Published on March 23, 2014
Agriculture Produce Price Policy In India Suryadev Maity Reg No - 12397104
• With 20 agri-climatic regions, all 15 major climates in the world exist in India. The country also possesses 46 of the 60 soil types in the world. • Agricultural Price Policy plays an important role in achieving growth and equity in the Indian economy and the agriculture sector. The major objective of the Government’s Price Policy is to protect both producers and consumers. Achieving food security at both the national and household levels is one of the major challenges in India today.
In India, the agriculture price policies and allied instruments started pre-Independence era. • On 1 August, 1964, the Government appointed a Committee under the Chairmanship of Shri L.K. Jha • The objective of the Government’s price policy for agri-produce is to set remunerative prices with a view to encourage higher investment and production. Though the Government decided to purchase food grains at fixed prices, if market prices fell precipitously, but till 1954 there was no sharp decline in food prices.
AGRICULTURE PRICE POLICY Agricultural Price Policy in India emerged in the context of food scarcity and price fluctuations provoked by drought of mid- sixties and war with Pakistan. The policy was framed keeping in view three different angles, viz., i. providing food grains for the Public Distribution System, ii. ensuring reasonable (affordable to consumers) prices for food grains, and iii. Inducing adoption of the new technology.
Objectives Of Price Policy:- To meet the domestic consumption requirement. To provide price stability in the agricultural product. To ensure reasonable relation between the prices of food grains and non food grains. To ensure reasonable relationship between prices of agricultural commodities and manufactured goods.
To smooth seasonal and cyclical fluctuations of prices of agricultural commodities. To remove price difference between two regions. To make available food to consumers in the time of shortage. To increase the production and exports of agricultural product. To provide raw material to the industries at reasonable price.
Need for Agriculture Price Policy: To ensure stability in price of agriculture products. To ensure constant usage of modern inputs in agriculture, it is necessary that farmers are assured minimum price for their produce. Due to specific nature of agriculture products, there are many difficulties in agriculture marketing, such as perishability, problems of storage etc; Price policy is important for proper crop planning. To prevent exploitation of farmers from zamindars etc; in absence of price policy person may purchase products at very low price.
Main Features: Institutions:Institutions: The government has set up two institutions to implement the price policies. Agriculture Price Commission (1968):Agriculture Price Commission (1968): This commission advices the government regarding agriculture price policy, also determines MSP and procurement prices of agriculture products. Food Corporation Of India (1985)Food Corporation Of India (1985):: This corporation organizes procurement of food grains at price determined by govt. and their sale through public distribution system. The Commission for Agriculture Costs and Prices (CACP) sets Minimum Support Price (MSP) for 24 commodities and Statutory Minimum Price (SMP) for one.
Fixation of MSP or procurement prices:Fixation of MSP or procurement prices: The government determines minimum support price of many agriculture product such as wheat, rice, maize, every year based on recommendation made by Agriculture Price Commission. Maximum Price Fixation:Maximum Price Fixation: Government also determines maximum prices for certain agriculture product. The govt. sells many agriculture products such as grain, sugar, rice at prices through fair prices under PDS. Buffer stock:Buffer stock: To prevent change in prices of agriculture products beyond a certain limit, govt. maintains buffer stock of goods. This is done by FCI. When price of food grain starts increasing, Govt. starts selling food grains from buffer stock at specific prices. As a result, increase in price of food grain can be checked. Public Distribution System (PDS).
Factors Taken Account:Factors Taken Account: Cost of ProductCost of Product Changes in Input PricesChanges in Input Prices Input / Output Price ParityInput / Output Price Parity Trends in Market PricesTrends in Market Prices Inter-crop Price ParityInter-crop Price Parity Demand and Supply SituationDemand and Supply Situation Effect on Industrial Cost StructureEffect on Industrial Cost Structure Effect on General Price LevelEffect on General Price Level Effect on Cost of LivingEffect on Cost of Living International Market Price SituationInternational Market Price Situation Parity between Prices Paid and Prices Received byParity between Prices Paid and Prices Received by
Effects Of Agriculture Price Policy: Increase in productionIncrease in production Change in cropping patternChange in cropping pattern Advantage to farmerAdvantage to farmer Advantage to consumerAdvantage to consumer Stability in pricesStability in prices
Shortcomings of agriculture price policy: Limited coverageLimited coverage: prices of only agriculture: prices of only agriculture commodities are fixed by government.commodities are fixed by government. Less remunerative pricesLess remunerative prices: The policy has failed to: The policy has failed to provide remunerative prices for agro-products. Priceprovide remunerative prices for agro-products. Price fixed under MSP was remunerative only in rice.fixed under MSP was remunerative only in rice. Failed to achieve price stabilityFailed to achieve price stability: In year 2008-2009,: In year 2008-2009, agriculture price index went up by 9.46% and thusagriculture price index went up by 9.46% and thus affecting poor section of society. It has failed in itsaffecting poor section of society. It has failed in its objectives.objectives.
Ineffective PDSIneffective PDS: Strong PDS (public distribution: Strong PDS (public distribution system) is required for providing food grain to poorsystem) is required for providing food grain to poor section.section. But in India, sufficient quantity isn’t being provided.But in India, sufficient quantity isn’t being provided. Less number of regulated marketsLess number of regulated markets: More number of: More number of regulated markets is required .regulated markets is required . But in India , it is less in number.But in India , it is less in number.
Suggestion for improving Agriculture Price Policy: •Extension of price policyExtension of price policy •Establishment of more agencies.Establishment of more agencies. •Proper fixation of pricesProper fixation of prices •Improvement in PDSImprovement in PDS •Improvement in productivity with suitable pricesImprovement in productivity with suitable prices • Improvement in agriculture marketingImprovement in agriculture marketing • Quality • subsidies on inputs (fertilisers, water, credit and power)
Commission for Agricultural Costs And Prices (CACP) The organization :The organization : The Agricultural Prices CommissionAgricultural Prices Commission was set up in January, 1965 to advise the Government on price policy of major agricultural commodities. It kept a view of evolving a balance and integrated price structure in the perspective of the overall needs of the economy and with due regard to the interests of the producer and the consumer. Since March 1985, the Commission has been known as Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices under SenCommission for Agricultural Costs and Prices under Sen committee.committee.
Minimum support prices (MSP)Minimum support prices (MSP) for major agricultural products are fixed by the government, each year, after taking into account the recommendations of CACP The Commission is composed of I. Chairman, a Member Secretary, II. two official members III.three non-official members who are representatives of the farming community, having long field experience and active association with the farming community. Present : o Chairman : Dr. Ashok Gulati Member (Official) : Dr. Ashok Vishandass Member Secretary : Dr. Anandi Subramanian
Objectives /Terms of Reference 1. To advise on the price policy of paddy, rice, wheat, jowar, bajra, maize, ragi, barley, gram, tur, moong, urad, sugarcane, groundnut and such other commodities. 2. To recommend from time to time, in respect of different agricultural commodities, measures necessary to make the price policy effective. 3. To take into account the changes in terms of trade between agricultural and non agricultural sectors 4. To examine, where necessary, the prevailing methods and cost of marketing of agricultural commodities in different regions, suggest measures to reduce costs of marketing and recommend fair price margins for different stages of marketing.
7. To keep under review the developing price situation and to make appropriate recommendations, as and when necessary, within the framework of the overall price policy. 8. To undertake studies in respect of different crops as may be prescribed by Government from time to time. 9. To keep under review studies relating to the price policy and arrangements for collection of information regarding agricultural prices and other related data and suggest improvements in the same, and to organize research studies in the field of price policy. 10. To advise on any problems relating to agricultural prices and production that may be referred to it by Government from time to time.
Food Security And Food Policies Food security refers to the availability of food and one's access to it. A household is considered food-secure when its occupants do not live in hunger or fear of starvation. Objectives of the Food Policy: Effective price support operations for safeguarding the interests of the farmers. Distribution of food grains throughout the country for public distribution system. Maintaining satisfactory level of operational and buffer stocks of food grains to ensure National Food Security
Food Grain Price Policy Food grains price committee was set up in 1964 to determine producer prices of rice and wheat on all India basis. Food grain policy committee -1966 The important aspects pertaining are: 1. Controls on movement 2. Compulsory levy procurement 3. Fixation of maximum statutory price of food grains 4. Rationing
The Food Corporation of India was setup under the Food Corporation Act 1964 . Objectives of FCI: The Food Corporation Of India •To make food grains available at reasonable prices, particularly to vulnerable section of the society •To maintain buffer stocks as measure of Food Security •To intervene in market for price stabilization •to provide farmers remunerative prices
MINIMUM SUPPORT PRICE/PROCUREMENT PRICE The Minimum Support Price (MSP) Scheme is a scheme of the Government of India to safeguard the interests of the farmers. Under this Scheme the GOI declares the minimum support Prices of various agricultural produces and assures the farmers that their agricultural produce will be purchased at the MSP, thereby preventing its distress sale. The Food Corporation of India (FCI) acts as the Nodal Agency of the GOI. On behalf of FCI, the MSP Scheme is implemented through the State agencies.
CROPS COVERED UNDER MSP: WHEAT, BARLEY, GRAM, SAFFLOWER RAPESEED/MUSTARD, PADDY, JOWAR, BAZRA, MAIZE, RAGI, PULSES, GROUNDNUT, SOYABEAN, SUNFLOWER, SESAMUM, NIGERSEED, COTTON, TOBACCO, JUTE, SUGARCANE How does government decides MSP? CACP View of state govt. View of ministries
Benefits of MSP: income security to farmer bringing investment into agriculture building up buffers, a large network of FP shops, stabilizing price line and consumer welfare.
The Public Distribution System is one of the important elements of the Government’s ‘Food Security’ system. PDS involves management of supplies of essential commodities and maintenance of their uninterrupted flow at affordable prices to the identified beneficiaries. It also works as an instrument for moderating the open market prices of food. Public Distribution System
PDS means distribution of essential commodities to a large number of people through a network of FPS on a recurring basis. Commodities involved are: WHEAT RICE KEROSENE SUGAR
Goals of PDS Ensure social justice in distribution of basic necessities of life; Even out fluctuations in prices and availability of mass consumption goods; Support poverty-alleviation programs , particularly, rural employment programs . Check and prevent hoarding and black marketing in essential commodities
Who Operates PDS? By Central Govt: They are responsible for procurement, storage, transportation (upto the district headquarters) and bulk allocation of food grains. By State Govt: They are responsible for distributing these food grains to consumers through a network of Fair Price Shops.
Working of PDS
Problems In PDS The poor do not have cash to buy 35 kg at a time, and often they are not permitted to buy in installments. Low quality of food grains Week monitoring and lack of transparency Price charged exceeds the official price by 10 to 14% Allocations from GoI are valid only for a month, and if the state government is not able to lift within that time, its quota lapses.
Revamped PDS GoI introduced a RPDS in 1992 in limited areas, primarily drought prone, tribal and hilly, and remotely located. The RPDS was being available to all in the selected area. Food grains for distribution in RPDS areas were issued to the States at 50 paise below the Central Issue Price. The scale of issue was up to 20 kg per card.
Targeted PDS RPDS substituted by TPDS in 1997. It specifically aimed at BPL people in all parts of the country. State-wise BPL quota is fixed on the basis of the adjusted poverty share determined by the Planning Commission based on official poverty
UNIQUE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER It is a single answer to address wide ranging problems in the Public Distribution System (PDS) in the country. There are some concerns regarding leakages and misidentification due to class division in rural areas. The UID is an individual system so it will eliminate the confusion over number of households.
Policy and Procedural Reforms Elimination of Ghost Ration Cards There should be only one annual order from the district indicating quota of each dealer Making it obligatory for dealers to sell non-cereal items Oversight by citizens Involve civil society
MARKET INTERVENTION SCHEME FOR THOSE CROPS NOT COVERED UNDER MSP – ONION, POTATO, TURMERIC, CHILLIES THESE CROPS ARE IMPORTANT AT REGIONAL LEVEL NEED FOR PRICE SUPPORT DOES NOT ARISE EVERY YEAR
Difference Between MSP & MIS PARTICULARS MSP MIS COMMODITIES FIXED NOT FIXED REGULARITY EVERY YEAR AD HOC SUPPORT PRICE DECIDED BY UNION UNION & STATE GOVERNMENT GOVERNMENT PURCHASES ALL OFFERED BY PRE-DECIDED FARMERS LIMITED QUANT APPLICABILITY COUNTRY SPECIFIED LOSS UNION GOVT. EQUALLY SHARED BY STATE AND UNION GOVT.
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