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Agile Management: Leading Teams with a Complex Mind

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Information about Agile Management: Leading Teams with a Complex Mind
Business & Mgmt

Published on November 15, 2010

Author: jurgenappelo

Source: slideshare.net

Description

These are the slides I used in my deep dive session at the Scrum Gathering in Amsterdam.

See: Agile Management Workshop
http://www.noop.nl/2010/11/agile-management-workshop.html
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Agile Management Leading Teams with a Complex Mind Jurgen Appelo jurgen@noop.nl



Agile Management Workshop (intro) Explain to the other people at your table why you are here (instead of somewhere else).

The Management 3.0 Model Six organizational views based on complexity thinking

Emergent, self-organizing, unpredictable http://www.flickr.com/photos/judepics/

Sometimes adaptive, sometimes not http://www.flickr.com/photos/hdr400d/

Complex Systems “A complex system is a system composed of interconnected parts that as a whole exhibit one or more properties (behavior) not obvious from the properties of the individual parts.” Sometimes called the sciences of complexity (plural) http://cfpm.org/pub/users/bruce/thesis/chap4.pdf

General Systems Theory Study of relationships between elements Ludwig von Bertalanffy (biologist) 1901-1972 Autopoiesis (how a system constructs itself) Identity (how a system is identifiable) Homeostatis (how a system remains stable) Permeability (how a system interacts with its environment)

Cybernetics Study of regulatory systems Norbert Wiener (mathematician) 1894-1964 Goals (the intention of achieving a desired state) Acting (having an effect on the environment) Sensing (checking the response of the environment) Evaluating (comparing current state with system’s goal)

Dynamical Systems Theory Study of system behavior Stability (stable states versus unstable states) Attractors (systems getting sucked into stable states)

Game Theory Study of co-adapting systems John von Neumann (mathematician) 1903-1957 Competition versus cooperation Zero sum games versus non-zero sum games Strategies (including evolutionary stable strategies)

Evolutionary Theory Study of evolving systems Charles Darwin (naturalist) 1809-1882 Population (more than one instance) Replication (mechanism of making new instances) Variation (differences between instances) Heredity (differences copied from existing instances) Selection (environment imposes selective pressure)

Chaos Theory Study of unpredictable systems Edward Lorenz (meteorologist) 1917-2008 Strange attractors (chaotic behavior) Sensitivity to initial conditions (butterfly effect) Fractals (scale-invariance)

And more... Study of all kinds of systems Dissipative systems (spontaneous pattern-forming) Cellular automata (complex behavior from simple rules) Genetic algorithms (adaptive learning) Social network analysis (propagation of information)

The Body of Knowledge of Systems Complex systems theory enables a descriptive approach to the study of social systems

Complexity “Complexity is that property of a system which makes it difficult to predict its overall behavior, even when given reasonably complete information about its components and their relations.” “edge of chaos” “chaordic processes” http://cfpm.org/pub/users/bruce/thesis/chap4.pdf

System Dynamics Study of non-linear behavior of systems Jay Wright Forrester (computer engineer) 1918- Circular feedback loops and time-delayed relationships Analysis through simulations and calculations

Systems Thinking Approach to problem solving Peter Michael Senge (social scientist) 1947- “Problems” are part of a system View systems in a holistic manner Not a science, but a “frame of mind”

Some Criticism “The strength of systems thinking is its recognition that human systems are messy, they frequently need focus and alignment; its weakness is that it assumes that the design of that focus and alignment is a top down objective based process. […] The ambiguity of human systems is recognized, but the basic concept of central control or planning remains at the heart.” Multi-ontology sense-making- David Snowden (2005) http://kwork.org/stars/snowden/Snowden.pdf

Some Criticism “Systems thinking contains a fundamental difficulty right at its roots. This is to regard human interaction as a system. This assumption leads to thinking about that interaction as something about which another human standing outside it makes choices.” Complexity and Management – Ralph Stacey (2000) http://www.amazon.com/Complexity-Management-Inorganisations-Ralph-Stacey/dp/0415247616/

“Traditional” Systems Thinking observer system http://www.amazon.com/Complexity-Management-Inorganisations-Ralph-Stacey/dp/0415247616/

Complexity Thinking observers system http://www.amazon.com/Complexity-Management-Inorganisations-Ralph-Stacey/dp/0415247616/

The Unknowns Knowns Unknowns Unknowns Unknowns

Non-linearity

Complexity Thinking Jurgen Appelo (idea farmer) 1969- Don’t separate the designers from the system Don’t ignore the human part (social complexity) Don’t ignore the unknown unknowns Don’t rely (too much) on linear cause and effect Complexity Thinking = Systems Thinking++

Exercise: Complexity Thinking

The Management 3.0 Model

View #1: Energize People People are the most important parts of an organization and managers must do all they can to keep people active, creative, and motivated.

Extrinsic Motivation Desire to achieve goal G Reward behavior B Assumption B leads to G Problems with non-linear effects

Intrinsic Motivation Desire to achieve goal G Reward behavior B Where B = G No non-linear effects

“16 Basic Desires” Acceptance The need for approval Physical Activity Or exercise Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Eating The need for food Romance The need for love and sex Family The need to raise children Saving The need to collect Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact The need for friends Idealism The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence Being an individual Tranquility The need to be safe Order Or stable environments Vengeance The need to strike back Steven Reiss. Who Am I? The 16 Basic Desires That Motivate Our Actions and Define Our Personalities. City: Berkley Trade, 2002

“16 Basic Desires” Acceptance The need for approval Physical Activity Or exercise Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Eating The need for food Romance The need for love and sex Family The need to raise children Saving The need to collect Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact The need for friends Idealism The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence Being an individual Tranquility The need to be safe Order Or stable environments Vengeance The need to strike back Steven Reiss. Who Am I? The 16 Basic Desires That Motivate Our Actions and Define Our Personalities. City: Berkley Trade, 2002

“16 Basic Desires” Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact The need for friends Idealism The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence Being an individual Order Or stable environments Steven Reiss. Who Am I? The 16 Basic Desires That Motivate Our Actions and Define Our Personalities. City: Berkley Trade, 2002

“Self-Determination Theory” Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact The need for friends Idealism The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence Being an individual Order Or stable environments Competence The need to feel capable Autonomy The need to choose one’s own actions Relatedness The need to be socially involved Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan. The Handbook of Self-Determination Research. Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2004

“Self-Determination Theory” Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact /Relatedness The need for friends Idealism The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence /Autonomy Being an individual Order Or stable environments CompetenceThe need to feel capable Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan. The Handbook of Self-Determination Research. Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2004

10 Intrinsic Desires Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact / Relatedness The need for friends Idealism The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence / Autonomy Being an individual Order Or stable environments Competence The need to feel capable

“Drive” Acceptance The need for approval Curiosity The need to think Power The need for influence of will Honor Being loyal to a group Social Contact / Relatedness The need for friends Idealism /Purpose The need for purpose Status The need for social standing Independence /Autonomy Being an individual Order Or stable environments Competence /Mastery The need to feel capable Daniel H. Pink, Drive: The Surprising Truth About What Motivates Us. Riverhead, 2009

Exercise: 10 Intrinsic Desires

The Management 3.0 Model

View #2: Empower Teams Teams can self-organize, and this requires empowerment, authorization, and trust from management.

Self-organization… a definition “Self-organization is a process of attraction and repulsion in which the internal organization of a system, normally an open system, increases in complexity without being guided or managed by an outside source.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-organization

Organization withoutmanagement?

Cool!

but…

Self-organization has a dark side…



Self-organization… the dark side http://www.flickr.com/photos/agder/2783124139/





But people care…about value.



http://www.flickr.com/photos/sukanto_debnath/504258852/

http://www.flickr.com/photos/suneko/92395757/

http://www.flickr.com/photos/calliope/104661075/

“Self-organization requires that the system is surrounded by a containing boundary. This condition defines the "self" that will be developed during the self-organizing process.” http://amauta-international.com/iaf99/Thread1/conway.html

The containing boundary has a chance to direct self-organizationtowards value

Don’t go here! Go there! Directed self-organization

Self-organization is the norm

Management is the special case

Three levels ofself-organization Self-organized For example: a software development team Self-selected (= self-designed) Self-organized and system selects its own members For example: founders of a start-up business Self-directed (= self-governed) Self-selected and no direction outside the system For example: criminal organization

The Darkness Principle “Each element in the system is ignorant of the behavior of the system as a whole [...] If each element ‘knew’ what was happening to the system as a whole, all of the complexity would have to be present in that element.” http://iscepublishing.com/ECO/ECO_other/Issue_6_3_10_FM.pdf

Therefore, management requires… Distributed governance and leadership

Seven levels ofauthority in empowerment Tell: make decision as the manager Sell: convince people about decision Consult: get input from team before decision Agree: make decision together with team Advise: influence decision made by the team Inquire: ask feedback after decision by team Delegate: no influence, let team work it out

Exercise: Delegation Game

The Management 3.0 Model

View #3: Align Constraints Self-organization can lead to anything, and it’s therefore necessary to protect people and shared resources, and to give people a clear purpose and defined goals.

The Game of Life (John Conway) http://www.bitstorm.org/gameoflife/

































The Game of Life 3 neighbors = new life 2 or 3 neighbors = stay alive 0 or 1 or > 3 neighbors = death simple rules, great results

But does that mean... 3 neighbors = new life 2 or 3 neighbors = stay alive 0 or 1 or > 3 neighbors = death management = simple rules, great results?

3 neighbors = new life 2 or 3 neighbors = stay alive 0 or 1 or > 3 neighbors = death management = simple rules, great results? No.

The Game of Life The actual rules => complicated code

The Game of Life The constraints => a grid, 1 player

Another example

Settlers of Catan (Klaus Teuber) It took minutes to define the constraints It took years to create and tune the rules http://www.wired.com/gaming/gamingreviews/magazine/17-04/mf_settlers

complexnon-adaptive system we adapt the rules

complex adaptive system complexnon-adaptive system the system adapts itself we adapt the rules

A manager / team leader is not a game designer Don’t create rules

Define constraints (playing field, players) Let the system create its own rules

aim intent goal mission vision target objective Let’s ignore the (subtle) differences for now…

Keep it simple Commander’s intent A goal in just a few lines of text

Goal checklist specificand understandable simpleand concise manageableand measurable memorableand reproducible attainableand realistic ambitiousand stimulating actionableand assignable agreed-uponand committable relevantand useful time-boundand time-specific tangibleand real excitableand igniting inspiringand visionary value-basedand fundamental revisitableand assessable

Bad example 1 We are committed to providing outstanding customer experience, to being a great place to work, a thoughtful steward of the environment and a caring citizen in the communities where we live and work. We are passionate about sustainably connecting people and places and improving the quality of life around the world.

Bad example 2 As a company, and as individuals, we value integrity, honesty, openness, personal excellence, constructive self-criticism, continual self-improvement, and mutual respect. We are committed to our customers and partners and have a passion for technology. We take on big challenges, and pride ourselves on seeing them through. We hold ourselves accountable to our customers, shareholders, partners, and employees by honoring our commitments, providing results, and striving for the highest quality.

Good example 1 Our mission is to organize the world’s information and make it universally accessible and useful.

Good example 2 We help people save money so they can live better.

Do not allow individual stakeholder goals to replace extrinsic and emergent goals

Goals are not meant to... Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them

Goals are not meant to... Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them Impress shareholders or others on the sideline

Goals are not meant to... Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them Impress shareholders or others on the sideline Confuse short-term wins with long-term losses

Goals are not meant to... Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them Impress shareholders or others on the sideline Confuse short-term wins with long-term losses Distract people from outcomes with action plans

Goals are not meant to... Intimidate people if they cannot achieve them Impress shareholders or others on the sideline Confuse short-term wins with long-term losses Distract people from outcomes with action plans Overload people with too many objectives

And... Goals should not be pushed with financial rewards http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/1594488843?ie=UTF8&tag=noopnl-20&linkCode=as2&camp=1789&creative=390957&creativeASIN=1594488843

Exercise: Agile Goal Setting

The Management 3.0 Model

View #4: Develop Competence Teams cannot achieve these goals if team members aren’t capable enough, and managers must therefore contribute to the development of competence.

Safest traffic in the world Marshall Islands San Marino Malta Iceland Netherlands Sweden United Kingdom Switzerland Japan Singapore http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_traffic-related_death_rate http://www.flickr.com/photos/bobjagendorf/4122137519/

http://www.flickr.com/photos/quimbo/20555416/

http://www.flickr.com/photos/lilidelamora/5320093/

http://www.flickr.com/photos/12386296@N08/4055379221/

We can learn how to manage software teams by studying management of similar systems (like traffic management)

Subsidiarity principle “The dictionary defines subsidiarity as the idea that a central authority should have a subsidiary function, performing only those tasks which cannot be performed effectively at a more immediate or local level.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Subsidiarity

Subsidiarity principle And thus… Delegate decisions until you’ve hit a competency problem (team members decide unless there is some lack of competence)

Precautionary principle Assuming that things are risky, in the absence of evidence. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Precautionary_principle http://kwebble.com/blog/tag/haarlem

Precautionary principle And thus… Decide who has the burden of proof for competency (assume team members are competent, unless proven they’re not)

http://www.flickr.com/photos/38607288@N03/4087457751/

Shared space Increased risk perception People are less mindful when they see no risks Reduced false security / risk compensation People show riskier behavior when they think they are safe http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shared_space

Shared space And thus… Remove rules to increase risk perception and reduce false security

But how do wedevelop competence?

Three maturity levels (for skill) Shutraditional wisdom, learning fundamentals (apprentice) Ha detachment, breaking with tradition (journeyman) Ri transcendence, everything is natural (master) (last column: three similar levels in medieval European guild system) Note: the Dreyfus Model lists five levels of skill acquisition: Beginner, Advanced Beginner, Competent, Proficient, Expert http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shuhari http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Master_craftsman http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dreyfus_model_of_skill_acquisition

Six maturity levels (for discipline) Oblivious “We don’t even know that we’re performing a process.” Variable “We do whatever we feel like at the moment.” Routine “We follow our routines (except when we panic).” Steering “We choose among our routines by the results they produce.” Anticipating “We establish routines based on our past experiences.” Congruent “Everyone is involved in improving everything all the time.” Gerard Weinberg, Quality Software Management: Systems Thinking (Alternative: six similar levels in “Agile Made Us Better…” by Ross Petit) http://www.amazon.com/Quality-Software-Management-Systems-Thinking/dp/0932633226/ http://www.thoughtworks.com/agile-made-us-better

Competence = maturity in 2 dimensions

1. Self-development People must learn... urgence vs. importance time management boosting memory finding motivation

2. Coaching Hire external coaches Develop competency leaders Note: manager != coach

3. Certification By itself a certificate doesn’t mean anything, but... it can catalyze all other competency measures

4. Social pressure Let people identify with a small group Give them shared responsibility for shared goals

5. Infrastructure Tools must be adaptable, not just customizable Open databases, APIs, scripts, plug-ins, reports

6. Supervision Have someone sample/check the products of teams

7. Management One-on-ones to assess problem situations 360 degree meetings to assess collaboration

7 Approaches to competency development 1. Self-Development 2. Coaching 3. Certification 4. Social Pressure 5. Infrastructure 6. Supervision 7. Management

Exercise: Competence Development

The Management 3.0 Model

View #5: Grow Structure Many teams operate within the context of a complex organization, and thus it is important to consider structures that enhance communication .

The workplace is a network

Individual competence “We learned that individual expertise did not distinguish people as high performers. What distinguished high performers were larger and more diversified personal networks.” Cross, Rob et.al. The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004

Individual competence “Engineers are roughly five times more likely to turn to a person for information as to an impersonal source such as a database.” Cross, Rob et.al. The Hidden Power of Social Networks. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2004

Scale-invariant networks (fractals) Best communication across all scales http://gut.bmj.com/content/57/7.cover-expansion

<- preferred Segmentation of teams

Design Principle 1 (DP1) (through a manager) Design Principle 2 (DP2) (not through a manager) Communication across teams <- preferred (Fred Emery)

Style Structure DP Functional 1 (through manager) Functional 2 (through team) Cross-functional 1 (through manager) Cross-functional 2 (through team)

Value units System administrators GUI designers Project Mgt Office Community of Practice Center of Excellence Human Resources ... Delivering value to teams

Functional (DP1) Draw avalue network Functional (DP2) B C A cross-functional (DP1) D E cross-functional (DP2)

Panarchy... network of hierarchies and anarchies

Exercise: Value Network Game

The Management 3.0 Model

View #6: Improve Everything People, teams, and organizations need to improve continuously to defer failure for as long as possible.

Fitness Landscape performance system configuration

The Red Queen’s Race “It takes all the running you can do to keep in the same place.”

Three Drivers of Improvement Adaptation Looking backward, reactive, responding to change Exploration Trying things out, interactive, experience feedback Anticipation Looking forward, proactive, imagining improvement

Three Drivers of Improvement

Ruggedness of Fitness Landscapes Ideal situation Complexity catastrophe Normal situation

Most Improvement Models Look Linear

Stuck in the Fitness Landscape What now?

Nonlinear Improvement 2, 4 Kaikaku Radical improvement 1, 3, 5 Kaizen Gradual improvement

The Strategy of Mutation Disturbing the system

The Strategy of Crossover Mix multiple good performers

The Strategy of Broadcasts Copy innovations

Exercise: Improvement Strategy Game

The Management 3.0 Model Six organizational views based on complexity thinking

Agile Management Leading Teams with a Complex Mind Jurgen Appelo jurgen@noop.nl

Agile Management Workshop (outtro) Explain to the other people at your table what you will take away from this session.

© 2010 @jurgenappelo slideshare.net/jurgenappelo noop.nl contact me!

This presentation was inspired by the works of many people, and I cannot possibly list them all. Though I did my very best to attribute all authors of texts and images, and to recognize any copyrights, if you think that anything in this presentation should be changed, added or removed, please contact me at jurgen@noop.nl. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/3.0/

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