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agn presentation 102106

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Information about agn presentation 102106
Science-Technology

Published on August 29, 2007

Author: Breezy

Source: authorstream.com

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Huge Black Holes: Measuring the Monster in the Middle :  Huge Black Holes: Measuring the Monster in the Middle Logan Hill and Sarah Silva Sonoma State University The NASA Educator Ambassador Program at SSU:  The NASA Educator Ambassador Program at SSU Our group is located in Northern California at Sonoma State University. We do education and public outreach (develop educational materials) for three NASA Space Science Missions. Swift GLAST XMM-Newton What is GLAST?:  What is GLAST? GLAST: Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope Planned for launch in 2007 GLAST has two instruments: Large Area Telescope (LAT) GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) GLAST will look at many different objects within the energy range of 10keV to 300GeV. LAT GBM What are Gamma Rays?:  What are Gamma Rays? Active Galaxy Animation:  Active Galaxy Animation Target Object of the Day:  Target Object of the Day Normal galaxy A system of gas, stars, and dust bounded together by their mutual gravity. VS. Active galaxy An galaxy with an intensely bright nucleus. At the center is a supermassive black hole that is feeding. Active Galaxies Educator Unit:  Active Galaxies Educator Unit Essential question: What do active galaxies look like when viewed from different distances? Science concepts: The small angle approximation has limits. The angular size of an object depends on its distance and its physical diameter. Zooming in on Active Galaxies:  Zooming in on Active Galaxies Mathematically, angular diameter, linear diameter, and distance can be combined in an extremely useful and simple equation that uses the small angle approximation. As seen in the figure above, the angular diameter (a) depends on the distance to the object (D) and its actual linear diameter (d) according to: tan(a/2) = d/2D The students will show in this activity, that for very small values of a measured in radians, tan(a) = a. Using this approximation, the equation relating distance and linear size simplifies further to a/2 = d/2D or more simply a = d/D Zooming in on Active Galaxies:  Zooming in on Active Galaxies Let’s Get Busy You will have 25 minutes to complete: Part B # 1-9 And Part C # 10-14 Some things that may help:  Some things that may help Answers to Part B:  Answers to Part B Answers for questions 3 through 8 will depend on each student’s height. To the right is a reference table with distances given the students’ height 9. On average, the typical human eye can see objects about 1/60th of a degree across, so the answer to this question is 'no.' Galaxies and Black Holes:  Galaxies and Black Holes Zooming in to see the central torus of an Active Galaxy. Jet Accretion disk Black Hole Monstrous black holes:  Monstrous black holes At the heart of every galaxy lies a black hole, millions to billions times the mass of our Sun HST/NGC 4261 800 light years Radio Lobe Galaxy:  Radio Lobe Galaxy Radio lobes Jet Accretion Disk Two Views of an Active Galaxy:  Two Views of an Active Galaxy View at an angle to jet View at 90o from Jet Radio Lobe Galaxy Seyfert Galaxy Another view of an Active Galaxy:  Another view of an Active Galaxy Looking down the Jet From this view, we see the Active Galaxy emitting gamma rays and X-rays. Blazar Galaxy Quasar 3C279 Masses of Black Holes:  Masses of Black Holes Primordial – can be any size, including very small (If andgt;1014 g, they would still exist) 'Stellar mass' black holes – must be at least 3 Mo (~1034 g) – many examples are known Intermediate black holes – range from 100 to 1000 Mo - located in normal galaxies – many seen Massive black holes – about 106 Mo – such as in the center of the Milky Way – many seen Supermassive black holes – about 109-10 Mo - located in Active Galactic Nuclei, often accompanied by jets – many seen Brainstorm Time:  Brainstorm Time How can we use this in our science classroom? Astronomy Lessons Introductions to small angle approximation in Math classes …. How does this apply?California Grades 9-12:  How does this apply? California Grades 9-12 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system's structure, scale, and change over time. As a basis for understanding this concept: d. Students know the evidence indicating that the planets are much closer to Earth than the stars are. e. Students know the Sun is a typical star and is powered by nuclear reactions, primarily the fusion of hydrogen to form helium. (This one could be) g.* Students know the evidence for the existence of planets orbiting other stars. 2. Earth-based and space-based astronomy reveal the structure, scale, and changes in stars, galaxies, and the universe over time. As a basis for understanding this concept: a. Students know the solar system is located in an outer edge of the disc-shaped Milky Way galaxy, which spans 100,000 light years. b. Students know galaxies are made of billions of stars and comprise most of the visible mass of the universe. d. Students know that stars differ in their life cycles and that visual, radio, and X-ray telescopes may be used to collect data that reveal those differences. e.* Students know accelerators boost subatomic particles to energy levels that simulate conditions in the stars and in the early history of the universe before stars formed. Earth’s Place in the Universe Resources:  Resources http://glast.sonoma.edu/teachers/teachers.html Here you can find an html version of the AGN Guide and a PDF printable version, and other supplemental materials. http://glast.sonoma.edu/scitech/gru/agn/index.html http://ircamera.as.arizona.edu/NatSci102/lectures/agns.htm (really cool pictures for students) Want more materials from us? Visit: http://epo.sonoma.edu/orderforms/orderformpublic.html Extra Slides:  Extra Slides Answers to Part C:  Answers to Part C 10) 13.0 centimeters. Note the significant figures should reflect 0.1 cm accuracy. 11) The distance should be 149 cm. This will depend on their measuring accuracy. 12) This will depend on their distance measurement, but should be close to the actual disk size of 13 cm. 13) This will depend on their accuracy. They should be within 10% or so of the measured size. 14) 893.8 meters. 15) 17.5 centimeters. Note the significant figures should reflect 0.1 cm accuracy. 16) The distance should be 200.5 cm, and will depend on their measuring accuracy. Answers to Part C:  Answers to Part C 17) This will depend on their distance measurement, but should be close to the actual lobe size of 17.5 cm. 18) This will depend on their accuracy. They should be within 10% or so of the measured size. 19) 1203.2 meters. 20) 446.9 meters. 21) 1.38 million light years. 22) 100 million / 1.38 million = 73, so the magnification would be 73X. What GLAST will see…:  What GLAST will see… Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) Pulsars Solar flares Cosmic gamma ray background Unidentified sources Cosmic rays (indirectly, through gamma rays seen when cosmic rays hit interstellar gas) Dark matter (perhaps) Answers to Part A:  Answers to Part A How does this apply?NSES:  How does this apply? NSES Content Standard A: Science as Inquiry Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry Students make calculations to test the small angle formula (hypothesis and observation). Using their own calculations, the students formulate and revise the theory about an object’s size. After having analyzed measurements of nearby objects, students answer questions that engage thought and analysis about real objects in space. Understanding about scientific inquiry Students learn how scientists determine the distance and/or size of an object in space. Content Standard B: Physical Science Motion and Forces Jets of materials are ejected at velocities light speed from the black hole in an Students answer questions to help them how big the jets from AGs are, and how can see them at vast distances. Content Standard D: Earth and Space Science Origin and Evolution of the Universe Active galaxies are a fundamental part of the evolutionary process of the universe. Content Standard E: Science and Technology Understanding about science and technology The small angle formula is an essential tool used by astronomers to get physical dimensions of astronomical objects. Content Standard G: History and Nature of Science Science as a human endeavor Students answer questions about the ability of the human eye to distinguish objects, showing how this activity affects them in daily life. Students see that by working in groups they can formulate better hypotheses about scientific inquiries due to the extra input from others. Black Hole Structure :  Black Hole Structure Schwarzschild radius defines the event horizon Rsch = 2GM/c2 Not even light can escape, once it has crossed the event horizon Cosmic censorship prevails (you cannot see inside the event horizon)

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