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agroterrorism

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Information about agroterrorism
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Published on October 24, 2007

Author: Miguel

Source: authorstream.com

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AGRICULTURAL BIOTERRORISM:  AGRICULTURAL BIOTERRORISM It can happen on the farm, in your grocery store, or your refrigerator, too! Acknowledgements:  Acknowledgements South Carolina Area Health Education Consortium (AHEC) Funded by the Health Resources and Services Administration. Grant number: 1T01HP01418-01-00 P.I. : David Garr, MD, Executive Director AHEC BT Project Director: Beth Kennedy, Associate Program Director AHEC Core Team: BT Co-director: Ralph Shealy, MD BT Project Manager: Deborah Stier Carson, PharmD BT CME Director: William Simpson, MD IT Coordinator: Liz Riccardone, MHS Web Master: Mary Mauldin, PhD P.R Coordinator: Nicole Brundage, MHA Evaluation Specialist: Yvonne Michel, PhD Financial Director: Donald Tyner, MBA Acknowledgment:  Acknowledgment This material has been prepared for SC AHEC Bioterrorism Training Network by William M. Simpson, Jr., MD Medical Director of Agromedicine Professor of Family Medicine Objectives:  Objectives Describe the threat and impact that bioterroism could have on the agricultural industry, the overall economy, and the health of plant, animal and human populations. Describe patterns of symptoms, signs, and diseases that suggest agroterrorism. List the first steps to take when agroterrorism is suspected. Agricultural Bioterrorism-- Agroterrorism for short:  Agricultural Bioterrorism-- Agroterrorism for short The center for Food Security and Public Health of Iowa State has defined it as: The use, or threatened use, of biological (to include toxins), chemical, or radiological agents against some component of agriculture in such a way as to adversely impact the agriculture industry or any component thereof, the economy or the consuming public The Wisconsin Case:  The Wisconsin Case 1996 an anonymous call about contaminated fat product added to feed Chlordane (pesticide) in rendered product supplied to large feed manufacturer and distributed to 4000 farms in four states Milk and other products from these farms were potentially contaminated $4 million just to dispose of products A Brief History of Agroterrorism:  A Brief History of Agroterrorism 6th Century BC--Assyrians poisoned enemies’ wells with rye ergot Union troops introduced Harlequin bug to attack Confederate crops WWI--German experimentation with equine diseases for use against cavalry WWII--Germany/France-FMD, rinderpest, late potato blight, beetles More Agroterrorism History:  More Agroterrorism History US also had an offensive biological weapons program beginning in 1941 FMD, Newcastle, hog cholera, multiple plant diseases, expanded during Korean War. Shut down 1970 Biological Weapons Convention of 1972, ratified by US in 1975 More Agroterrorism History :  More Agroterrorism History Mau Mau Tribe-Kenya-used plant toxins to kill livestock-1950’s Tamil separatists-Sri Lanka-threatened to infect humans and crops with pathogens-1980’s Rajneeshee cult-Oregon-infected salad bars with Salmonella-1984 Cyanide in grapes from Chile-1989 Why agroterrorism?:  Why agroterrorism? Attacks on plants or animals less emotionally sensitive than attacks on humans Often delay in recognition, making “get away” easier Plausible deniability “Under the radar” What does agroterrorism look like?:  What does agroterrorism look like? Just like what may happen anyway on the farm, but Traceback of animals leads to dead-end No shared factor among animals Concurrent outbreaks/repeated outbreaks Unusual signs/unusual season Overwhelming mortality Why so difficult to deal with?:  Why so difficult to deal with? Multiple points of entry Multiple possible delivery methods Natural v. intentional Accidental v. intentional Real v. hoax Why pick agriculture as a target?:  Why pick agriculture as a target? US: 2 million farms, 1 billion acres Food and fiber account for ~16% of the US Gross domestic product (GDP)--$1.5T 17% of the total workforce (although only 2% are actually farmers) Heavily tied to other industries (transportation, food retailers, tourism,etc) IMPACT!:  IMPACT! Potential for mass disruption Loss of freedoms/consumer confidence Food shortages/higher prices Loss of trade Associated industries Direct costs Who’s minding the store?:  Who’s minding the store? US Department of Agriculture Animal, Plant and Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Veterinary Services Emergency Programs Plant Protection and Quarantine Division Department of Homeland Security:  Department of Homeland Security 3000 USDA inspectors at airports, borders, seaports 1800 Beagle Brigade inspectors at airports, seaports to search for smuggled items Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) inspects containers, questions travelers about exposures US Department of Agriculture:  US Department of Agriculture Quarantine Stations 4 facilities for import quarantine of livestock and poultry 6 facilities for personally owned birds 14 facilities for plants Who are the “first-responders”?:  Who are the “first-responders”? Local and state veterinarians USDA-APHIS Cooperative extension service FBI Local, state, federal health agencies Emergency management division And the big picture?:  And the big picture? World Organization for Animal Health or (OIE)-Office International des Epizooties Intergovernmental organization formed by International Agreement in 1924 (28countries), now 164 member nations OIE-WOAH Missions:  OIE-WOAH Missions Guarantee transparency of animal disease status world-wide Collect, analyze and disseminate veterinary scientific information Provide expertise and promote international solidarity for control of animal diseases Guarantee sanitary safety of world trade by developing rules for trade in animals/products OIE Classification of Diseases List A:  OIE Classification of Diseases List A Transmissible diseases that have Potential for very serious disease Rapid spread Irrespective of national borders Serious socio-economic or public health consequence Major importance in the international trade of animals and animal products. OIE List A:  OIE List A Foot and mouth disease Swine vesicular disease Peste des petits ruminants Lumpy skin disease Blue tongue African Horse sickness Classical swine fever Newcastle disease Vesicular stomatitis Rinderpest Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia Rift Valley fever Sheep and goat pox African swine fever Highly pathogenic avian influenza Are these diseases important to us?:  Are these diseases important to us? FMD (Foot and Mouth Disease) Considered the most important livestock disease in the world Not in the US since 1929 Vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals Spread by aerosol and fomites Foot and Mouth Disease here?:  Foot and Mouth Disease here? Animals at risk in the US 100 million cattle 60 million swine 7 million sheep 40 million wildlife Humans rarely infected HUGE Economic Impact UK-FMD Outbreak 2001:  UK-FMD Outbreak 2001 Total cost over $15 billion 6 million animals slaughtered Public perception problems in animal welfare/animal rights pollution from burning carcasses/public health risk Risk of enzootic wildlife infection Newcastle Disease :  Newcastle Disease Virus affecting poultry Four pathotypes Asymptomatic Lentogenic Mesogenic Velogenic vND endemic in Asia, Middle East, Africa, Central/South America causes drop in egg production, neurological & reproductive damage, sometimes death vND-US-2002-3:  vND-US-2002-3 2600 premises depopulated 4.5million birds destroyed $ 200 million impact At height of outbreak 19000 establishments quarantined Developing countries affects quality and quantity of dietary protein significant effects on human health Livestock Vulnerabilities:  Livestock Vulnerabilities High density husbandry Auctions/transport of animals Limited immunity to FAD(foreign animal diseases) Centralized feed supply/distribution Poor traceability of animals Porous borders/limited on-farm biosecurity Lack of FAD awareness Crop and Plant Targets:  Food crops Wheat #1 grain export, corn #2 Soybean ~45% of the world’s crop Citrus, sugarcane Fiber cotton Timber Northwest US Crop and Plant Targets Plant pathogens (one example):  Plant pathogens (one example) Karnal Bunt (Tilletia indica) Affects taste not yield Discovered in AZ, CA, TX in 1996 clean up costs thus far $45million Remains viable in the soil up to 5 years, can be carried on fomites Carries international trade restrictions Biologic Agents to Contaminate Food:  Biologic Agents to Contaminate Food Bacillus anthracis Clostridium Francisella tularensis Ricin Shigatoxin Staphylococcal enterotoxins Animals as Reservoirs or Vectors of Disease:  Animals as Reservoirs or Vectors of Disease Birds as in West Nile Virus Deer/salamanders as in Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases Bats--rabies ?Monkeys--Ebola MULTIPLE EXAMPLES BUT NEVER USED IN WARFARE OR TERRORISM, AS FAR AS IS KNOWN Plants as Vehicles for Toxins:  Plants as Vehicles for Toxins Cyanide in grapes from Chile Aldicarb in watermelons Other deliberate misuse of pesticides Common method for suicide/homicide in 3rd world Animals as Early Warning Systems:  Animals as Early Warning Systems Canaries in coal mines Sentinel chicken flocks for West Nile Sentinel horses for West Nile Fish for various chemicals/toxins Family dogs for lead exposure What can we do?:  What can we do? Be observant, look for patterns of symptoms, signs, disease Encourage biosecurity on the farm, processing centers, distribution centers, retail outlets Encourage teamwork between health care, veterinary care and cooperative extension to prevent problems and when problems are recognized SUMMARY:  SUMMARY Agroterrorism is a real threat Economic consequences could be severe Awareness education is necessary Vigilance is essential! Resources:  Resources Davis RG. Agroterrorism: Need for awareness. In: Scanes C, ed. Perspectives in world food and agriculture; 2003. Ames, IA: ISU press. In press, 2003 USDA-APHIS website www.aphis.usda.gov OIE-WOAH website www.oie.int Resources:  Resources American Veterinary Medical Association www.avma.org/pubhlth/biosecurity/ World Health Organization www.who.int/food safety The Gray Book (Foreign Animal Diseases) www.vet.uga.edu/vpp/gray_book.htm

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