Africa

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Information about Africa
Business-Finance

Published on April 14, 2008

Author: Gulkund

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  REGIONAL SLIDES Slide2:  Velingara, Senegal Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania Flood in Mozambique Parrot’s Beak, Sierra Leone/Liberia Banjul, Gambia Tripoli, Libya Midrand, South Africa Lake Victoria, Uganda Mount Kenya, Kenya Tai National Park, Cote d’Ivoire AFRICA Slide3:  AFRICA Itampolo, Madagascar Kisangani, D.R. of Congo Challawa Gorge Dam, Nigeria Lake Chad, Nigeria, Niger, Chad, Cameroon Lesotho Highlands Water Project, Lesotho Lake Nakuru, Kenya Peanut Basin, Senegal Revane, Senegal Narok, Kenya Toshka Project, Egypt Slide4:  AFRICA Africa is a region of occurrences – from tsunamis to droughts; fires to floods and meteor impacts to epidemics and pandemics Between 1975 and 2005, the population more than doubled from 335 to 751 million and is predicted to reach 1.1 billion by 2025 Total forest area of Africa is 5 683 131 km2; Africa constitutes about 17 per cent of the world's forests; Nigeria has the world’s highest deforestation rate Currently Africa’s growth rate is at 2.2 per cent a year 300 million Africans do not have access to safe water, about 313 million have no access to sanitation and over 88 million people are malnourished In Africa, agriculture provides livelihoods for about 60 per cent of the continent's active labour force, contributes to 17 per cent of Africa's total gross domestic product and accounts for 40 per cent of its foreign currency earnings Sources: FAO, Population Reference Bureau Slide5:  Meteor Impact in Velingara, Senegal Velingara Crater appears to be a meteor-impact-generated structure 1975: Image predates the agricultural development 2001: Intense agricultural systems have appeared near the center of the crater Slide6:  Disappearing Icecap of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Tanzania Africa’s highest mountain with a forest belt having rich diversity of ecosystems 1976: Glaciers covered most of the summit 2000: The glaciers had receded alarmingly Slide7:  2000: Due to severe flooding, half a million people were made homeless and 700 lost their lives 22 August 1999: Mozambique under normal conditions 1 March 2000: Mozambique under water Mozambique under Water Slide8:  Impact of Civil Wars on Guinea These images show impact of civil wars in Liberia on neighboring Guinea 1974: Image of the Parrot’s Beak region in Guinea 2002: The light green color is the result of deforestation in the “safe area” where refugees set up camp Slide9:  Images show urban sprawl and its impact 1973: Urban growth and expansion of cropland has led to decline in woodland 1999: Abuko Nature Reserve is an isolated patch of green in the 1999 image Urban Sprawl in Banjul, Gambia Slide10:  Undergoing Steady Urban Growth - Tripoli, Libya 1976: Grasslands have been converted into agricultural fields 2002: Urban expansion is especially notable (shades of grey) Slide11:  Industrializing Midrand, South Africa Rapidly transforming city due to population growth, agriculture, mining, and industry 1978: Surrounding area consists largely of agriculture 2002: High density urban development Slide12:  Impact of Invasive Species on Lake Victoria, Uganda These images show water hyacinth infestation and control of such invasive species 1995: Image shows several water-hyacinth-choked bays (yellow arrows) 2001: A visible reduction of Water Hyacinth on Lake Victoria Slide13:  Population Growth Around Lake Victoria, Uganda The population growth around 100 km buffer zone of the Lake Victoria Population growth around Lake Victoria, East Africa, is the highest in Africa Slide14:  World’s Fastest Growing Rural Area – Lake Victoria, Uganda Note: Figures for 2010 and 2015 are estimates. Slide15:  Population Growth: Lake Victoria vs. Africa Note: Figures for 2010 and 2015 are estimates. Slide16:  Diversity in Mt. Kenya Ecosystems Kenya These images show high diversity in ecosystems and species 2000: The entire forest belt of Mount Kenya was gazetted as National Reserve 2002: The image shows significant improvement in the state of conservation of forests Slide17:  These images show deforestation rate in the area, believed to be one of the highest in the world 1988: Shows destruction of small forest fragments 2002: The lighter green strip bisecting the images is the result of extensive deforestation and intensive cultivation Tai National Park, Côte d’Ivoire – site of world’s highest deforestation rate Slide18:  Disappearing Forests in Itampolo, Madagascar These images show the changes in narrow coastal plain 1973: Shows heavily forested area home to unique and rare plant and animal species 2001: Burning of forest to clear land for dry rice cultivation, has led to disappearance of forest area (seen as tan) Slide19:  Steady Deforestation in Kisangani Democratic Republic of Congo These images show slow but steady deforestation of dense forest cover 1975: The city and surrounding areas are clearly visible 2001: The cleared area around the city has grown and become consolidated, spreading along rivers and roads Slide20:  Impact of Challawa Gorge Dam Nigeria These images show the area before and after construction of the dam 1990: Image of the area before the completion of the dam in 1993 1999: Impact of flooding upstream from the dam; colour of the water in the flooded area indicates high sediments Slide21:  Shrinking Lake Chad shared by Nigeria, Niger, Chad and Cameroon Persistent drought has shrunk the lake to about a tenth of its former size 1972: Larger lake surface area is visible in this image 2001: Impact of drought displays a shrunken lake, comparatively much smaller surface area than in 1972 image Slide22:  These images show the area before and after construction of Katse dam 1989: Image of the area before the completion of the dam in 1995 2001: Katse dam created an enormous reservoir, the extent of which can clearly be seen in this image Skepticism surrounding Lesotho Highland Water Project in South Africa Slide23:  Land Cover Degradation Around Lake Nakuru, Kenya These images show the land cover degradation in the lake’s catchment 1973: The area that hosts the world’s largest concentration of flamingos 2000: Excision of forest in the Eastern Mau Forest Reserve (white lines) will most likely lead to disappearance of upper catchment forest cover Slide24:  Battle between Forests vs. Farmlands Peanut Basin, Senegal Shows growing patchwork of savannas (greenish patches) 1979: Image shows farmland before being abandoned 1999: Hundreds of villages are scattered throughout the region to enjoy fallow and grazing lands Slide25:  Changing Landscape in Ravene, Senegal Images show impact of drought and over-grazing on the woody vegetation 1965: Ancient valleys cutting through gravelly plateaus, with extensive bushland vegetation 1999: The badland phenomenon spread extensively along the shallow valley slopes Slide26:  Converted Lands of Narok, Kenya These images show the conversion of grasslands into agricultural fields 1975: The agricultural expansion is just beginning 2000: This image shows the degree to which farmlands have expanded Slide27:  These images show the desert area transformed into vegetable plots 1984-87: Image of the area before the desert reclamation project began in mid-1990s n Toshka Lakes: Farming the Desert Egypt 2000: Four new lakes are visible in this image, faint blue-green areas around the lakes are newly created agricultural lands Slide28:  Toshka Lakes: Farming the Desert Egypt 2005: New fields are clearly visible in the image Slide29:  Lake Kivu, Congo/Rwanda Lake Alaotra, Madagascar Lake Al Wahda, Morocco Lake Cahora Basa, Mozambique Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe Lake Djoudj, Senegal Lake Ichkeul, Tunisia Lake Manantali, Mali Lake Sibaya, South Africa Songor Lagoon, Ghana Lake Tonga, Algeria AFRICA’S LAKES Slide30:  AFRICA’S LAKES According to the WORLDLAKE database, there are 677 lakes in Africa There are 15 natural lakes that cross the political boundaries of two or more countries in Africa Lake Chad’s surface area has shrunk by 95 per cent over the past 35 years There are 60 transboundary river basins in Africa, covering over 63 per cent of the continent’s land area Sources: UNEP 2006 Uncontrolled damming, the withdrawal of water for irrigation, and climate variability are the major causes of drying up of Lake Tonga in Algeria Population growth around Lake Victoria, the continent’s largest lake, is significantly higher than the rest of Africa Some lakes in central Africa have become known as “killer lakes,” because of the catastrophic natural events that have occurred in their vicinity Slide31:  Lake Kivu-one of Africa’s “killer lakes” Congo/Rwanda These images show dramatic changes before and after the eruption of Mt. Nyiragongo in 2002 2001: Before the January 2002 eruption 2003: Shows the track of the lava flow Slide32:  Severe flooding around Lake Alaotra Madagascar These images show flooding over a wide area Flooding destroys significant portion of crops Intensive rice irrigation occurs at the western part of the lake (yellow arrows) Slide33:  Impact of Al Wahda reservoir in Morocco These images illustrate the change in land cover 1987: The area before the construction of dams 2001: The area after the construction of 110 large dams Slide34:  Cahora Basa – Mozambique’s largest dam on the Zambezi River These images show spectacular changes in the Zambezi riverine system 1972: The Zambezi River a few years before the dam construction 1999: This image shows part of the enormous dam and the lake Slide35:  Invasive water weeds in Lake Chivero, Zimbabwe These images show overall reduction in water weeds 1989: Weeds show up as green strands along the edges of the lake 2000: This image shows that water weeds remains a persistent problem Slide36:  Rejuvenation of the Djoudj Sanctuary in Senegal These images show the Djoudj Sanctuary before and after the construction of the Diama Dam 1979: Shows the impact of drought on the Djoudj Sanctuary 1999: Rejuvenation of the Sanctuary wetlands due to significant floods Slide37:  Ecological changes around Lake Ichkeul, Tunisia These images show the impact of damming 1972: Shows the three feeder rivers supplying the lake before they were dammed 2000: Shows the location of the dams (yellow arrows) Slide38:  Agricultural expansion around Lake Manantali, Mali These images show the expansion of irrigated agriculture 1977: Shows the original meandering nature of the Bafing River 1999: Shows the expanded irrigated land and increase in lake water quantity Slide39:  Lake Sibaya – wetland of international important in South Africa These images show increase in cultivation around the lake 1991: Lakeshore is home to the only known species of a rare climbing orchid 2001: The yellow arrows vividly show the increase of cultivation of marginal lands around the lake Slide40:  Reduction in the surface area of Songor Lagoon, Ghana These images show a conspicuous reduction in the surface area 1990: Shows major lagoon system associated with Volta river estuary 2000: This image shows water area dramatically reduced, exposing bare ground Slide41:  Changes in and around Lake Tonga Algeria These images show the changes brought about by damming of the feeder rivers 1988: Lake Tonga before the damming of feeder rivers 2000: Damming increased irrigation and drastically reduced the volume of water entering the lake Slide42:  AFRICA One Planet Many People: Atlas of Our Changing Environment Thank You! Free Downloads: www.na.unep.net Purchase: www.Earthprint.com

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