Ahmad Bin Hanbal

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Information about Ahmad Bin Hanbal

Published on October 4, 2008

Author: speed2kx

Source: slideshare.net

Ahmad bin Hanbal أحمد بن حنبل 164-241 H نبذة عن حياة الأئمة الأربعة Lives of The Great Four Imams

Abu Hanifah 80-150 H Malik 93-179 H Shafe’i 150-204 H Ahmad 164-241 H

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) His Birth in Baghdad His upbringing and youth Seeking knowledge Travels

His Birth in Baghdad

His upbringing and youth

Seeking knowledge

Travels

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Started teaching at the age of 40 Characteristics of his Halaqa Seriousness Accuracy Documentation of Hadith, not opinion Avoiding argumentations and debates

Started teaching at the age of 40

Characteristics of his Halaqa

Seriousness

Accuracy

Documentation of Hadith, not opinion

Avoiding argumentations and debates

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) His life style His relationship with Authority (Khilafa) Refused donations and gifts The Ordeal Knowledge of Imam Ahmad

His life style

His relationship with Authority (Khilafa)

Refused donations and gifts

The Ordeal

Knowledge of Imam Ahmad

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) His Personal Attributes His Teachers and Mentors His Life Experiences His Time

His Personal Attributes

His Teachers and Mentors

His Life Experiences

His Time

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) His Personal Attributes: Strong Memory and understanding of Hadith Patience and Perseverance Honesty Adherence to Sunnah and Avoiding Arguments Sincerity Presence and Character

His Personal Attributes:

Strong Memory and understanding of Hadith

Patience and Perseverance

Honesty

Adherence to Sunnah and Avoiding Arguments

Sincerity

Presence and Character

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) His Teachers and Mentors: Direct Teachers (among many) Hushaym bin Bashir هُشَيم بن بشير الواسطي Imam Shafe’I محمد بن ادريس الشافعي Influencing Teachers Sufian Al-Thawri سفيان بن سعيد الثوري Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak عبد الله بن المبارك

His Teachers and Mentors:

Direct Teachers (among many)

Hushaym bin Bashir هُشَيم بن بشير الواسطي

Imam Shafe’I محمد بن ادريس الشافعي

Influencing Teachers

Sufian Al-Thawri سفيان بن سعيد الثوري

Abdullah bin Al-Mubarak عبد الله بن المبارك

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) His Teachers and Mentors: Sufian bin Uyaynah سفيان بن عيينة Waki’ bin Al-Jarrah وكيع بن الجراح Abdur-Razzaq عبد الرزاق بن همام الصنعاني Yahya Al-Qattan يحيى بن سعيد القطان

His Teachers and Mentors:

Sufian bin Uyaynah سفيان بن عيينة

Waki’ bin Al-Jarrah وكيع بن الجراح

Abdur-Razzaq عبد الرزاق بن همام الصنعاني

Yahya Al-Qattan يحيى بن سعيد القطان

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) His Time Political: Abbasids Dominance Conflicts within Abbasid family Strength of Persian and Turks (Ma’moon) Maturation of Fiqh and Knowledge of Hadith. Compilation of Hadith Creed Divisions (Mu’tazilah and others)

His Time

Political:

Abbasids Dominance

Conflicts within Abbasid family

Strength of Persian and Turks (Ma’moon)

Maturation of Fiqh and Knowledge of Hadith. Compilation of Hadith

Creed Divisions (Mu’tazilah and others)

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Faith (Iman) Belief, words, and deeds? Increases and decreases? Capital Sin Does it lead to Kufr and eternity in Hell? Destiny and Free Will Are we free to choose our actions or is it our fate? Is it our prerogative to ask this question? Attributes of Allah What can a human being understand about the Creator?

Matters of Division and Conflict

Faith (Iman)

Belief, words, and deeds?

Increases and decreases?

Capital Sin

Does it lead to Kufr and eternity in Hell?

Destiny and Free Will

Are we free to choose our actions or is it our fate? Is it our prerogative to ask this question?

Attributes of Allah

What can a human being understand about the Creator?

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Faith (Iman) Belief, words, and deeds? Increases and decreases? Capital Sin Does it lead to Kufr and eternity in Hell? Destiny and Free Will Are we free to choose our actions or is it our fate? Is it our prerogative to ask this question? Attributes of Allah What can a human being understand about the Creator?

Matters of Division and Conflict

Faith (Iman)

Belief, words, and deeds?

Increases and decreases?

Capital Sin

Does it lead to Kufr and eternity in Hell?

Destiny and Free Will

Are we free to choose our actions or is it our fate? Is it our prerogative to ask this question?

Attributes of Allah

What can a human being understand about the Creator?

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Faith (Iman) Belief only Belief, Words and Deeds Murji’ah المرجئة Imam Ahmad

Matters of Division and Conflict

Faith (Iman)

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Faith (Iman)

Matters of Division and Conflict

Faith (Iman)

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Faith (Iman) One station, does not change. Increases and Decreases Mu’tazilah المعتزلة Kawarej الخوارج Imam Ahmad

Matters of Division and Conflict

Faith (Iman)

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Faith (Iman) كفر Kufr Iman إيمان Rejecter of Belief كافر Hellfire Muslim who commits capital sins. مسلم فاسق ( مرتكب الكبائر ) Obedient Muslim مسلم مؤمن Jannah Shahadah الشهادة Tawbah التوبة

Matters of Division and Conflict

Faith (Iman)

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Faith (Iman) Worship Sunnah Hope الرجاء Fear الخوف Love الحب

Matters of Division and Conflict

Faith (Iman)

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Faith (Iman) Worship Sunnah Hope الرجاء Fear الخوف Love الحب الإسراء

Matters of Division and Conflict

Faith (Iman)

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Faith (Iman) Worship Sunnah Hope الرجاء Fear الخوف Love الحب Extreme Sufism غلاة الصوفية Murji’ah المرجئة Khawarej الخوارج

Matters of Division and Conflict

Faith (Iman)

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Faith (Iman) Belief, words, and deeds? Increases and decreases? Capital Sin Does it lead to Kufr and eternity in Hell? Destiny and Free Will Are we free to choose our actions or is it our fate? Is it our prerogative to ask this question? Attributes of Allah What can a human being understand about the Creator?

Matters of Division and Conflict

Faith (Iman)

Belief, words, and deeds?

Increases and decreases?

Capital Sin

Does it lead to Kufr and eternity in Hell?

Destiny and Free Will

Are we free to choose our actions or is it our fate? Is it our prerogative to ask this question?

Attributes of Allah

What can a human being understand about the Creator?

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Capital Sin كفر Kufr Iman إيمان Rejecter of Belief كافر Hellfire Muslim who commits capital sins. مسلم فاسق ( مرتكب الكبائر ) Obedient Muslim مسلم مؤمن Jannah Shahadah الشهادة Tawbah التوبة

Matters of Division and Conflict

Capital Sin

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Capital Sin Khawarej الخوارج كفر Kufr Iman إيمان Rejecter of Belief كافر Hellfire Muslim who commits capital sins. ” كافر“ ( مرتكب الكبائر ) Obedient Muslim مسلم مؤمن Jannah Shahadah الشهادة Tawbah التوبة

Matters of Division and Conflict

Capital Sin Khawarej الخوارج

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Capital Sin Mu’tazilah المعتزلة كفر Kufr “ in-between” ” منزلة بين المنزلتين“ Iman إيمان Rejecter of Belief كافر Hellfire Muslim who commits capital sins. ” منزلة بين المنزلتين“ ( مرتكب الكبائر ) Obedient Muslim مسلم مؤمن Jannah Shahadah الشهادة Tawbah التوبة

Matters of Division and Conflict

Capital Sin Mu’tazilah المعتزلة

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Faith (Iman) Belief, words, and deeds? Increases and decreases? Capital Sin Does it lead to Kufr and eternity in Hell? Destiny and Free Will Are we free to choose our actions or is it our fate? Is it our prerogative to ask this question? Attributes of Allah What can a human being understand about the Creator?

Matters of Division and Conflict

Faith (Iman)

Belief, words, and deeds?

Increases and decreases?

Capital Sin

Does it lead to Kufr and eternity in Hell?

Destiny and Free Will

Are we free to choose our actions or is it our fate? Is it our prerogative to ask this question?

Attributes of Allah

What can a human being understand about the Creator?

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Destiny and Free Will Principles: Avoid Discussions and Arguments about trying to reach a universal and complete understanding regarding matters pertaining to Allah’s Wisdom and Determination for His Creation . Knowledge about Deviated Sects are only important to avoid Deviation in Creed .

Matters of Division and Conflict

Destiny and Free Will

Principles:

Avoid Discussions and Arguments about trying to reach a universal and complete understanding regarding matters pertaining to Allah’s Wisdom and Determination for His Creation .

Knowledge about Deviated Sects are only important to avoid Deviation in Creed .

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Destiny and Free Will Principles: STOP at the Text of the Quran and Sunnah! السنة التوقيفية The Text does not have to conform with Philosophy and Study of Human Logic. We cannot understand many details that are related to Allah Himself, His Decree, His Wisdom and His Knowledge.

Matters of Division and Conflict

Destiny and Free Will

Principles:

STOP at the Text of the Quran and Sunnah! السنة التوقيفية

The Text does not have to conform with Philosophy and Study of Human Logic.

We cannot understand many details that are related to Allah Himself, His Decree, His Wisdom and His Knowledge.

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Destiny and Free Will Principles of Sunnah: Belief in the Eternal and Unlimited Knowledge of Allah. Belief in the Pre-Recording of All Events and Deeds in The Book of Allah. (Al-Lawh اللوح المحفوظ ) Belief in the Absolute Will and Determination of Allah. Belief that Allah has Created Everything, The Servants and Their Deeds . Allah has given His Servants the Free Choice, by which they are taken to Accountability.

Matters of Division and Conflict

Destiny and Free Will

Principles of Sunnah:

Belief in the Eternal and Unlimited Knowledge of Allah.

Belief in the Pre-Recording of All Events and Deeds in The Book of Allah. (Al-Lawh اللوح المحفوظ )

Belief in the Absolute Will and Determination of Allah.

Belief that Allah has Created Everything, The Servants and Their Deeds . Allah has given His Servants the Free Choice, by which they are taken to Accountability.

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Destiny and Free Will Principles of Sunnah: Belief in the Eternal and Unlimited Knowledge of Allah. الأحزاب الأنعام

Matters of Division and Conflict

Destiny and Free Will

Principles of Sunnah:

Belief in the Eternal and Unlimited Knowledge of Allah.

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Destiny and Free Will Principles of Sunnah: Belief in the Pre-Recording of All Events and Deeds in The Book of Allah. (Al-Lawh اللوح المحفوظ ) الحديد

Matters of Division and Conflict

Destiny and Free Will

Principles of Sunnah:

Belief in the Pre-Recording of All Events and Deeds in The Book of Allah. (Al-Lawh اللوح المحفوظ )

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Destiny and Free Will Principles of Sunnah: Belief in the Absolute Will and Determination of Allah. طه البقره

Matters of Division and Conflict

Destiny and Free Will

Principles of Sunnah:

Belief in the Absolute Will and Determination of Allah.

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Destiny and Free Will Principles of Sunnah: Belief that Allah has Created everything , The Servants and Their Deeds . Allah has given His Servants the Free Choice, by which they are taken to Accountability. Servants’ will cannot be independent and higher that Allah’s Will

Matters of Division and Conflict

Destiny and Free Will

Principles of Sunnah:

Belief that Allah has Created everything , The Servants and Their Deeds .

Allah has given His Servants the Free Choice, by which they are taken to Accountability.

Servants’ will cannot be independent and higher that Allah’s Will

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Destiny and Free Will Principles of Sunnah: Belief that Allah has Created everything , The Servants and Their Deeds . الصافات

Matters of Division and Conflict

Destiny and Free Will

Principles of Sunnah:

Belief that Allah has Created everything , The Servants and Their Deeds .

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Destiny and Free Will Principles of Sunnah: Allah has given His Servants the Free Choice, by which they are taken to Accountability. الكهف

Matters of Division and Conflict

Destiny and Free Will

Principles of Sunnah:

Allah has given His Servants the Free Choice, by which they are taken to Accountability.

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Destiny and Free Will Principles of Sunnah: Servants’ will cannot be independent and higher that Allah’s Will التكوير

Matters of Division and Conflict

Destiny and Free Will

Principles of Sunnah:

Servants’ will cannot be independent and higher that Allah’s Will

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Destiny and Free Will Allah’s Universal Will الإرادة الكونية Allah’s undeniable power and will over everything and being in Heaven and Earth. All events, good or bad, occur due to the Will and Permission of Allah’s alone. Allah’s Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية Allah’s commands and instructions to His Creation regarding His Will in regards to what they should do to please Him.

Destiny and Free Will

Allah’s Universal Will الإرادة الكونية

Allah’s undeniable power and will over everything and being in Heaven and Earth.

All events, good or bad, occur due to the Will and Permission of Allah’s alone.

Allah’s Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية

Allah’s commands and instructions to His Creation regarding His Will in regards to what they should do to please Him.

Universal Will الإرادة الكونية Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية البقره النحل

Universal Will الإرادة الكونية Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية البقره النحل Allah Allowed The Choice and Accountability for His Servants

Universal Will الإرادة الكونية Deeds افعال العباد التكليفية Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية

Universal Will الإرادة الكونية Choice Deeds افعال العباد التكليفية Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية الطاعة Obedience المعصية Disobedience السنة التوقيفية Sunnah of Acceptance

Universal Will الإرادة الكونية Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية Sunnah Belief in Qadar الإيمان بالقدر Qadaryah القدرية Denial of the Universal Will of creating Good and Evil and claiming Servants “create” their own Deeds and Evil Denial of the Legislative Will and denying Servants the choice to follow Good vs. Evil. “Compulsion to do Evil” Jabryah الجبرية

Universal Will الإرادة الكونية Choice Deeds افعال العباد التكليفية Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية الطاعة Obedience المعصية Disobedience السنة التوقيفية Sunnah of Acceptance

Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية Allah’s Will “ Independent Will” Deeds افعال العباد التكليفية الطاعة Obedience المعصية Disobedience Qadaryah/Mu’tazilah القدرية المعتزلة “ Created” by Servants Absolute Free Will

Legislative Will الإرادة الشرعية Allah’s Will “ Independent Will” Deeds افعال العباد التكليفية الطاعة Obedience المعصية Disobedience Qadaryah/Mu’tazilah القدرية المعتزلة “ Created” by Servants الصافات Absolute Free Will Negates: القدير الخالق لكل شيء Absolute Will of Allah

Universal Will الإرادة الكونية “ No Choice” Deeds افعال العباد التكليفية الطاعة Obedience المعصية Disobedience No Choice for servants in their own deeds Jabryah/Jahmyah الجبرية الجهمية Negates justice and fairness in regards to accountability before Allah Determinism

Universal Will الإرادة الكونية “ No Choice” Deeds افعال العباد التكليفية الطاعة Obedience المعصية Disobedience No Choice for servants in their own deeds Jabryah/Jahmyah الجبرية الجهمية Negates justice and fairness in regards to accountability before Allah العدل الكهف Determinism

Universal Will الإرادة الكونية “ No Choice” Deeds افعال العباد التكليفية الطاعة Obedience المعصية Disobedience No Choice for servants in their own deeds Jabryah/Jahmyah الجبرية الجهمية Negates justice and fairness in regards to accountability before Allah الأعراف Determinism

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Destiny and Free Will Arguments in Qadar are disliked , it is better to be occupied with achieving Good and avoiding Evil rather that engaging in endless, fruitless, and misguiding discussions. Actions of Servants cannot be independent of Allah's Will and Knowledge. العليم القدير Allah is All-Just, no injustice or unfairness can come from His Wisdom. العدل الحكيم Allah takes us to accountability only on actions that we choose to do or not do. لا يكلف الله نفسا إلا وسعها Do not use Philosophy premises and Human Logic in trying to understand Devine Wisdom and Will.

Destiny and Free Will

Arguments in Qadar are disliked , it is better to be occupied with achieving Good and avoiding Evil rather that engaging in endless, fruitless, and misguiding discussions.

Actions of Servants cannot be independent of Allah's Will and Knowledge. العليم القدير

Allah is All-Just, no injustice or unfairness can come from His Wisdom. العدل الحكيم

Allah takes us to accountability only on actions that we choose to do or not do. لا يكلف الله نفسا إلا وسعها

Do not use Philosophy premises and Human Logic in trying to understand Devine Wisdom and Will.

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Destiny and Free Will Islam is about submission to Allah . Submitting to Allah’s will does not always have to conform with human wisdom and logic. (e.g. Drinking Alcohol in moderation) آل عمران محمد

Destiny and Free Will

Islam is about submission to Allah . Submitting to Allah’s will does not always have to conform with human wisdom and logic. (e.g. Drinking Alcohol in moderation)

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Destiny and Free Will Islam encourages thinking and intellectual methodology. Allah encourages us to think about His Creation and His Signs , not about matters that are beyond our human ability. Matters that are related to Allah’s Attributes. آل عمران

Destiny and Free Will

Islam encourages thinking and intellectual methodology. Allah encourages us to think about His Creation and His Signs , not about matters that are beyond our human ability. Matters that are related to Allah’s Attributes.

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Faith (Iman) Belief, words, and deeds? Increases and decreases? Capital Sin Does it lead to Kufr and eternity in Hell? Destiny and Free Will Are we free to choose our actions or is it our fate? Is it our prerogative to ask this question? Attributes of Allah What can a human being understand about the Creator?

Matters of Division and Conflict

Faith (Iman)

Belief, words, and deeds?

Increases and decreases?

Capital Sin

Does it lead to Kufr and eternity in Hell?

Destiny and Free Will

Are we free to choose our actions or is it our fate? Is it our prerogative to ask this question?

Attributes of Allah

What can a human being understand about the Creator?

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Attributes of Allah Sunnah’s Principles: Affirm and believe in all Attributes of Allah as confirmed in Quran and Sunnah Respect the Names and Attributes without concluding any changes or modifications Avoid drawing similarities and common traits between Allah’s Attributes and any other by the same name in the language. Belief in the impossibility of knowing or understanding the full meaning of these Attributes Never ask “How?” about Attributes of Allah

Attributes of Allah

Sunnah’s Principles:

Affirm and believe in all Attributes of Allah as confirmed in Quran and Sunnah

Respect the Names and Attributes without concluding any changes or modifications

Avoid drawing similarities and common traits between Allah’s Attributes and any other by the same name in the language.

Belief in the impossibility of knowing or understanding the full meaning of these Attributes

Never ask “How?” about Attributes of Allah

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Matters of Division and Conflict Attributes of Allah Principles: STOP at the Text of the Quran and Sunnah! السنة التوقيفية

Matters of Division and Conflict

Attributes of Allah

Principles:

STOP at the Text of the Quran and Sunnah! السنة التوقيفية

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Attributes of Allah الشورى الأعراف الأعراف

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) آل عمران Attributes of Allah Allah warned against unwarranted and pointless arguments that lead to deviation.

Attributes of Allah

Allah warned against unwarranted and pointless arguments that lead to deviation.

Imam Ahmad (164-241 H) Attributes of Allah الشورى الأعراف الأعراف السنة التوقيفية Sunnah of Acceptance المعطلة Deniers Interpreters المشبهة Figurative- Understanding Mu’tazilah

Principles of Al-Mu’tazilah Tawheed التوحيد Denying and Interpreting Attributes of Allah. (Rejecting Speech and Seeing Allah in Hereafter) Justice العدل Qadaryah: Humans “create” their own deeds and responsible for that creation. Promise and Warning الوعد و الوعيد Committer of Enormity or Capital Sin is condemned to Eternity in Hellfire. The Station In-Between المنزلة بين المنزلتين Committer of Enormities is not a Believer nor a Kafir. Ordering Good/Prohibiting Vice الأمر بالمعروف و النهي عن المنكر Coercive methods: Torture, Jailing, and Executions.

Tawheed التوحيد

Denying and Interpreting Attributes of Allah. (Rejecting Speech and Seeing Allah in Hereafter)

Justice العدل

Qadaryah: Humans “create” their own deeds and responsible for that creation.

Promise and Warning الوعد و الوعيد

Committer of Enormity or Capital Sin is condemned to Eternity in Hellfire.

The Station In-Between المنزلة بين المنزلتين

Committer of Enormities is not a Believer nor a Kafir.

Ordering Good/Prohibiting Vice الأمر بالمعروف و النهي عن المنكر

Coercive methods: Torture, Jailing, and Executions.

Opinions of Imam Ahmad: Avoidance of Philosophy Accepting Attributes of Allah “as is” from Quran and Sunnah The Hearing, The Vision, The Hand, The Face, The Elevation, The Speech, and The Knowledge, The Will, The Anger, and The Pleasure of Allah. Iman is Faith, Words, and Deeds. Allah is seen in the Hereafter by the believers Avoid discussions about conflicts among the Sahaba Imam Ahmad (164-241 H)

Opinions of Imam Ahmad:

Avoidance of Philosophy

Accepting Attributes of Allah “as is” from Quran and Sunnah

The Hearing, The Vision, The Hand, The Face, The Elevation, The Speech, and The Knowledge, The Will, The Anger, and The Pleasure of Allah.

Iman is Faith, Words, and Deeds.

Allah is seen in the Hereafter by the believers

Avoid discussions about conflicts among the Sahaba

The Tribulation regarding Quran Introduction and History The Position of Imams and Predecessors. The Beginning: Al-Ma’mun المأمون Imam Ahmad (164-241 H)

The Tribulation regarding Quran

Introduction and History

The Position of Imams and Predecessors.

The Beginning: Al-Ma’mun المأمون

The Tribulation regarding Quran (218-234 H) Al-Ma’mun’s Phase (218 H) المأمون مرحلة The Inquisition: Coercion and Arrest. Al-Mu’tasem’s Phase (218-227H) مرحلة المعتصم Prison and Torture. Al-Watheq’s Phase (227-232 H) الواثق مرحلة House Arrest. Al-Mutawakel’s Phase (232-234 H) المتوكل مرحلة End of Tribulation. Trial by wealth and position. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H)

The Tribulation regarding Quran (218-234 H)

Al-Ma’mun’s Phase (218 H) المأمون مرحلة

The Inquisition: Coercion and Arrest.

Al-Mu’tasem’s Phase (218-227H) مرحلة المعتصم

Prison and Torture.

Al-Watheq’s Phase (227-232 H) الواثق مرحلة

House Arrest.

Al-Mutawakel’s Phase (232-234 H) المتوكل مرحلة

End of Tribulation. Trial by wealth and position.

Works of Imam Ahmad Al-Musnad: المسند 30,000 Hadith Unique categorization: according to narrator of Hadith. A book of Hadith, not Fiqh, with emphasis on critical examination of narration (Isnad). Articles of Fiqh and Aqeedah Imam Ahmad (164-241 H)

Works of Imam Ahmad

Al-Musnad: المسند

30,000 Hadith

Unique categorization: according to narrator of Hadith.

A book of Hadith, not Fiqh, with emphasis on critical examination of narration (Isnad).

Articles of Fiqh and Aqeedah

Students of Imam Ahmad Saleh ibn Imam Ahmad صالح بن أحمد بن حنبل Abdullah ibn Imam Ahmad عبد الله بن أحمد بن حنبل Abdul-Malik Al-Maymuni عبد الملك الميموني Abu Bakr Al-Maruzi أبو بكر المروزي Harb Al-Karmani حرب الكرماني Ibraheem Al-Harbi ابراهيم الحربي Abu Bakr Al-Khalal أبو بكر الخلال Imam Ahmad (164-241 H)

Students of Imam Ahmad

Saleh ibn Imam Ahmad صالح بن أحمد بن حنبل

Abdullah ibn Imam Ahmad عبد الله بن أحمد بن حنبل

Abdul-Malik Al-Maymuni عبد الملك الميموني

Abu Bakr Al-Maruzi أبو بكر المروزي

Harb Al-Karmani حرب الكرماني

Ibraheem Al-Harbi ابراهيم الحربي

Abu Bakr Al-Khalal أبو بكر الخلال

Sources of Hanbali School الأدلة الفقهية في المذهب الحنبلي Sahaba قول الصحابي Preserving Status Quo الاستصحاب Quran القرآن Sunnah السنة Comparison القياس General Benefit المصالح المرسلة Prevention of Vice سد الذرائع

Sources of Hanbali School الأدلة الفقهية في المذهب الحنبلي Sahaba قول الصحابي Preserving Status Quo الاستصحاب Quran القرآن Sunnah السنة Comparison القياس General Benefit المصالح المرسلة Prevention of Vice سد الذرائع Text النص Opinion الرأي

Sources of Hanbali School The Quran: Interpretation of Quran is dependent on the Sunnah , not according to later understanding of apparent meanings. Sahaba’s understanding of Quran is second to Sunnah. No interpretation of Quran is acceptable without textual reference (Sunnah or Athar). Quran القرآن

The Quran:

Interpretation of Quran is dependent on the Sunnah , not according to later understanding of apparent meanings.

Sahaba’s understanding of Quran is second to Sunnah.

No interpretation of Quran is acceptable without textual reference (Sunnah or Athar).

The Sunnah: Accepted solitary-narrated Hadith as source of Jurisprudence. Accepted interrupted (Mursal) Hadith, but only in the absence of Sahabi ruling. A “weak” Hadith to Imam Ahmad is considered “good” حسن in the later definition of Imam Termithi. (questionable link in the chain, but not a known liar. The Hadith does not have aberrancy شواذ or problem علة ) Sunnah السنة Sources of Hanbali School

The Sunnah:

Accepted solitary-narrated Hadith as source of Jurisprudence.

Accepted interrupted (Mursal) Hadith, but only in the absence of Sahabi ruling.

A “weak” Hadith to Imam Ahmad is considered “good” حسن in the later definition of Imam Termithi. (questionable link in the chain, but not a known liar. The Hadith does not have aberrancy شواذ or problem علة )

Repeatedly Connected المتواتر Sources of Hanbali School رسول الله ( ص ) The Prophet PBUH راوي Narrator صحابي Companion راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator صحابي Companion راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator صحابي Companion راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator صحابي Companion راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator صحابي Companion راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator

Repeatedly Connected المتواتر

Famous المشهور Sources of Hanbali School رسول الله ( ص ) The Prophet PBUH راوي Narrator صحابي Companion راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator

Famous المشهور

Single Narration الآحاد Sources of Hanbali School رسول الله ( ص ) The Prophet PBUH راوي Narrator صحابي Companion راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator Accepted by Imam Ahmad in matters of Jurisprudence and Creed Accepted by other Imams after examination in matters of Jurisprudence but not Creed.

Single Narration الآحاد

Loose-end Chain المرسل Sources of Hanbali School رسول الله ( ص ) The Prophet PBUH راوي Narrator صحابي Companion راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator تابعي Follower راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator راوي Narrator Accepted by Imam Ahmad in absence of Sahabi’s ruling. (considered it “weak”) Accepted by other Imams with strict conditions.

Loose-end Chain المرسل

Accepted as a ruling based on textual evidence. أثر When there is disagreement among Sahaba: Takes more than one opinion. Chooses the opinion of the Guided Khulafa over others. Sources of Hanbali School Sahaba’s Rulings قول الصحابي

Accepted as a ruling based on textual evidence. أثر

When there is disagreement among Sahaba:

Takes more than one opinion.

Chooses the opinion of the Guided Khulafa over others.

Accepted the principle, but argued that it is a virtual impossibility to achieve true “Unanimity” after the age of Sahaba. Sources of Hanbali School Agreement الإجماع

Accepted the principle, but argued that it is a virtual impossibility to achieve true “Unanimity” after the age of Sahaba.

Accepted in the absence of a clear text, only as a necessity. Limited to matters that pause an actual problem, not as an exercise or precaution. Sources of Hanbali School Comparison القياس

Accepted in the absence of a clear text, only as a necessity.

Limited to matters that pause an actual problem, not as an exercise or precaution.

Sources of Hanbali School Preserving Status Quo : Keeping the ruling or the status on an issue as is, if not proven otherwise. Accepted widely in the Hanbali school. Preserving Status Quo الإستصحاب

Preserving Status Quo : Keeping the ruling or the status on an issue as is, if not proven otherwise.

Accepted widely in the Hanbali school.

Sources of Hanbali School Accepted with conditions: True necessity. Real needs related to goals of Shari’a. No contradiction with textual evidence. General Benefit المصالح المرسلة

Accepted with conditions:

True necessity.

Real needs related to goals of Shari’a.

No contradiction with textual evidence.

Sources of Hanbali School Preventing deeds, that are allowed otherwise, for fear of leading to forbidden or harmful results. Prevention of Vice سد الذرائع Widely used in Hanbali school. Examples: Prohibiting sales of arms in times of Civil war or internal conflicts. Selling weapons to crimonals Selling or renting property to be used in unlawful cause.

Preventing deeds, that are allowed otherwise, for fear of leading to forbidden or harmful results.

Widely used in Hanbali school.

Examples:

Prohibiting sales of arms in times of Civil war or internal conflicts.

Selling weapons to crimonals

Selling or renting property to be used in unlawful cause.

The Spread of Hanbali School Arabian peninsula. Levant and Egypt (limited) Reasons for limited spread of Hanbali School: Last of the major schools in time order. Most schools already established by then. Hanbalis generally distanced themselves from government and position of influence. Imam Ahmad (164-241 H)

The Spread of Hanbali School

Arabian peninsula.

Levant and Egypt (limited)

Reasons for limited spread of Hanbali School:

Last of the major schools in time order. Most schools already established by then.

Hanbalis generally distanced themselves from government and position of influence.

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