electronic Controllers in Utility Systems SOLID-STATE BREAKER SENSITIVE LOAD SOLID-STATE CURRENT LIMITER COMPENSATED VOLTAGE, POWER FACTOR HARMONICS, DSTATCOM REDUCED SAGS, TRANSIENTS, HARMONICS ENERGY STORAGE DYNAMIC NON-LINEAR LOAD DVR SENSITIVE LOAD ENERGY STORAGE UNINTERRUPTED SUPPLY SSTS CRITICAL LOAD

Characterization Methods . Broad Categories Transients Short duration voltage variation Specific Categories Impulsive Oscillatory Sag Swel Interruption Under voltage Long duration voltage variation Over voltage Voltage Unbalance Waveform distortion Harmonics Notching Voltage Flicker

Voltage Sag Depiction

IEEE Standard 1159-1995

Custom Power Devices Distribution Static Compensator Distribution Voltage Restorer Unified Power Quality Compensator (DSTATCOM) (DVR) (UPQC)

STATCOM

Distribution Static Compensator (D-STATCOM) Functions Reactive Power Compensation Voltage Regulation Unbalance Compensation (for 3-phase systems) Neutral Current Compensation (for 3-phase 4-wire systems)

Solution of Harmonic Mitigation Using Power Filters Passive Filters Active Filters Shunt Shunt Series Series Hybrid Hybrid UPQC Hybrid Filters Several Combinations are possible for hybrid of active and passive

STATCOM H Series is a Harmonic filter IGBT DSP CONTROLLER

Line diagram - STATCOM

Distribution Voltage Restorer (DVR) Functions Reactive Power Compensation Voltage Regulation Compensation for Voltage sag and Swell Unbalance Voltage Compensation (for 3-phase systems)

Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR)

Dynamic Voltage Restorer - DVR 28

Applications In Power/Utility Industry • Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) Basic Operation of DVR 29

Improving of Power Quality in Distribution Systems with UPQC Under Non-Linear Load Condition

Unified Power Quality Compensator (UPQC) Functions Reactive Power Compensation Voltage Regulation Compensation for Voltage sag and swell Unbalance Compensation for current and voltage (for 3-phase systems) Neutral Current Compensation (for 3-phase 4-wire systems)

UPQC ? ? ? UPQC stands for Unified Power Quality Conditioner. UPQC is an active series / shunt power line conditioner. • It is used to compensate power quality issues such as Voltage sags, swells, Voltage imbalance, flicker, harmonics and reactive current. • It is a combination of a STATCOM as well as a series compensating stage connected before the load in series with the power network using a matching transformer.

Functions - UPQC? • Load voltage regulation be series voltage injection • Dynamic current Injection for reactive power compensation UPQC is used to compensate voltage sags and current harmonics, control input power factor near to unity as well as to regulate the load voltage. It can be installed by the electric utilities to damp out harmonic propagation caused by resonance with line impedance and passive shunt compensators.

Basic topology of UPQC ? • UPQC consists of 1 x 3 phase and 3 x 1 phase Voltage source converters sharing the same capacitive DC link. • The 3 phase converter will act as an Active Filter while the other is a series filter (Dynamic Voltage Regulator)

35

Control Strategy for the UPQC DC bus

45/155

Applications In Power/Utility Industry • Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR, 4MVA )

Applications In Power/Utility Industry • STATCOM Purpose: To provide reactive power for voltage regulation 48

Future Trends New Developed Power Semiconductor Switch Combines the best performance Characteristics of IGBT and IGCT = + IGBT IGCT ETO Emitter Turn-Off (ETO) Thyristor

Conclusions A Balanced and Cautious Application The acceptance of the new tools and technologies will take time, due to the computational requirements and educational barriers. The flexibility and adaptability of these new techniques indicate that they will become part of the tools for solving power quality problems in this increasingly complex electrical environment. The implementation and use of these advanced techniques needs to be done with much care and sensitivity. They should not replace the engineering understanding of the electromagnetic nature of the problems that need to be solved. 55

 G. J. Porter and J. A. V. Sciver, “Power Quality Solutions: Case Study for Troubleshooters”, Fairmont Press, Inc., 1999.  J. Arrillaga, N. R. Watson and S. Chen, “Power System Quality Assessment”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 2000.  M. H. J. Bollen, “Understanding Power Quality Problems”, Standard Publishers Distributors, First Indian Edition, 2001, Delhi.  J. Schlabbach, D. Blume and T. Stephanblome, “Voltage Quality in Electrical Power Systems, 2001, U. K. ISBN 0-85296-975-9.  IEEE Guide for Application and Specification of Harmonic Filters, IEEE Standard 1573, 2003.

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