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Airworthiness: Communications for Mechanics

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Information about Airworthiness: Communications for Mechanics
Education

Published on June 25, 2013

Author: southernregionfaasteam

Source: slideshare.net

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Airworthiness: Communications for Mechanics
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Presented to:By:Date:AIRWORTHINESSPositive Safety Culture-Human FactorsR-1Communications forAviation Mechanics

2Communications for Aviation MechanicsObjective• Provide information about thecommunication process.• Increase awareness of variouscommunication methods and styles.• Provide ways mechanics can improve theircommunications.• Provide ways to overcome commoncommunication barriers.

3Communications for Aviation MechanicsIs Communication Important ?• ““Dirty Dozen” Human Factors:Dirty Dozen” Human Factors:• Lack of Communication• Complacency• Lack of Knowledge• Distraction• Lack of Teamwork• Fatigue• Lack of Resources• Pressure• Lack of Assertiveness• Stress• Lack of Awareness• Norms

4Communications for Aviation MechanicsIs Communication Important ?• ““Dirty Dozen” Human Factors:Dirty Dozen” Human Factors:• Lack of Communication - 3• Complacency - 1• Lack of Knowledge - 4• Distraction - 5• Lack of Teamwork - 3• Fatigue - 1• Lack of Resources - 3• Pressure - 4• Lack of Assertiveness - 3• Stress - 5• Lack of Awareness - 4• Norms - 238 references to the need for communications.

5Communications for Aviation MechanicsIs Communication Important ?

Presented to:By:Date:What is the purposeof Communication ?

7Communications for Aviation MechanicsPurposes for communications• ProfessionalProfessional• Non-essentialNon-essential• CulturalCultural• ConfrontationalConfrontational• Pre and Post briefingPre and Post briefing• InstructionalInstructional• SocialSocial• AdversarialAdversarial• SupportiveSupportive• InquiryInquiry• ComfortComfort• Capture AttentionCapture Attention• InstitutionalInstitutional• EntertainmentEntertainment

Presented to:By:Date:What TypesCommunicationexist ?

9Communications for Aviation MechanicsTypes of Communication• WrittenWritten• OralOral• Body LanguageBody Language• Hand signalsHand signals• ElectronicElectronic• Tactile FeedbackTactile Feedback• Facial expressionsFacial expressions

10Communications for Aviation MechanicsWhat is Communication ?AA processprocess by whichby which informationinformation isis exchangedexchangedbetween individuals through a commonbetween individuals through a common systemsystem ofofsymbols, signs, or behaviorsymbols, signs, or behavior..Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary•Key Words:• Process• Information exchange• System• Symbols – signs – behavior

Presented to:By:Date:Five Elements ofCommunication ?The Pieces

12Communications for Aviation MechanicsProcess Elements …• Need for communicationNeed for communication• Sender to encode and transmitSender to encode and transmit• Receiver to obtain and decodeReceiver to obtain and decode• Feedback to check accuracyFeedback to check accuracy• Barriers - make this difficultBarriers - make this difficult– Internal and externalInternal and external

13Communications for Aviation MechanicsThe Communication ProcessFEEDBACKNEED SENDER RECEIVERInternal andExternalBarriersExternalBarriersInternalBarriersOperational GoalFEEDBACKContentEncodeDeliverDecodeAnalyzeInterpretFive ElementsSend

14Communications for Aviation MechanicsNeed …• Motivated - Triggered by a thought, idea or event.– conscious recognition of stimulus– internal or external

15Communications for Aviation MechanicsSender …• Perceives the need for communication• Encodes the message• Transmits the message• Requires feedback• Evaluates feedback– Confirms or adjusts message as necessary

16Communications for Aviation MechanicsReceiver …• Collects the message• Decodes the message– context– delivery method– content• Must overcome barriers• Provides feedback

17Communications for Aviation MechanicsFeedback …• Assurance the message arrived• Sender must insist on feedback• Receiver must provide feedback• Sender must utilize feedback to assureaccuracy

18Communications for Aviation MechanicsIndefinite Feedback …• Less than clear acknowledgement that theReceiver understands the communication:• Feedback responses like:– Yes– Maybe– We’ll see– Should ….– … Head Nod …

19Communications for Aviation Mechanics“THE GREAT DIVIDE”“I know you thought you understood what I said…. BUT WHAT BOTHERS ME ….is that what you heard is not what I meant”Anonymous

20Communications for Aviation MechanicsBarriers – Internal ….• Selective listening• Perceptions• Difference in life experience between senderand receiver• Prejudices• Biases• “Context shift”

21Communications for Aviation MechanicsBarriers – Internal ….• Tuning out communication• Filtering communication

22Communications for Aviation MechanicsBarriers – Internal ….• Training improves communication• Prior experience can affect communications

23Communications for Aviation MechanicsBarriers – Context ShiftMessage to be Sent Context Window(Filter)SenderExperienceWrong Message SentContext ShiftMessage sent based on Sender Experience may be perceived differentlyby Receiver due to experience differences: Context shift.Need PerceivedEncoding SelectedTransmission Method ChosenNeed IncorrectEncoding IncorrectTransmission Method Wrong

24Communications for Aviation MechanicsBarriers – Context ShiftMessage Received Context Window(Filter)ReceiverExperiencePerceived MessageContext ShiftMessage Received based on Receiver Experience may be skewed byvariations in Receiver experience: Context shift.Need Incorrectly InterpretedDecoding IncorrectTransmission Method Unexpected

25Communications for Aviation Mechanics• Noise• Lighting• Intercom• Telephone• Room Temperature• Random Noise• Crowded hangarBarriers – External ….

Presented to:By:Date:Behavior and StyleforCommunicationsThe Methods

27Communications for Aviation MechanicsBehavior and Communication• How we perceive others• How others perceive ourselves• Communicate with others the way we wantothers to communicate with us• “By their fruit, you shall know them”Famous scholar – 2000 years ago

28Communications for Aviation MechanicsStyle vs Attitude …AN INDIVIDUAL’S PREVAILINGTENDENCY TO RESPOND FAVORABLYOR UNFAVORABLY TO AN OBJECT,PERSON, OR GROUP OF PEOPLE, EVENTOR SITUATION

29Communications for Aviation MechanicsTest your style …• Rate yourself on a scale 1 to 10Rate yourself on a scale 1 to 10– -5 = I am and “Extremely Formal” person– +5 = Formality is not important to me– This is your “X axis Rating” (self perceived)

30Communications for Aviation MechanicsTest your style …• Rate yourself on a scale 1 to 10Rate yourself on a scale 1 to 10– -5 = I am and “Extremely Formal” person– +5 = Formality is not important to me– This is your “X axis Rating” (self perceived)• Rate yourself on a scale of 1 to 10Rate yourself on a scale of 1 to 10– +5 = I am very concerned about relationships– -5 = My job and the company come first– This is your “Y axis Rating” (self perceived)

Plot communication style …Self Perception-5 -4 -3 -2 -1-5-4-3-2-1+1+2+3+4+5+1 +2 +3 +4 +5Formal InformalRelationshipsBusiness

32Communications for Aviation MechanicsBREAK - ASSIGNMENTMUST COME BACK IN 10 MINUTESWatch this screen for timerDO THE COMPLETE ASSIGNMENTTwo part assignment (includes math)BE READY TO ASSESS YOURCOMMUNICATION STYLE

33Communications for Aviation MechanicsBreak Assignment …• Ask 5 people* to rate you on a scale 1 to 10– -5 = I am and “Extremely Formal” person– +5 = Formality is not important to me– Average these 5 numbers– This is your “X axis Rating” (group perceived)• Ask 5 people* to rate you on a scale of 1 to 10– +5 = I am very concerned about relationships– -5 = My job and the company come first– Average these 5 numbers– This is your “Y axis Rating” (group perceived)* 10 people who you don’t knowMaximum 10 minutes to do thisGO

Plot communication style …Self Perception-5 -4 -3 -2 -1-5-4-3-2-1+1+2+3+4+5+1 +2 +3 +4 +5Formal InformalRelationshipsBusiness

Plot communication style …Self PerceptionPeer Perception-5 -4 -3 -2 -1-5-4-3-2-1+1+2+3+4+5+1 +2 +3 +4 +5Formal InformalRelationshipsBusiness

SupporterFormal InformalRelationshipsBusinessSupporter• Family First !!• Helpful to others• Martyrs• Good Friends

SupporterPromoterFormal InformalRelationshipsBusiness• Original thinker• Quick starter• Poor Follow through• Great SocializerSupporter• Family First !!• Helpful to others• Martyrs• Good Friends

SupporterPromoterControllerFormal InformalRelationshipsBusiness• Original thinker• Quick starter• Poor Follow through• Great SocializerSupporter• Family First !!• Helpful to others• Martyrs• Good FriendsController• Business First !!• Just needs facts• Quick Decision maker• Social Positioning

SupporterPromoterController AnalyzerFormal InformalRelationshipsBusiness• Original thinker• Quick starter• Poor Follow through• Great SocializerAnalyzer• Deep thinker• Requires lots of data• Slow to react• Great DecisionsSupporter• Family First !!• Helpful to others• Martyrs• Good FriendsController• Business First !!• Just needs facts• Quick Decision maker• Social Positioning

Subheadings …Formal InformalRelationshipsBusinessSSASCSPSPPCPSPAPPC SCCC ACControllerPromoter SupporterAnalyzerAASACAPA

S-C Communication …Formal InformalRelationshipsBusinessControllerPromoter SupporterAnalyzer

P-A Communication …Formal InformalRelationshipsBusinessControllerPromoter SupporterAnalyzer

P-S Communication …Formal InformalRelationshipsBusinessControllerPromoter SupporterAnalyzer

C-A Communication …Formal InformalRelationshipsBusinessControllerPromoter SupporterAnalyzer

P-C Communication …Formal InformalRelationshipsBusinessControllerPromoter SupporterAnalyzer

S-A Communication …Formal InformalRelationshipsBusinessControllerPromoter SupporterAnalyzer

Presented to:By:Date:How to EffectivelyCommunicateThe How

EvErybody wants to talk,FEw want to think,and nobody wants to listEn.

49Communications for Aviation MechanicsHow much of each skill?“See The Ratio?”One BrainOne MouthTwo EyesTwo EarsTwo Hands

50Communications for Aviation MechanicsListening Skills …After 24 hours the average persons understands andAfter 24 hours the average persons understands andretains only 50% of a conversationretains only 50% of a conversationAfter 48 hours – 25% retentionAfter 48 hours – 25% retentionAmerican Society of Training Development

51Communications for Aviation MechanicsImproving Listening Skills …• PREPARATIONPREPARATION• TAKING NOTESTAKING NOTES• OBSERVATIONOBSERVATION• FEEDBACK, REPEATING, PARAPHRASINGFEEDBACK, REPEATING, PARAPHRASING• REMOVE DISTRACTIONSREMOVE DISTRACTIONS

52Communications for Aviation MechanicsImproving Listening Skills …• PREPARATIONPREPARATION• TAKING NOTESTAKING NOTES• OBSERVATIONOBSERVATION• FEEDBACK, REPEATING, PARAPHRASINGFEEDBACK, REPEATING, PARAPHRASING• REMOVE DISTRACTIONSREMOVE DISTRACTIONS

53Communications for Aviation MechanicsImproving Listening Skills …• PREPARATIONPREPARATION• TAKING NOTESTAKING NOTES• OBSERVATIONOBSERVATION• FEEDBACK, REPEATING, PARAPHRASINGFEEDBACK, REPEATING, PARAPHRASING• REMOVE DISTRACTIONSREMOVE DISTRACTIONS

54Communications for Aviation MechanicsTwo Types of Send-Receive …• VerbalVerbal• Non-VerbalNon-Verbal– 58% of a message is interpreted through body58% of a message is interpreted through bodylanguagelanguage

55Communications for Aviation MechanicsVerbal Communication …• ToneTone• VolumeVolume• SpeedSpeed• ClarityClarity• TerminologyTerminology• ConcisenessConciseness

56Communications for Aviation MechanicsVerbal Communication …• ToneTone• VolumeVolume• SpeedSpeed• ClarityClarity• TerminologyTerminology• ConcisenessConciseness

57Communications for Aviation MechanicsVerbal Communication …• ToneTone• VolumeVolume• SpeedSpeed• ClarityClarity• TerminologyTerminology• ConcisenessConciseness

58Communications for Aviation MechanicsVerbal Communication …• ToneTone• VolumeVolume• SpeedSpeed• ClarityClarity• TerminologyTerminology• ConcisenessConciseness

59Communications for Aviation MechanicsVerbal Communication …• ToneTone• VolumeVolume• SpeedSpeed• ClarityClarity• TerminologyTerminology• ConcisenessConciseness

60Communications for Aviation MechanicsVerbal Communication …• ToneTone• VolumeVolume• SpeedSpeed• ClarityClarity• TerminologyTerminology• ConcisenessConciseness

61Communications for Aviation MechanicsNon-Verbal Communication …• Eye ContactEye Contact• Hand GesturesHand Gestures• Facial ExpressionFacial Expression• Body LanguageBody Language

62Communications for Aviation MechanicsNon-Verbal Communication …• Eye ContactEye Contact• Hand GesturesHand Gestures• Facial ExpressionFacial Expression• Body LanguageBody Language

63Communications for Aviation MechanicsNon-Verbal Communication …• Eye ContactEye Contact• Hand GesturesHand Gestures• Facial ExpressionFacial Expression• Body LanguageBody Language

64Communications for Aviation MechanicsNon-Verbal Communication …• Eye ContactEye Contact• Hand GesturesHand Gestures• Facial ExpressionFacial Expression• Body LanguageBody Language

65Communications for Aviation MechanicsNon-Verbal Communication …• Eye ContactEye Contact• Hand GesturesHand Gestures• Facial ExpressionFacial Expression• Body LanguageBody Language

66Communications for Aviation MechanicsImprove Situational Awareness …• Situational Awareness Tools:Situational Awareness Tools:– Inquiry– Advocacy– Assertiveness

67Communications for Aviation MechanicsINQUIRY:• The act of seeking truth, Information orThe act of seeking truth, Information orknowledge about something.knowledge about something.• Simply asking questions.Simply asking questions.

68Communications for Aviation MechanicsINQUIRY TIPS ….• Questions should be carefully directedQuestions should be carefully directed• Questions should be clear and conciseQuestions should be clear and concise• Questions should relate concerns accuratelyQuestions should relate concerns accurately• Require feedbackRequire feedback• Do not be condescendingDo not be condescending• Always keep an open mind.Always keep an open mind.• Draw conclusions from valid informationDraw conclusions from valid information

69Communications for Aviation MechanicsADVOCACY:• To be an advocate is to encourage, advanceforward, and to support.• Helps increase the SA of others by providinginstruction Guidance or Information• Advocacy through inquiry is very common

70Communications for Aviation MechanicsADVOCACY TIPS ….• Explain why you are asking a question orExplain why you are asking a question orproviding adviceproviding advice• Suggest solutions with your questionsSuggest solutions with your questions• Be persistentBe persistent• Be timely.Be timely.• Listen carefullyListen carefully• Keep an open mind.Keep an open mind.

71Communications for Aviation MechanicsASSERTIVENESS:The ability to stand up for what is right withoutcreating a stressful work environment.

72Communications for Aviation MechanicsASSERTIVENESS TIPS ….• State your position; show a need.State your position; show a need.• Provide solutions through inquiryProvide solutions through inquiry• Be persistentBe persistent• Carefully select the time to be assertiveCarefully select the time to be assertive• Listen carefully – show respectListen carefully – show respect• Keep an open mindKeep an open mind• Combine assertiveness with participationCombine assertiveness with participation

Presented to:By:Date:Review of:PurposeObjectives

74Communications for Aviation MechanicsObjectives …• Introduce the need for bettercommunications in maintenance• Introduce the five elements of goodcommunication• Introduce communication style assessment• Discuss ways to effectively communicate

75Communications for Aviation MechanicsThe Challenge …• Go back to your shop with a new attitudetoward communications• Assess the communication styles of yourco-workers• Assess communication effectivenessthroughout your organization• Increase communication awareness andeffectiveness

76Communications for Aviation MechanicsSomething to ponder …“The greatest problem incommunication is …the illusion that it has beenaccomplished.”George Bernard Shaw

77Communications for Aviation MechanicsAdditional Information:• www.faasafety.govwww.faasafety.gov• AMT Awards ProgramAMT Awards Program• General Aviation Award ProgramGeneral Aviation Award Program• Give us feedbackGive us feedback

78Communications for Aviation MechanicsThank you

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