Age Of Exploration Overview

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Published on May 11, 2009

Author: tkester

Source: slideshare.net

THE AGE OF EXPLORATION 15 TH AND 16 TH CENTURY AN OVERVIEW

 

BACKGROUND- 15 TH CENTURY RISE OF NATIONISM AMONG THE NEW NATION-STATES OF EUROPE EMERGENCE OF POWERFUL NEW NATION-STATES WITH ASSERTIVE MONARCHS INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS EXPANSION OF TRADE AND BUSINESS ACTIVITY RENAISSANCE QUEST FOR KNOWLEDGE RECONQUISTA COMPLETED IN SPAIN- 1492

RISE OF NATIONISM AMONG THE NEW NATION-STATES OF EUROPE

EMERGENCE OF POWERFUL NEW NATION-STATES WITH ASSERTIVE MONARCHS

INVENTION OF THE PRINTING PRESS

EXPANSION OF TRADE AND BUSINESS ACTIVITY

RENAISSANCE QUEST FOR KNOWLEDGE

RECONQUISTA COMPLETED IN SPAIN- 1492

MOTIVATING FACTORS FOR EUROPEAN EXPANSION DESIRE TO ENHANCE NATIONAL PRESTIGE (NATIONALISM) NATIONAL WEALTH AND TERRITORY PRESTIGE FOR MONARCHS POSSIBILITY OF PERSONAL WEALTH, FAME, AND SOCIAL PRESTIGE QUEST FOR NEW GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE DESIRE TO SPREAD CHRISTIANITY INTENSIFYING INTERNATIONAL COMPETITION AMONG THE POWERFUL NATION-STATES OF EUROPE DESIRE TO FIND NEW TRADE ROUTES TO THE EAST – INCREASE PROFITS

DESIRE TO ENHANCE NATIONAL PRESTIGE (NATIONALISM)

NATIONAL WEALTH AND TERRITORY

PRESTIGE FOR MONARCHS

POSSIBILITY OF PERSONAL WEALTH, FAME, AND SOCIAL PRESTIGE

QUEST FOR NEW GEOGRAPHICAL KNOWLEDGE

DESIRE TO SPREAD CHRISTIANITY

INTENSIFYING INTERNATIONAL

COMPETITION AMONG THE POWERFUL NATION-STATES OF EUROPE

DESIRE TO FIND NEW TRADE ROUTES TO THE EAST – INCREASE PROFITS

NEW TECHNOLOGIES THAT IMPACTED EXPLORATION BETTER AND FASTER SHIP DESIGN PRINTING PRESS MORE RELIABLE MAGNETIC COMPASS THE INVENTION OF THE CLOCK ALLOWED FOR NEW NAVIGATIONAL METHODS- EVENTUALLY LONGITUDE ASTROLABE- LATITUDE NAVIGATION MORE ACCURATE MAPS GUN POWDER AND NEW WEAPONS CANNONS AND MUSKETS

BETTER AND FASTER SHIP DESIGN

PRINTING PRESS

MORE RELIABLE MAGNETIC COMPASS

THE INVENTION OF THE CLOCK

ALLOWED FOR NEW NAVIGATIONAL METHODS- EVENTUALLY LONGITUDE

ASTROLABE- LATITUDE NAVIGATION

MORE ACCURATE MAPS

GUN POWDER AND NEW WEAPONS

CANNONS AND MUSKETS

CARAVEL

 

PRINTING PRESS

ASTROLABE

NEW WEAPONS

 

 

IMPROVED COMPASS

MAJOR NATION- STATES INVOLVED IN EXPLORATION

PORTUGAL WEST AFRICA PARTS OF ASIA SOUTH AMERICA (Brazil) MAJOR EMPHASIS WAS ON TRADE GOLD SLAVE TRADE-WEST AFRICA NEW PRODUCTS AND SPICES

WEST AFRICA

PARTS OF ASIA

SOUTH AMERICA (Brazil)

MAJOR EMPHASIS WAS ON TRADE

GOLD

SLAVE TRADE-WEST AFRICA

NEW PRODUCTS AND SPICES

PRINCE HENRY THE NAVIGATOR OF PORTUGAL National policies strongly supported exploration and trade Portugal had a long tradition of navigation and trade

National policies strongly supported exploration and trade

Portugal had a long tradition of navigation and trade

SLAVE TRADE – WEST AFRICA African slaves were brought to the New World to primarily work in agriculture Portugal was the major slave trading European nation

African slaves were brought to the New World to primarily work in agriculture

Portugal was the major slave trading European nation

SPAIN CARIBBEAN ISLANDS CENTRAL AMERICA SOUTH AMERICA (EXCEPT BRAZIL) MEXICO SOUTH WEST NORTH AMERICA PHILIPPINES

CARIBBEAN ISLANDS

CENTRAL AMERICA

SOUTH AMERICA

(EXCEPT BRAZIL)

MEXICO

SOUTH WEST NORTH AMERICA

PHILIPPINES

FERDINAND AND ISABELLA OF SPAIN SUPPORTED EXPLORATION AND EXPANSION

MAJOR EMPHASIS ACCUMULATION OF GOLD AND SILVER EXPANSION OF TRADE FARMING - SUGAR PLANTATIONS SOME SLAVE TRADE – LIMITED Spain outlawed the slave trade in the 1700’s ACTIVE IN THE SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY- JESUITS MISSIONARIES ACQUISITION OF LAND- NATIONAL AND PERSONAL ENHANCE PERSONAL PRESTIGE AND SOCIAL STANDING STRICT SOCIAL HIERARCHY IN SPAIN (FEUDAL IN MANY RESPECTS)

ACCUMULATION OF GOLD AND SILVER

EXPANSION OF TRADE

FARMING - SUGAR PLANTATIONS

SOME SLAVE TRADE – LIMITED

Spain outlawed the slave trade in the 1700’s

ACTIVE IN THE SPREAD OF CHRISTIANITY-

JESUITS MISSIONARIES

ACQUISITION OF LAND-

NATIONAL AND PERSONAL

ENHANCE PERSONAL PRESTIGE AND SOCIAL STANDING

STRICT SOCIAL HIERARCHY IN SPAIN

(FEUDAL IN MANY RESPECTS)

LINE OF DEMARCATION 1493 OFFICIAL AGREEMENT THAT DIVIDED THE TERRITORIES CLAIMED BY SPAIN AND PORTUGAL IN THE NEW WORLD IMAGINARY LINE DRAWN BY POPE ALEXANDER VI LANDS EAST OF THE LINE -PORTUGAL LANDS WEST OF THE LINE -SPAIN

OFFICIAL AGREEMENT THAT DIVIDED THE TERRITORIES CLAIMED BY SPAIN AND PORTUGAL IN THE NEW WORLD

IMAGINARY LINE DRAWN BY POPE ALEXANDER VI

LANDS EAST OF THE LINE

-PORTUGAL

LANDS WEST OF THE LINE

-SPAIN

LINE OF DEMARCATION

ENGLAND EAST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA CANADA INDIA

EAST COAST OF NORTH AMERICA

CANADA

INDIA

MAJOR EMPHASIS EXPANSION OF TERRITORY TRADE NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR MIDDLE CLASS FLEEING RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION

EXPANSION OF TERRITORY

TRADE

NEW OPPORTUNITIES FOR MIDDLE CLASS

FLEEING RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION

MAJOR EUROPEAN EXPLORERS VASCO DA GAMA- first to sail around the Cape of Good Hope MAGELLAN -first voyage to circumnavigate the globe COLUMBUS -first European voyage to arrive in the New World CORTEZ -conquest of the Aztec Empire in Mexico PIZARRO -conquest of the Incan Empire in Peru BALBOA -first to see the Pacific- crossed Panama PONCE DE LEON- explored Florida CORONADO -first European to see the Grand Canyon and explore the southern US

VASCO DA GAMA- first to sail around the Cape of Good Hope

MAGELLAN -first voyage to circumnavigate the globe

COLUMBUS -first European voyage to arrive in the New World

CORTEZ -conquest of the Aztec Empire in Mexico

PIZARRO -conquest of the Incan Empire in Peru

BALBOA -first to see the Pacific- crossed Panama

PONCE DE LEON- explored Florida

CORONADO -first European to see the Grand Canyon and explore the southern US

VASCO DA GAMA- PORTUGUESE

MAGELLAN-PORTUGUESE MAGELLAN DID NOT SURVIVE THE VOYAGE OF THE 270 MEN WHO BEGAN THE VOYAGE AROUND THE GLOBE, ONLY 18 FINISHED AND RETURNED TO EUROPE

MAGELLAN DID NOT SURVIVE THE VOYAGE

OF THE 270 MEN WHO BEGAN THE VOYAGE AROUND THE GLOBE, ONLY 18 FINISHED AND RETURNED TO EUROPE

 

COLUMBUS- ITALIAN LED THREE VOYAGES TO THE NEW WORLD

CORTEZ- SPANISH

PIZARRO- SPANISH

PIZARRO-CONQUEST OF THE INCAN EMPIRE IN PERU

INCAN EMPIRE IN PERU THE ANCIENT INCAN CITY OF MACHU PICCHU

BALBOA CROSSING THE ISTHMUS OF PANAMA FIRST EUROPEAN TO CROSS FROM THE ATLANTIC TO THE PACIFIC

CROSSING THE ISTHMUS OF PANAMA

FIRST EUROPEAN TO CROSS FROM THE ATLANTIC TO THE PACIFIC

CORONADO EXPLORED THE SOUTHWEST (GRAND CANYON)

LABOR AND INDUSTRY IN THE NEW WORLD

ENCOMIENDA TRIBUTE LABOR SYSTEM – NATIVE PEOPLES WERE REQUIRED TO GIVE LABOR TO THE EUROPEAN SETTLERS

MINING SILVER MINES AT POTOSI VAST AMOUNTS OF GOLD AND SILVER WERE SENT TO SPAIN FROM THE NEW WORLD PRIMARY LABOR FORCE WAS THE INDEGENOUS POPULATION

SILVER MINES

AT POTOSI

VAST AMOUNTS OF GOLD AND SILVER WERE SENT TO SPAIN FROM THE NEW WORLD

PRIMARY LABOR FORCE WAS THE INDEGENOUS POPULATION

PLANTATIONS- SUGAR BECAME A MAJOR EXPORT CROP NATIVE PEOPLES AND AFRICAN SLAVES WORKED THE FARMS AND PLANTATIONS

15 TH AND 16 TH CENTURY ECONOMIC MODEL MERCANTILISM BASED ON THE ACCUMULATION OF GOLD AND SILVER (PRECIOUS METALS) GOLD AND SILVER WERE THE MEASURE OF WEALTH- NOT BUSINESS OR PRODUCTION THE PURPOSE OF THE ECONOMY WAS TO SERVE THE STATE TRADE WAS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON EXPORTING AND SELLING GOODS IN THE NEW COLONIES LITTLE CAPITAL INVESTMENT IN BUSINESS COLONIAL HOLDINGS WERE SEEN AS A SOURCE OF RAW MATERIALS MARKETS FOR EUROPEAN GOODS

BASED ON THE ACCUMULATION OF GOLD AND SILVER (PRECIOUS METALS)

GOLD AND SILVER WERE THE MEASURE OF WEALTH-

NOT BUSINESS OR PRODUCTION

THE PURPOSE OF THE ECONOMY WAS TO SERVE THE STATE

TRADE WAS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON EXPORTING AND SELLING GOODS IN THE NEW COLONIES

LITTLE CAPITAL INVESTMENT IN BUSINESS

COLONIAL HOLDINGS WERE SEEN AS

A SOURCE OF RAW MATERIALS

MARKETS FOR EUROPEAN GOODS

THE IMPACT OF EUROPEAN EXPANSION – AGE OF EXPLORAITON

ECONOMIC RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH AND AN INCREASE IN BUSINESS ACTIVITY VAST AMOUNTS OF GOLD AND SILVER FLOODED INTO EUROPE PRICES OF GOODS ROSE DUE TO INLFATION AND MERCANTILIST ECONOMIC POLICIES EXPANDED OPPORTUNITES FOR THE RISING MIDDLE CLASS MAJORITY OF EUROPEANS SAW LITTLE IMPROVEMENT IN THEIR STANDARD OF LIVING CAPITALISM BEGAN TO EMERGE (EXCEPTION WAS IN SPAIN)

RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH AND AN INCREASE IN BUSINESS ACTIVITY

VAST AMOUNTS OF GOLD AND SILVER FLOODED INTO EUROPE

PRICES OF GOODS ROSE DUE TO INLFATION AND MERCANTILIST ECONOMIC POLICIES

EXPANDED OPPORTUNITES FOR THE RISING MIDDLE CLASS

MAJORITY OF EUROPEANS SAW LITTLE IMPROVEMENT IN THEIR STANDARD OF LIVING

CAPITALISM BEGAN TO EMERGE

(EXCEPTION WAS IN SPAIN)

POLITICAL WESTERN EUROPE BEGAN TO DOMINATE THE GLOBE NEW LANDS WERE CLAIMED AND COLONIZED WESTERN POLITICAL MODELS WERE INSTALLED THE RIVALRY BETWEEN THE NATION-STATES OF EUROPE INTENSIFIED INTERNATIONAL TENSIONS GREW

WESTERN EUROPE BEGAN TO DOMINATE THE GLOBE

NEW LANDS WERE CLAIMED AND COLONIZED

WESTERN POLITICAL MODELS WERE INSTALLED

THE RIVALRY BETWEEN THE NATION-STATES OF EUROPE INTENSIFIED

INTERNATIONAL TENSIONS GREW

SOCIETAL SOCIAL VALUES BEGAN TO BE MORE FOCUSED ON MATERIAL WEALTH AND SOCIAL STANDING GROWING SECULAR TREND RISING MIDDLE CLASS BENIFITTED FROM NEW ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL OPPORTUNITIES POWER AND WEALTH IN THE COLONIES CAME TO BE CONCENTRATED IN THE HANDS OF A FEW SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ISSUES HAVE CONTINUED TO PLAGUE THESE REGIONS AS A RESULT OF THIS TREND

SOCIAL VALUES BEGAN TO BE MORE FOCUSED ON MATERIAL WEALTH AND SOCIAL STANDING

GROWING SECULAR TREND

RISING MIDDLE CLASS BENIFITTED FROM NEW ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL OPPORTUNITIES

POWER AND WEALTH IN THE COLONIES CAME TO BE CONCENTRATED IN THE HANDS OF A FEW

SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ISSUES HAVE CONTINUED TO PLAGUE THESE REGIONS AS A RESULT OF THIS TREND

RELIGIOUS CHRISTIANITY SPREAD ACROSS THE GLOBE THE AMERICAS PARTS OF ASIA CHRISTIAN MISSIONARIES WORKED TO CONVERT NATIVE POPULATIONS THE JESUITS WERE VERY ACTIVE STARTED MISSIONS ESTABLISHED SCHOOLS THE CATHOLIC CHURCH BECAME DOMINANT IN MANY COLONIAL REGIONS VERY OFTEN CONVERSIONS WERE FORCED AND OR COERCED; HOWEVER, MANY TRULY CONVERTED TO CHRISTIANITY CHRISTIANITY OFTEN BLENDED WITH TRADITIONAL RELIGIOUS BELIEFS AND PRACTICES SYNCRETICISM

CHRISTIANITY SPREAD ACROSS THE GLOBE

THE AMERICAS

PARTS OF ASIA

CHRISTIAN MISSIONARIES WORKED TO CONVERT NATIVE POPULATIONS

THE JESUITS WERE VERY ACTIVE

STARTED MISSIONS

ESTABLISHED SCHOOLS

THE CATHOLIC CHURCH BECAME DOMINANT IN MANY COLONIAL REGIONS

VERY OFTEN CONVERSIONS WERE FORCED AND OR COERCED; HOWEVER, MANY TRULY CONVERTED TO CHRISTIANITY

CHRISTIANITY OFTEN BLENDED WITH TRADITIONAL RELIGIOUS BELIEFS AND PRACTICES

SYNCRETICISM

GLOBAL MILLIONS OF AFRICANS WERE IMPORTED TO THE NEW WORLD AS SLAVES ANIMALS WERE BROUGHT TO THE AMERICAS HORSES AND CATTLE NEW PLANTS AND CROPS WERE EXCHANGED TOMATOES POTATOES CORN ETC.

MILLIONS OF AFRICANS WERE IMPORTED TO THE NEW WORLD AS SLAVES

ANIMALS WERE BROUGHT TO THE AMERICAS

HORSES AND CATTLE

NEW PLANTS AND CROPS WERE EXCHANGED

TOMATOES

POTATOES

CORN

ETC.

INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS NATIVE POPULATIONS IN THE NEW WORLD WERE DECIMATED ESTIMATED THAT FROM 1500-1600 THE POPULATION SHRANK FROM 20 MILLION TO 2 MILLION DISEASE AND MALNUTRITION WAR AND CONFLICT HARSH LABOR

NATIVE POPULATIONS IN THE NEW WORLD WERE DECIMATED

ESTIMATED THAT FROM 1500-1600 THE POPULATION SHRANK FROM 20 MILLION TO 2 MILLION

DISEASE AND MALNUTRITION

WAR AND CONFLICT

HARSH LABOR

INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS MIXED WITH EUROPEANS AND AFRICANS NEW CULTURAL AND RACIAL GROUPS BLENDING OF CULTURES LANGUAGE RELIGION CUSTOMS MUSIC ART

INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS MIXED WITH EUROPEANS AND AFRICANS

NEW CULTURAL AND RACIAL GROUPS

BLENDING OF CULTURES

LANGUAGE

RELIGION

CUSTOMS

MUSIC

ART

THE AGE OF EXPLORATION WAS IN MANY WAYS A REFLECTION THE IDEALS AND VALUES OF THE RENAISSANCE

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