administration under the mughals

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Information about administration under the mughals

Published on September 13, 2010

Author: pranavam


Slide 1: Administration & Society under the Mughals Slide 2: Administration An efficient system of administration was introduced. Centralized system of administration The emperor’s word was law. Slide 3: Administration during Akbar’s rule Divided empire into subas or provinces Each suba had… governor diwan bakshi qazi waqya nawis or a Writer of records Slide 4: Show of Power Emperors liked to project their power to everyone. Emperors like Akbar had to be addressed as ‘Alampanah’ or ‘Jahanpanah’. Imperial seals were used instead of signatures on ‘farmans’ and other royal documents. Some emperors made huge thrones like Shah Jahan, who made a peacock throne. Slide 5: Shah Jahan’s Peacock throne Slide 6: Mansabdari System Akbar organised his nobility and army into the mansabdari system. Each officer- civilian as well as army officer was given a rank called ‘mansab’. The rank was divided into two- ‘zat’ and ‘sawar’. The ‘zat’ rank fixed the person’s status and income. Slide 7: Mansabdari System The ‘sawar’ rank fixed the number of cavalrymen or sawars he had to maintain, eg 3,000 sawars meant he had to maintain 3,000 cavalrymen. The ‘mansabdar’ were loyal officials through whom the emperor controlled the empire. The ‘mansabdar’ was given a jagir and not cash salaries. Slide 8: Mansabdari System The revenue from the jagir or landed estate became the mansabdar’s income. The ‘mansabdar’ appointed jamindars for the purpose of collecting revenue. The ‘mansabdar’ was personally chosen by the emperor and could be promoted, demoted or transferred. The ‘mansabdar’ had to attend the court and had to perform guard duty once a week. Slide 9: Mughal Army Slide 10: Mughal Army The mughal army consisted of cavalry, infantry, artillery and elephants. A large part of the cavalry was provided by the mansabdars and some by the rulers who had submitted to the emperor such as Rajputs. The ‘ahadis’ were specially chosen forces loyal only to the emperor. Slide 11: Revenue System Land revenue or ‘kharaj’ was the chief source of income. Money was also raised through custom duties, sales tax and tax on property. In the khalisa land, the surveyor with the help of the patwari told the peasants how much tax was to be paid. The muqaddam collected the tax in cash or kind after harvest and submitted it to the state treasury. Slide 12: Revenue System Where land was given as a jagir to the mansabdar, tax was collected by the zamindar. The zamindar, patwari and the muqaddam were paid a salary. They got a discount on land tax. Slide 13: Economic & Social Condition India was wealthy and prosperous. Differences between and their lifestyles of people on the basis of occupations. Slide 14: Village Life Generally the landless peasants had enough to eat but during famines they had to borrow money form moneylenders. The landed peasants grew a variety of crops and paid their revenue. The zamindars owned a lot of land and employed many labourers. Slide 15: Village Life Children received education in temples, mosques or under the shade of a tree. Girls took lessons at home. They learnt how to cook, sew and manage the house. Girls from rich families had special tutors. All festivals were celebrated in the villages. Slide 16: Women of the Royal family Nur Jahan gained a lot of power during her husband’s rule. Nur Jahan minted coins in her name, which was the first time a woman was allowed to do this. Slide 17: Women of the Royal family Princesses spent a lot of time in the construction of buildings. Jahanara, daughter of Shah Jahan was educated and wrote poetry. She was known as Begum Sahib. Zeb-un-Nisa, Aurangzeb’s daughter built a literary academy and was an accomplished singer.

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