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Information about Airports

Published on February 17, 2014

Author: ramkumarkr1



INTRODUCTION Location where airplanes take off and land

TYPES OF AIRPORTS • Military (Example : Yelahanka air base) • Civilian  Domestic  International • Civil Military Co-ordination

DIFFERENCES DOMESTIC AIRPORTS DOMESTIC AIRPORTS INTERNATIONAL AIRPORTS • International travel Domestic travel International travel Runway is about 3300ft. long Runway is greater than 6500ft.than • Runway is greater Long Presence of Duty free shops 6500ft. Long Absent • Absent

BASIC COMPONENTS • Runway • Control towers • Helipads • Hangars • Terminal buildings

RUNWAYS • Runway Orientation • Runway safety area • Blast pads • Pavements • Made of Asphalt and/or Concrete

RUNWAY MARKINGS  There are runway markings and signs on most large runways. Larger runways have a distance remaining sign (black box with white numbers). This sign uses a single number to indicate the thousands of feet remaining, so 7 will indicate 7,000 ft (2,134 m) remaining. The runway threshold is marked by a line of green lights.

BASIC RUNWAY LENGTH It is the length of the runway under following assumed conditions of the airport 1. Airport altitude is at sea level 2. Temperature at airport is standard(15°C) 3. Runway is levelled in longitudinal direction 4. No wind is blowing on runway 5. Aircraft is loaded to it’s full loading capacity 6. There is no wind blowing Enroute to the destination 7. Enroute temperature is standard

BASIC RUNWAY LENGTH  Normal landing case  Normal takeoff case  Engine failure case For jet engine aircrafts, all 3 cases are considered. For piston engine Aircrafts only 1st and 3rd cases are considered.

CORRECTIONS FOR ELEVATION  As elevation increases, air density reduces.  This reduces lift on wings of Aircraft and requires greater ground speed  Longer runway is required for greater speeds  ICAO recommends basic runway length to be increased at a rate of 7% per 1000 ft. Rise in elevation above mean sea level

CORRECTIONS FOR TEMPERATURE It is the monthly mean of average daily temperature for the hottest month of the year(Ta) plus one third the difference of this temperature and the monthly mean of the maximum daily temperature(Tm). •ICAO recommends that the basic runway length after having been corrected for elevation should be further increased at the rate of 1% per 1° C rise of airport reference temperature

CONTROL TOWER  A tower where in Air traffic is controlled  Small and medium airports have only 1 tower, Large Airports have more number of towers  Radios, telephones, light guns, flight progress strip, wind and pressure gauges etc.,

HELIPAD  Place where Helicopters land safely  Remote areas, Airports, on Roofs of big buildings(Air-taxi services)  World’s highest helipad is in Siachen glacier ,India.

HANGARS  Closed structure to hold planes in protective storage  Steel, Wood or Concrete is used for construction  Protect planes from weather and UV radiations  Also used to hold helicopters

TERMINAL BUILDING • An airport terminal is a building at an airport where passengers transfer between ground transportation and the facilities that allow them to board and disembark from aircraft. • Purchase tickets, • Transfer their luggage, and go through security. • The buildings that provide access to the airplanes (via gates) are typically called concourses.

1. 2. 3. 4. PLANNING Airport Requirements Site selection Airport Plans The Financial Plan

REGIONAL PLANNING • Approximate locations of airports in national maps • Classification of airports • Location of air strips • Routes of air travel • Population • Geographical features • Existing airports in vicinity • Air traffic characteristics

ICAO MASTER PLANNING PROCESS • • • • • • • • Planning method Forecasting for planning purposes Site evaluation and selection Airport configuration Aircraft apron Passenger building Departure and Arrivals Other facilities

SITE SELECTION Depends on Class of airport under consideration. Factors for the site selection of a major airport are 1. Regional plan 2. Airport use 3. Proximity to other airports 4. Ground accessibility 5. Topography 6. Obstructions 7. Visibility 8. Wind 9. Noise nuisance 10. Grading, drainage and soil characteristics 11. Future development 12. Availability of utilities from town 13. Economic considerations

LIGHTING OF AIRPORTS  First appeared in Cleveland Municipal Airport in 1930  Guide airplanes during night.  Various colours are used for different signals

APRONS • Paved area for parking of aircrafts, loading and unloading of passengers and cargo • Gate position • Number of gate positions • Aircraft parking system →Frontal, Open Apron system, Finger system, Satellite system

ORGANISATIONS • • • • National Airports Authority (NAA) International Airports Authority of India (IAAI) Airports Authority of India (AAI) International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) • Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) • Directorate of Civil Aviation

REFERENCES  Airport Planning and Design, by S.K. Khanna, M.G. Arora, S.S. Jain (6th edition)  Airport Engineering, by Ranganwala S.C.  Google images  IEEE


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