Agricultural Pathways to Nutrition: Getting Policies Right!

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Information about Agricultural Pathways to Nutrition: Getting Policies Right!

Published on March 13, 2014

Author: SuritDas2

Source: slideshare.net

Description

The pdf of the PowerPoint presentation Prof Prabhu Pingali used for his Distinguished Lecture at the Institute of Economic Growth on Monday, 10 March 2014.

Agricultural  Pathways  to  Improved   Nutri8on:  Ge<ng  Policies  Right!     Prabhu  Pingali   Professor  of  Applied   Economics   &  Director,  Tata-­‐Cornell   Ini8a8ve  for  Agriculture   &  Nutri8on,  Cornell   University   College of Agriculture and Life Sciences Tata-­‐Cornell  Agriculture  and  Nutri8on  Ini8a8ve  

•  Persistence  of  under  weight  births  &   Childhood  stun5ng   •  Rising  inequality  in  food  &  nutri5on  access   •  Increasing  incidence  of  obesity   •  Growing  food  safety  concerns   2  TCi  2013©     Global  Nutri8onal  Challenges  

3  TCi  2013©     The  nature  and  magnitude  of  the   nutri8onal  challenge  varies  by  the   stage  of  structural  transforma8on  of  a   country  

Structural  Transforma5on:  what  is  it?     Four  inter-­‐related  processes  define  structural   transforma5on:   •  A  declining  share  of  agriculture  in  GDP  and   employment   •  A  rural  to  urban  migra5on  that  s5mulates  the   process  of  urbaniza5on   •  The  rise  of  a  modern  industrial  and  service  sector   •  A  demographic  transi5on  from  high  to  low  rates   of  births  and  deaths   TCi  2013©     Structural  transforma8on:  what  is  it?  

TCi  2013©     Structural  Transforma8on  is  a   Historical  and  Universal  Phenomenon  

Low Productivity Agriculture Commercialized Agriculture Modernizing Agriculture 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 -1,000 4,000 9,000 14,000 19,000 24,000 29,000 34,000 39,000 44,000 49,000 54,000 Share of Agriculture (%#GDP)# GDP (US$ per Capita) Low Income Lower Middle Income UpperMiddle Income HighIncome 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 -1,000 4,000 9,000 14,000 19,000 24,000 29,000 34,000 39,000 44,000 49,000 54,000 GDP(US$perCapita) Share of Agriculture (% GDP) HighHumanDevelopment MediumHumanDevelopment LowHumanDevelopment TCi  2013©     Structural  Transforma8on,  Human   Development,  and  Agricultural  Performance  

7   Webb P , and Block S PNAS 2012;109:12309-12314 Structural  Transforma8on  and  Nutri8on  

Global  map  of  stun5ng   8  

The  first  1,000  days  of  life…     9   ~9  months  in     utero    ~6  months     breasPeeding   Early   childhood     Message:  to  impact  child  nutri5on  and  safeguard  cogni5ve  and  physical   development,  targe8ng  women  and  girls  during  childbearing  years  (ages   15-­‐45)  is  essen8al.     TCi  2013©    

‘window  of  opportunity’   10  

11  TCi  2013©     So  what  does  agriculture  have  to  do   with  it?  

12  Webb P , and Block S PNAS 2012;109:12309-12314 Effect  of  policy  support  for  agriculture  versus  non-­‐agriculture   on  the  prevalence  of  stun8ng  

13   Nutri8on  is  mul8dimensional   ©Tata-­‐Cornell  Agriculture  and  Nutri8on  Ini8a8ve  (TCi),  2013  

14   ©Tata-­‐Cornell  Agriculture  and  Nutri8on  Ini8a8ve  (TCi),  2013   For  rural  households,  agriculture  is   central  to  food  access   Agricultural  policies  are   central  for  influencing:   •  Rural  household   income  (food   affordability)     •  Regional/local  food   supply  (produc8vity   and  food  diversity)   INCREASED  MATERNAL   HEALTH  AND  REDUCTION   IN  CHILDHOOD  STUNTING   TCi  2013©    

15   ©Tata-­‐Cornell  Agriculture  and  Nutri8on  Ini8a8ve  (TCi),  2013   Agriculture  is  only  part  of  the  equa8on,   complimentary  policies  are  essen8al   Complimentary  policies   for  behavior  change   and  environmental   change  are  essen8al   components:   •  Behavior  (educa8on,   women’s   empowerment,  etc.)   •  Water,  sanita8on,   and  hygiene  efforts   INCREASED  MATERNAL   HEALTH  AND  REDUCTION   IN  CHILDHOOD  STUNTING  

Food  system   classifica8on   Characteris8cs   Low   produc5ve   systems   •  Li[le  to  no  Green  Revolu5on  gains   •  Low  per  capita  income   •  Low  agricultural  produc5vity   •  Low  diet  diversity   •  High  under  nutri5on  &  micronutrient  malnutri5on     Modernizing   Systems   •  Green  Revolu5on  gains   •  Low-­‐medium  per  capita  income   •  Moderate  agricultural  produc5vity   •  Moderate  diet  diversity   •  Persistent  micronutrient  malnutri5on     Commercial/ export  systems   •  Medium-­‐high  per  capita  income   •  Higher  opportunity  for  agricultural  produc5vity   •  High  diet  diversity   •  coexistence  of  under  nutri5on  and  over  nutri5on   16   One  size  does  not  fit  all…   contextualizing  ag-­‐nutri8on  policies   TCi  2013©    

17    Vicious  cycles  of  low  produc8vity   systems…   TCi  2013©     Low  diet   diversity     High  rela5ve  price  of   non-­‐staples   Poverty   Micronutrient   malnutri5on   Low  produc5ve   staple  crop  systems  

18   Low  produc8ve  agriculture:  policy   recommenda8ons     Context-­‐specific  focus     Specific  policies   •  Cereal-­‐based   intensifica0on  strategies     •  Produc0vity-­‐focused  investments   for  smallholder  farmers   •  Biofor0fica0on  of  staple  crops   •  For0fica0on  of  staples   •  Complimentary   interven0ons   •  Kitchen  gardens  for  year-­‐round   access  to  micronutrient-­‐rich  foods   •  Backyard  livestock  and  poultry     •  Social  safety  net  programs  for  the   most  vulnerable   TCi  2013©    

19    Modernizing  systems  and  dietary   change:  how  could  the  story  go?   TCi  2013©     Income   increases   Increasing   produc5vity  for   staples   Demand  for  non  staples   increases   Increases  in  cereal  (calorie)   supply  and  reduced  cereal   prices   Farmers  diversify  into   new,  developing  markets   for  micronutrient  and   protein-­‐dense  foods   Food  supply   diversity  increases   Agriculture   commercializa5on   con5nues  

20   Modernizing  food  systems:  stalled  progress   because  of  misaligned  incen8ves  and  policies   changes  the  story   TCi  2013©     Income   increases   Increasing   produc5vity  for   staples   Demand  for  non  staples   increases   Increases  in  cereal  (calorie)   supply  and  reduced  cereal   prices   Farmers  diversify  into   new,  developing  markets   for  micronutrient  and   protein-­‐dense  foods   Food  supply   diversity  increases   This  link  depends  on   policy  and  market   environment   Agriculture   commercializa5on   con5nues  

21  TCi  2013©     When  policies  and  market  incen5ves   don’t  enable  farmers  to  meet  a  growing   demand  for  non-­‐staples,  the  the  result  is:     •  Limited  supply  of  micronutrient  and   protein-­‐dense  foods     •  Impacts  for  dietary  diversity   availability   •  Sustained  high  rela5ve  prices  of  non-­‐ staples   •  Impacts  for  dietary  diversity   affordability   •  Agriculture  incomes  lag  behind   •  Impacts  on  absolute  food  budgets   All  too  oden,  poor  policy  and  market  environments   halt  or  disable  diet  transforma8on…   Demand  for  non  staples   increases   Farmers  diversify  into   new,  developing  markets   for  micronutrient  and   protein-­‐dense  foods   This  link  depends  on   policy  and  market   environment  

22   Modernizing  Agricultural  Systems:   policy  recommenda8ons   TCi  2013©     Context-­‐specific  focus   Specific  policies   Linking  farmers  to   markets   •  Investments  in  infrastructure   •  Investments  in  essen5al  ins5tu5ons  (credit,  insurance,   land  rights,  etc.)   •  Investments  in  public-­‐private  partnerships   Strengthening  demand   for  micronutrient  and   protein-­‐rich  foods   •  Policies  that  establish  product  standards  and  be[er   trading  rela5onships   •  Policies  improving  food  safety   Suppor5ng  agriculture   as  a  business   •  Upgrading  tradi5onal  markets  and  inves5ng  in   informal  actors  

•  For  poorest  popula5ons  in  Africa  and  South  Asia   •  Health  and  well-­‐being  in  rural  areas  lag  far  behind  urban  areas   •  Produc5vity  effects  more  serious  where  physical  labor  cri5cal  input   •  Women  are  par5cularly  vulnerable   -­‐  Employment  paCerns:     -­‐  women  play  a  predominant  role  in  the  produc5on  of  food  crops  ;   especially  in  Africa.     -­‐  Biological  vulnerabili0es:     -­‐  women  have  special  vulnerabili5es  related  to  reproduc5ve  health   and  they  are  adversely  affected  by  health  and  nutri5on  risks.     -­‐  Life  responsibili0es:   -­‐   women  have  a  set  of  unique  responsibili5es  in  the  home,   par5cularly  in  terms  of  the  care  of  children.   Role  of  Health  and  Nutri8on  in   Agricultural  Development     TCi  2013©    

24   Complimentary  policies   Behavior  change:   •  Educa5on,   extension   Harnessing  the  power   of  women’s  groups.   •  Nutri5on   messaging  through   women’s  groups   Water,  sanita5on,  hygiene   •  Clean  water  technology   development   •  Sanita5on  technologies   TCi  2013©    

25   The  con8nuing  relevance  of  agriculture  in  all   stages  of  development:  key  policy  priori8es   Investments  in  enhancing  of  food  supply   •  Investments  in  technology,  research  and  development  for  produc5vity  and   nutri5on  enhancement   •  Investments  in  post-­‐harvest  technologies  and  infrastructure     Agri-­‐market  investments   •  Investments  necessary  to  connect  farmers  to  markets   •  Policies  aimed  at  opening  up  foreign  direct  investment  in  food  value  chains   •  Moderniza5on  of  extension     •  Broadening  extension  to  include  nutri5on  messaging     Investments  in  health  and  social  environment   •  Investments  in  sanita5on  (toilets)  and  access  to  clean  water   •  Empowerment  of  women  and  incen5vizing  women’s  self-­‐help  groups     Investments  for  food  affordability  and  access   •  Rela5ve  price  changes   •  Con5nua5on  of  safety  net  programs  that  target  vulnerable  popula5ons  

Thank  you!   26   Website:    tci.cals.cornell.edu     Blog:  blogs.cornell.edu/agricultureandnutri8on/        Thank  you!  

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