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Information about africancolonialism

Published on January 10, 2008

Author: Taddeo


European Colonialism in South Africa and the Congo:  European Colonialism in South Africa and the Congo Definitions:  Definitions Colonialism The policy of a nation seeking to acquire, extend, or retain overseas dependencies. Imperialism The creation, maintenance, or extension of an empire, comprising many nations and areas, all controlled by the same government. Map of Colonial Africa:  Map of Colonial Africa Colonial Africa:  Colonial Africa European imperialist rivalries and ambitions culminated in the 1880’s in what The Times contemptuously called “the scramble for Africa.” Geography:  Geography Africa is a continent of many varying landscapes and biomes. Conditions range from the vast Sahara desert to the dark and mysterious Jungles to the wide open Savannas. Africa is home to the impressive Mount Kilimanjaro. Geography:  Geography Africa is home to two famous rivers, the Congo and the Nile. The Congo River is 2900 miles long and originates in Zambia. This river is instrumental in Conrad’s novel, Heart of Darkness Geography:  Geography Rainfall The Congo is located on the equator and receives an abundance of rain, 60 to 80 inches, to create a lush jungle. South Africa is more varied, some areas receive 2 inches, others receive 30 inches. Congo Economics:  Congo Economics Congo agriculture ivory rubber mining forestry South African Economics:  South African Economics South Africa agriculture (primarily livestock) forestry fishing mining manufacturing Map of French Congo:  Map of French Congo Map of Belgium Congo:  Map of Belgium Congo Congo:  Congo Diogo Cam First European explorer of the Congo area reached Congo river in 1482 found two empires (Loango & Bakongo) Paul du Chaillu French explorer First white man to see a live gorilla The Gorilla Trade:  The Gorilla Trade French Congo:  French Congo Pierre Savrognando Brazza of France Laid French claims to the right bank of the Congo River in 1879-1880 French Congo:  French Congo At the Conference of Berlin in 1885, the committee recognized the French claims to the right bank of the Congo River French organized the Equatorial Federation Designated Brazzaville the seat of government for new federation French Congo:  French Congo Gave Concession Companies right to: land, resources, and labor the products were gathered by Africans to pay their colonial poll-tax others had to transformed into direct forced labor companies purely parasitic on African life and labor French Congo:  French Congo French Congo Results Due to France’s involvement in WWII, their colonial claims in Africa were falling apart At first, offered “participation” of the black culture in government activities France granted gradual independence to its colonies, the last in 1960 Belgium Congo:  Belgium Congo King Leopold of Belgium Organized the International Association of the Congo in 1877 Sent Anglo-American explorer Henry Stanley to establish trading stations and friendly relations with the natives Belgium Congo:  Belgium Congo Conflicting Territorial Claims Conflicting claims with Portugal and France led to the Berlin Conference of 1884 Conference opened the Congo Free State, to trade with all nations and outlawed the Slave Trade Placed under the personal sovereignty of King Leopold II in July 1885 Congo Free State:  Congo Free State European exploitation of land, resources and forced labor continued unrest among the Africans and led to protests commission reported Africans victims of slave labor and other abuses King Leopold II instituted reforms which were not effective The Pygmy in the Zoo:  The Pygmy in the Zoo Ota Benga Native living in the Belgium Congo Captured by Europeans, handed over to King Leopold II Missionary-Explorer, Samuel Verner from South Carolina bought Benga Verna placed him on display at the Saint Louis Exposition in 190, and later the Bronx Zoo in New York Ota Benga:  Ota Benga Congo Free State:  Congo Free State Belgian parliament voted in 1908 to annex the Congo Free State, being known as the Belgium Congo Expansion of the industrial facilities took hold in the Belgium Congo during WWII Uranium, copper, palm-oil and rubber Congo Free State:  Congo Free State Fight for Independence Reforms initiated to prepare the Congo natives for eventual self-government Dec. 8, 1957, Africans took part in voting for elective places in township councils, winning 130 of 170 seats Upon Nationalists demands, Belgium announced a schedule of independence, granted on June 30, 1960, proclaimed the Republic of the Congo South Africa:  South Africa 1652- Dutch establish a colony on the Cape of Good Hope Intended for a stopover station and storehouse, South Africa was later colonized by Dutch farmers. These farmers were known as Boers, later called Afrikaners. Map of South Africa:  Map of South Africa South Africa:  South Africa 1795 - British occupy the Cape Region 1814 - British receive formal control Dutch paid 6 million Lira British missionaries and settlers migrated to South Africa 1822 - English declared official language 1833 - Slavery abolished South Africa:  South Africa British measures were resented by the Boers causing about 10,000 Dutch to move to other regions in South Africa. Britain captured some of these new colonies established by Dutch settlers. 1866 - Gold discovered in the new Dutch area stimulate British migration to the new colony. South Africa:  South Africa Boer War 1899 - 1902 Boers defeated by the British Dutch colonies become British 1910 - Parliament establishes control over the Union of South Africa. Apartheid:  Apartheid Racial segregation and the denial of civil rights to African blacks and to Asians 1919 - Laws passed forbidding Asians from acquiring land 1920 - Complete residential segregation 1926 - Some skilled vocations closed to blacks, lasted until 1980 Apartheid:  Apartheid Group Areas Act of 1950 - Separation of four main ethnic groups Europeans (white) Natives (black) Coloreds (part white) Asians (including Indians) Black opposition (nonviolent) grew, led to political parties being banned and many arrests and deaths Apartheid:  Apartheid 1975 - Major civil unrest (rioting, arson, and killing) 1984 - New constitution takes effect, led to gradual erosion of racial barriers

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