Air Drilling Tight Gas Reservoirs

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Information about Air Drilling Tight Gas Reservoirs

Published on August 31, 2008

Author: dzwager

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Shows how tight gas reservoirs can be drilled cost effectively with air as the circulating system

Air Drilling Tight Gas Reservoirs Diederik Zwager & Frank Seidel

Air Drilling Gas Reservoirs How we get away with it #1: keep the pressures low No restrictions at the surface #2: no liquid hydrocarbons If present, switch to membrane N2 #3: preferably no water influxes Can be handled by misting, foam

#1: keep the pressures low

No restrictions at the surface

#2: no liquid hydrocarbons

If present, switch to membrane N2

#3: preferably no water influxes

Can be handled by misting, foam

Air Drilling Equipment Primary air compressors Booster Mist Pump Rotating head (Grant, Washington, Williams) Float valves Fire float/stop

Primary air compressors

Booster

Mist Pump

Rotating head

(Grant, Washington, Williams)

Float valves

Fire float/stop

Blooie Line & Flare Flow line jet (venturi) Igniter

Flow line jet (venturi)

Igniter

Percussion Air Hammers (Cubex, Drill-Quip, Ingersoll-Rand, Numa, ...) With air/mist, sometimes foam Typical max dP only 250 psi Require low weight on bit, controls deviation Special carbide insert bits Wide variety of sizes WATER CHECK VALVE WEAR SLEEVE INTERNAL CYLINDER PISTON PIN DRIVE SPLINE SYSTEM BIT

With air/mist, sometimes foam

Typical max dP only 250 psi

Require low weight on bit, controls deviation

Special carbide insert bits

Wide variety of sizes

San Juan Basin, New Mexico San Juan Basin, New Mexico, USA Cretaceous, Sandstone Reservoirs 75 years of commercial gas production 7% of US gas production 30,000+ wells drilled 1,700 – 2,200 m measured depth 250 – 3,000 psi BHP 0.01-0.1 md rock quality

San Juan Basin, New Mexico, USA

Cretaceous, Sandstone Reservoirs

75 years of commercial gas production

7% of US gas production

30,000+ wells drilled

1,700 – 2,200 m measured depth

250 – 3,000 psi BHP

0.01-0.1 md rock quality

San Juan Basin Drilling Mud drill intermediate hole Casing set through producing water intervals Air/Nitrogen drill production hole Tight pay zones flow little gas Drilled with Air Hammers and Bits : up to 50 m/hr

Mud drill intermediate hole

Casing set through producing water intervals

Air/Nitrogen drill production hole

Tight pay zones flow little gas

Drilled with Air Hammers and Bits : up to 50 m/hr

Mereenie & Palm Valley Amadeus Basin, NT Pacoota sandstone Extremely hard (50kpsi compressive strength) Mud rop: 1 m/hr

Pacoota sandstone

Extremely hard (50kpsi compressive strength)

Mud rop: 1 m/hr

Mereenie & Palm Valley Amadeus Basin, NT Air Drilling No water influxes Used air hammers 15 – 20 m/hr Palm Valley Usual 10-15 mmscfd Extremes of 69 & 136 mmscfd encountered Mereenie Up to 30 mmscfd/well Very abrasive Significant wear on rotating head Ceramic liners considered Drill oversize holes, allow bit to wear

Air Drilling

No water influxes

Used air hammers

15 – 20 m/hr

Palm Valley

Usual 10-15 mmscfd

Extremes of 69 & 136 mmscfd encountered

Mereenie

Up to 30 mmscfd/well

Very abrasive

Significant wear on rotating head

Ceramic liners considered

Drill oversize holes, allow bit to wear

Bit Trips & Completions Bit trips & completion Strip live well through rotating head Run retrievable packer, use snubbing unit to run completion

Bit trips & completion

Strip live well through rotating head

Run retrievable packer, use snubbing unit to run completion

Air Drilling Tight Gas Reservoirs Keeps swelling shales dry No lost circulation, no formation damage, in sub-normal pressured zones Provides increased penetration rate, no chip hold down Provides less hole deviation, less weight on bit required

Keeps swelling shales dry

No lost circulation, no formation damage, in sub-normal pressured zones

Provides increased penetration rate, no chip hold down

Provides less hole deviation, less weight on bit required

Contact Energy Ltd New Zealand Reductions in Formation Damage (Fewer) Cuttings material in fractures Enhanced Well productivity Olkaria 3 – 5 MWe/well drilled conventially 8 – 12 MWe/well drilled with air Mokai 5 – 10 MWe/well drilled conventially 8 – 20 MWe/well drilled with air Rotokawa 5 – 10 MWe/well drilled conventially 10 – 30 MWe/well drilled with air Putauaki 5 – 8 MWe/well drilled conventially 12 – 20 MWe/well drilled with air Ohaaki 2 – 6 MWe/well drilled conventially 8 – 15 MWe/well drilled with air Reduced thermal recovery period

Reductions in Formation Damage

(Fewer) Cuttings material in fractures

Enhanced Well productivity

Olkaria 3 – 5 MWe/well drilled conventially

8 – 12 MWe/well drilled with air

Mokai 5 – 10 MWe/well drilled conventially

8 – 20 MWe/well drilled with air

Rotokawa 5 – 10 MWe/well drilled conventially

10 – 30 MWe/well drilled with air

Putauaki 5 – 8 MWe/well drilled conventially

12 – 20 MWe/well drilled with air

Ohaaki 2 – 6 MWe/well drilled conventially 8 – 15 MWe/well drilled with air

Reduced thermal recovery period

Reykjavik Energy, HS Energy Iceland Fractured volcanic World record 12-1/4” tri-cone bit runs 1,472 m @ up to 30 m/hr (May 21-26, 2006)

Fractured volcanic

World record 12-1/4” tri-cone bit runs

1,472 m @ up to 30 m/hr (May 21-26, 2006)

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