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Published on February 15, 2008

Author: Rina

Source: authorstream.com

Pan-Turkism in Kazakhstan:  Pan-Turkism in Kazakhstan Prepared by Aigul Bokayeva Karaganda State University, Kazakhstan Kazakhstan:  Kazakhstan Official Name: Republic of Kazakhstan Capital: Astana Population: 16 mln. Kazakh – 44.3% Russian – 35,8% Religion: Islam – 51%, Christianity - 48% Languages: Kazakh, Russian Kazakh currency:  Kazakh currency Currency name: Tenge Current rate – $1=151 Natural Resources:  Natural Resources Oil, coal, lead, iron, copper, manganese, chrome, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, bauxite, gold, uranium, sulfur, titanium, silver History:  History The ancient period – Iranian population The 6th century – Turkic population The 13th century – Mongol horde Ethnic Background:  Ethnic Background The 15th century – Kazakhs formed as a nation Three ethnic elements: Iranian, Turkic and Mongol Kazakhs, Turkmens, Uzbeks and Kyrgyz are Turks Tajiks are Persian Pan-Turkism:  Pan-Turkism Concept of the unity of all Turkic peoples is based on common ethnos and language Unified Turan/Turkestan is the supposed former homeland of all Turkic peoples Territory: from the Balkans to the Great Wall of China Pan-Turkism in Kazakhstan:  Pan-Turkism in Kazakhstan The 19th century – Russian domination in Central Asia The main goal of Pan-Turkism was independence and liberation of CA people from Russian oppression In 1920 Turar Ryskulov asked for the creation of a Great Turkic Republic in CA Ryskulov’s proposal:  Ryskulov’s proposal Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kirghizia, Turkmenistan, and Tadzhikistan The Middle Volga territories of Tatarstan, Bashkiria, the Turkic Chuvash Republic, the Muslim areas of the North Caucasus, Azerbaidzhan, and Dagestan 75% Turkic, 15% Iranian and 80% Muslim Consequences of Ryskulov’s proposal:  Consequences of Ryskulov’s proposal In 1922 – the razmezhivanie of CA The end of Muslim national communists dream of a united Muslim-Turkic state – Turkestan From 1923 to 1928 – liquidation of national elite Muslim National communism in the Soviet Union:  Muslim National communism in the Soviet Union “For Muslim intellectuals who have a knowledge of who the national communists were…this legacy is one of courageous example and self-sacrifice for a noble cause to regain leadership in the Muslim world, and to claim the future” Territorial factor:  Territorial factor Kazakhstan: territory – 2.7 mil sq. km population – 16 mil Uzbekistan: territory – 447 thousand sq.km population – 20.7 mil Tajikistan: territory – 143 thousand sq.km population – 5. 3 mil Turkmenistan: territory – 488 thousand sq.km population – 3.7 mil Kyrgyzstan: territory – 198.5 thousand sq.km population – 4 mil Density of the population:  Density of the population Kazakhstan: 6 persons per 1 sq.km Uzbekistan: 46 Tajikistan: 37 Turkmenistan: 7 Kyrgyzstan: 22 Turkey and CA:  Turkey and CA Turkish Cooperation and Development Agency (TIKA) and annual summits 1990s – 2500 Turkish companies: investment $8,4 billion and $4 billion Trade volume: from $145 mil in 1992 to $5,6 bil in 1999 Turkish Eximbank: credits $1,5 billion Investments in telecommunications Education: scholarship program Reasons of decline of Turkey’s leadership:  Reasons of decline of Turkey’s leadership Domination by Turkey as an “elder brother” Turkish attempts to influence CA domestic politics CA could deal with the West directly Russian influence Conclusion:  Conclusion Turkic unity would be a geopolitical event Turkic unity would have considerable population and vast natural resources Highly integrated political unions

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