Published on March 3, 2009
Sharecropping Black farmers generally farmed as sharecroppers. White tenants were allowed to rent. With falling wholesale cotton crop prices, both fell into debt.
“Furnishing merchants” charged interest & higher rates for credit customers. In return, they: received a “lien” on the crop insisted that debtors grow cotton Factors 1. 1894 crop double of that in 1873, but the prices were 1/3. 2. Competition from cotton grown in Egypt, India & Brazil. 3. Renters & croppers got caught in a system of falling crop prices as worldwide supply increased. To make ends meet, they grew less of their own foodstuffsBought food & supplies at inflated prices on creditFell into a cycle of “debt peonage”:couldn’t afford to move & couldn’t climb out of debtCrop-Lien System
received a “lien” on the crop
insisted that debtors grow cotton
To make ends meet, they grew less of their own foodstuffs
Bought food & supplies at inflated prices on credit
Fell into a cycle of “debt peonage”:couldn’t afford to move & couldn’t climb out of debt
Jim Crow Swept across the South between 1890 & 1905 Consisted of 1. Racial Segregation Political Disenfranchisement Public Degradation Upheld by Supreme Court Plessyv. Ferguson (1896)“separate but equal” not a violation of 14th Amendment Williams v. Mississippi (1898) poll taxes & literacy tests do not violate 14th Amendment
Legal Underpinnings Jim Crow was undergirded by reactionary Supreme Court decisions that rolled back civil rights gains made during Reconstruction:1) Slaughterhouse Cases 2) U.S. v. Reese (1875) 3) U.S. v. Cruikshank (1875) 4) Civil Rights Cases (1883) 5) U.S. v. Santa Clara Railroad (1886) 6) Plessy v. Ferguson(1896)
Racial Segregation Laws requiring separation in public accommodations Laws that required separation in public places Corporate & individual acts of discrimination Miscegenation Laws Self-segregation by the black community
Separate But Equal?
Disenfranchisement Black voting rates in the South dropped: from 60-70% in the 1870s to less than 5% by 1910Methods of Disenfranchisement Poll Taxes Literacy Tests Residency Requirements Property Requirements Grandfather Clauses
from 60-70% in the 1870s
to less than 5% by 1910
Map of Disenfranchisement
Racial Degradation Customs that applied unequally to blacks in practice Second-class accommodations Economic Discrimination Racial Epithets Vagrancy & Debtor Laws Black Stereotypes White Supremacy Lynching
Function of Lynching Between 1882-1930:2805 confirmed lynchings across the South 87.7% Black97.2% Male Southern whites’ claimed: Lynching was only protection against black criminal behavior47.1% of victims accused of murder or nonsexual assault 33.6% accused of violating sexual norms Purpose of Lynching Take care of dangerous blacks (per Southern claims) State-Sanctioned Terror Giving Whites Leverage Over Blacks Target Black Competitors for Social, Economic or Political Power Affirm White Racial Unity & Superiority
Lynching was only protection against black criminal behavior
Take care of dangerous blacks (per Southern claims)
State-Sanctioned Terror Giving Whites Leverage Over Blacks
Target Black Competitors for Social, Economic or Political Power
Affirm White Racial Unity & Superiority
African American History Reconsidered ... Neil R. "Up from Jim Crow: Black History Enters the ... A Lay Guide To African American Oral History ...
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