Published on June 28, 2016
1. 1 Webinar - Adding to Additive Manufacturing with Particle Size and Shape Analysis Many Additive Manufacturing (3D printing) techniques such as selective laser sintering (SLS) and selective laser melting (SLM) use particle powders as a raw material. The particle size and shape have a strong effect on the manufacturing result. Therefore it is important for manufacturers and suppliers to control the particle size and shape of their powders used in this process. In order to control particle size and shape these parameters must be measured. We discuss how to use the CAMSIZER technology to improve additive manufacturing results by monitoring the incoming particles. Value of Dynamic Image Analysis in 3D additive manufacturing How does Dynamic Image Analysis work? Why two cameras can control and monitor dust and oversize? Check the production of 3D printing powders Check the incoming raw material and the recycled powder for reuse
2. CAMSIZER XT 3D Printing Additive Manufacturing June 23 of 2016 Jeff Bodycomb HORIBA Scientific Gert Beckmann Retsch Technology GmbH
3. 4 Classification Technology Description Materials Developers (Country) Binder Jetting 3D Printing Ink-Jetting S-Print M-Print Creates objects by depositing a binding agent to join powdered material. Metal, Polymer, Ceramic ExOne (USA) VoxelJet (Germany) 3D Systems (USA) Direct Energy Deposition Direct Metal Deposition Laser Deposition Laser Consolidation Electron Beam Direct Melting Builds parts by using focused thermal energy to fuse materials as they are deposited on a substrate. Metal powder, Metal wire DV3D (USA) NRC-IMI (Canada) Irepa Laser (France) Trumpf (Germany) Sciaky (USA) Material Extrusion Fused Deposition Modelling Creates objects by dispensing material through a nozzle to build layers. Polymer Stratasys (USA) Delta Micro Factory (China) 3D Systems (USA) Material Jetting Polyjet Ink-Jetting Thermojet Builds parts by depositing small droplets of build material, which are then cured by exposure to light. Photo-polymer, Wax Stratasys (USA) LUXeXcel (Netherlands) 3D Systems (USA) Powder Bed Fusion Direct Metal Laser Sintering Selective Laser Melting Electron Beam Melting Selective Laser Sintering Creates objects by using thermal energy to fuse regions of a powder bed. Metal, Polymer, Ceramic EOS (Germany), Renishaw (UK) Phenix Systems (France) Matsuna Machinery (Japan) ARCAM (Sweden) 3D Systems (USA) Sheet Lamination Ultrasonic Consolidation Laminated Object Manufacture Builds parts by trimming sheets of material and binding them together in layers. Hybrids, Metallic, Ceramic Fabrisonic (USA) CAM-LEM (USA) VAT Photopoly- merisation Stereolithography Digital Light Processing Builds parts by using light to selectively cure layers of material in a vat of photopolymer. Photo-polymer, Ceramic 3D Systems (USA) EnvisionTEC (Germany) DWS Srl (Italy) Lithoz (Austria) Processes
4. 5 Type Technologies Materials Extrusion Fused deposition modeling (FDM) or Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) Thermoplastics, Eutectic metals, Edible materials, Rubbers, Modeling clay, Plasticine, Metal clay (including Precious Metal Clay) Robocasting or Direct Ink Writing (DIW) Ceramic materials, Metal alloy, Cermet, Metal matrix composite, Ceramic matrix composite Light polymerized Stereolithography (SLA) Photopolymer Digital Light Processing (DLP) Photopolymer Powder Bed Powder bed and inkjet head 3D Printing (3DP) Almost any metal alloy, Powdered polymers, Plaster Electron-Beam Melting (EBM) Almost any metal alloy including Titanium alloys Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Titanium alloys, Cobalt Chrome alloys, Stainless Steel, Aluminium Selective Heat Sintering (SHS) Thermoplastic powder Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) Thermoplastics, Metal powders, Ceramic powders Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) Almost any metal alloy Laminated Laminated Object Manufacturing (LOM) Paper, Metal foil, Plastic film Powder Fed Directed Energy Deposition Almost any metal alloy Wire Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) Almost any metal alloy Processes
5. Example of 3D Printing 6
6. Example for 3D printing 7© Retsch Technology GmbH
7. 3D Printing (Plastic and Metal Powder) Applications Plastic, Ceramic & Metal Powder 8© Retsch Technology GmbH Automotive, Airospace Industry, Fast Prototyping => small numbers => individual modifications Paper => Plastics => Metal Laser Melting (3D Metal Printing) Vacuum or Nylon Casting
8. Product Examples (3D Printing Powders) 9© Retsch Technology GmbH The world’s first 3D printed metal gun is a beautiful .45 caliber M1911 pistol The world’s first 3D printed dress
9. 3D Printing of Metal Construstions 10© Retsch Technology GmbH 3D printing with metal: The final frontier of additive manufacturing
10. CAMSIZER XT 3D Printing & Rapid Prototyping 11© Retsch Technology GmbH
11. 12© Retsch Technology GmbH CAMSIZER XT 3D Printing & Rapid Prototyping Now
12. 13© Retsch Technology GmbH CAMSIZER XT 3D Printing & Rapid Prototyping Future ? Present !
13. Content Instrument 1. Measurement principle 2. Results Applications 3. Markets and applications 4. Alternative analysis methods 14© Retsch Technology GmbH
14. CCD - Basic CCD - Zoom Detection of particles One pixel is element of a projection when at least half of the pixel is covered. Measurement principle Resolution
15. Measurement principle (CAMSIZER XT) 16© Retsch Technology GmbH Advanced, patented optics design Sample flow Light source 2 Light source 1 Basic Camera Zoom Camera
16. 17© Retsch Technology GmbH Advanced, patented optics design Sample flow Light source 2 Light source 1 Basic Camera Zoom Camera Measurement principle (CAMSIZER XT)
17. 18© Retsch Technology GmbH Advanced, patented optics design Sample flow Light source 2 Light source 1 Basic Camera Zoom Camera Measurement principle (CAMSIZER XT)
18. 19© Retsch Technology GmbH Advanced, patented optics design Sample flow Light source 2 Light source 1 Basic Camera Zoom Camera Measurement principle (CAMSIZER XT)
19. Measurement Results 20© Retsch Technology GmbH What is the size of this particle?
20. Particle Size 21© Retsch Technology GmbH xcmin xc min “width” A A‘ = A xarea “diameter over projection surface” xarea “length” xFe max xFemax CAMSIZER results are compatible with sieve analysis
21. Results X-Jet 22© Retsch Technology GmbH Better Size Analysis due to Understanding of Particle Shape: Length, Width, Average Diameter
22. 23© Retsch Technology GmbH • Breadth-/ Length-Ratio • Roundness • Symmetry • Convexity xFe max xc min A r1 r2 C A convex A real Particle Shape (CAMSIZER and CAMSIZER XT) P
23. 24© Retsch Technology GmbH Roundness with Krumbein‘s Chart
24. 25© Retsch Technology GmbH Manual Roundness Measurement
25. © Retsch Technology GmbH 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 Correlation RDNS_C - Roundness 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 Roundness(RDNS_CCAMSIZER) Roundness (visual ISO procedure) R² = 0.9694
26. 27© Retsch Technology GmbH Powdered Metal Sorting metals by Roundness (“Willingness” to roll)
27. Reports and Warnings 28© Retsch Technology GmbH
28. 29© Retsch Technology GmbH Optical Process Control Analysis for Size and Shape
29. Dispersion Modules (CAMSIZER XT) 30© Retsch Technology GmbH Particle Size Range from 1µm to 3mm Three modes in 2 modules (dry and wet): X-Fall: for dry and free flowing particles X-Jet: air pressure dispersion for fine and agglomerated powders X-Flow: wet module for emulsions and suspensions, with ultrasonic probe, optional for organic solvents
30. Modular "X-Change" Concept 31© Retsch Technology GmbH Flexible configuration for a wide application range simple • safe • fast
31. Dispersion Modules (CAMSIZER XT) 32© Retsch Technology GmbH Dry Dispersion Inserts (2 Plug-In Options) X- Fall (Gravity dispersion) X-Jet (Air pressure dispersion)
32. Advantages fast repeatable and reproducible maintenance free and robust precise 33© Retsch Technology GmbH
33. Dispersion Modules (CAMSIZER XT) 34© Retsch Technology GmbH Dry Dispersion with X-Jet Measurement range from 1 µm to 3 mm For fine powders and agglomerating materials Dry Dispersion by pressurized air
34. Measurement principle – X-Jet 35© Retsch Technology GmbH
35. Results 36© Retsch Technology GmbH For agglomerating powders - Metal powder - Coal dust - Wheat flour Particle size
36. Lower Measurement Range 37© Retsch Technology GmbH
37. 38© Retsch Technology GmbH Reproducibility of Metal Powder Results Customer had sent 30 different samples to Retsch Technology but some of these samples were the same (red, blue and green). We found out the groups and showed to the customer the good reproducibility of CAMSIZER XT (and proofed his sample splitting as well) xc_min [µm]10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Q3 [%] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 q3 [%/µm] Powder-#8-X-Jet-30kPa_vvv_xc_min_Mv.rdf Powder-#8-X-Jet-30kPa_TP1_vvv_xc_min_001.rdf Powder-#8-X-Jet-30kPa_TP2_vvv_xc_min_002.rdf Powder-#13-X-Jet-30kPa_TP1_vvv_xc_min_001.rdf Powder-#13-X-Jet-30kPa_TP2_vvv_xc_min_002.rdf Powder-#13-X-Jet-30kPa_vvv_xc_min_Mv.rdf Powder-#27-X-Jet-30kPa_TP1_vvv_xc_min_001.rdf Powder-#27-X-Jet-30kPa_TP2_vvv_xc_min_002.rdf Powder-#27-X-Jet-30kPa_vvv_xc_min_Mv.rdf
38. CAMSIZER XT for Metal Powders 39© Retsch Technology GmbH
39. CAMSIZER XT for Metal Powders 40© Retsch Technology GmbH Metal Powder Reproducibility and Instrument-to-Instrument agreement Δ = 0.1µm – 0.3µm
40. Features of the CAMSIZER® 41© Retsch Technology GmbH Calibration Reticule - Traceble to an International Standard - Covering the Whole Measurement Range - Instrument to Instrument Agreement Static Calibration
41. 42© Retsch Technology GmbH Features of the CAMSIZER XT Calibration Reticule Static Calibration
42. 43© Retsch Technology GmbH Features of the CAMSIZER XT Calibration Reticule Static Calibration
43. Physical Dynamic Partical Standards 44© Retsch Technology GmbH Whitehouse Glass Bead Standard XX030 for X-Dry and X-Fall Dynamic Calibration
44. Size Range and Sieve Correlation 45© Retsch Technology GmbH
45. System Comparison 46© Retsch Technology GmbH
46. 47© Retsch Technology GmbH Particle size Results X-Flow Particle Size Distribution 2.5µm + 5µm, Wet Dispersion
47. xc_min [µm]4 6 8 10 12 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 q3 [%/µm] Duke10um12um_gl0_xc_min_009.rdf Duke10um12um_gl0_xc_min_010.rdf Duke10um12um_gl0_xc_min_011.rdf Duke10um_xc_min_002.rdf Duke10um_xc_min_003.rdf Duke10um_xc_min_004.rdf 48© Retsch Technology GmbH Particle size Results X-Flow (Calibration) Particle Size Distribution 10µm + 12µm, Wet Dispersion
48. Content 49© Retsch Technology GmbH Instrument 1. Measurement principle 2. Results Applications 3. Markets and applications 4. Alternative analysis methods
49. • Digital image processing with patented 2-camera system (ISO 13322-2) • Wide dynamic range from 1µm to > 3mm • Newly developed optical system with ultra bright LEDs for sharp contrasts and large depth of focus • Short analysis time 1 – 3 minutes for few million particles • Safe detection of oversized and undersized • Modules for dry and wet dispersion • Analysis results compatible to sieve analysis Advantages 50© Retsch Technology GmbH
50. Content 51© Retsch Technology GmbH Instrument 1. Measurement principle 2. Results Applications 3. Markets and applications 4. Alternative analysis methods
51. • Industrial labs • Research institutes • Production control • Quality control for final products • Quality control of incoming raw materials • Immediate control and optimisation of production processes Application areas 52© Retsch Technology GmbH
52. Application areas 53© Retsch Technology GmbH Typical sample materials • Pharmaceutical powders, granules or small pellets • Pulverized and granulated food, spices • Detergents, enzymes, fillers for washing powders • Metal or ore powders • Abrasives (medium and small grit) • Sand and cement, building materials, limestone • Fibres
53. Content 54© Retsch Technology GmbH Instrument 1. Measurement principle 2. Results Applications 3. Markets and applications 4. Alternative analysis methods
54. Alternative Methods 55© Retsch Technology GmbH
55. Sieving CAMSIZER XT Size range 10µm - 63mm 1µm – 3mm Shape analysis no yes Detection of oversized particles each particle few big particles from < 0.1% Vol. Resolution poor high resolution Multi-modal distributions poor size resolution better resolution Repeatability and lab-to-lab comparison „difficult“ superior Comparison with sieving identical results possible Handling simple, but time consuming easy and fast Sieving CAMSIZER XT 56© Retsch Technology GmbH
56. Results X-Jet 57© Retsch Technology GmbH Identical results to sieve analysis xc_min [mm]0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.70 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Q3 [%] Ca-hydrogenphosphate_100kPa-T38567-vvv_xc_min_005.rdf Ca-hydrogenphosphate_100kPa-T38567-vvv_xc_min_003.rdf Ca-hydrogenphosphate_100kPa-T38567-vvv_xc_min_004.rdf T38567-Sieve-Analysis-Customer-Site.ref
57. 58© Retsch Technology GmbH Sieving CAMSIZER XT Spheroidal Particles x [µm]200 400 600 800 1000 12000 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Passing [%] Sample-1__xc_min_002.rdf Sample-1__xc_min_001.rdf Sieving-Nominal-S1.ref xc min =∅ = d = Xc min particle-width
58. 59© Retsch Technology GmbH Sieving CAMSIZER XT Influence of Mesh Width 1400µm 1400µm 1429.5µm Mesh sizes warp Mesh sizes weft Nominal Sieve Mesh = 1400µm Real Sieve Mesh >1400 = 1455 only beads < 1400µm will pass the sieve mesh beads > 1400µm will not pass the sieve mesh Upper mesh size range ~1455µm sieve No. 03033531 (nominal 1400µm) Theory: Reality:
59. 60© Retsch Technology GmbH Sieving CAMSIZER XT Real Mesh Width x [µm]200 400 600 800 1000 12000 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Passing [%] Sample-1__xc_min_002.rdf Sieving-upper-range-S1.ref
60. 61© Retsch Technology GmbH Sample Reproducibility of CAMSIZER XT measurements of xc min (red, and blue) with Basic + Zoom or Zoom only, Retsch sieve result (real mesh sizes from optical inspection) AS 200 TAB (*black), Customer nominal sieve results (*blue) Results of Metal Powder xc_min [µm]10 20 30 40 500 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Q3 [%] Solder_Sample_G_xc_min_001.rdf Solder_Sample_G_xc_min_002.rdf Solder_Sample_G_xc_min_003.rdf Tin-Solder_Sample_G__xc_min_001.rdf Tin-Solder_Sample_G__xc_min_002.rdf Tin-Solder_Sample_G__xc_min_003.rdf RT1763 Sieve-Analysis G customer-site-nominal.ref RT1763 Sieve-Analysis_G_AS200tap_real-sizes.ref
61. Applications: Metal powders Material: Cu 62© Retsch Technology GmbH Identical results to the sieve analysis xc_min [mm]0.04 0.1 0.2 0.4 1 2 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Q3 [%] Automatic reports, many languages available
62. Comparison of Methods: Sieving • robust and industrial-suited • easy handling • references available from user Advantages Disadvantages • high amount of time and work • low resolution, small number of investigatable classes • limited sample amount (overloading is critical) • Difference between nominal and real sizes Competing Measuring Methods Worn out sieves
63. 64© Retsch Technology GmbH F2 F1 1. Move 2. Sliding friction 3. Static friction xc_min [mm]0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Q3 [%] 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 q3 [%/m m] 5454_PT100_xc_min_008.rdf 5454_random_xc_m in_009.rdf 5454_Huntsman-sieve.ref Round particles with low density are captured without rerelease Sieving Problems (here Blinding and Overloading)
64. Test Sieves that comply with standards If sieve analysis is used for quality control within the context of DIN EN ISO 9000:2000 then both the sieve shaker and the test sieves must be subjected to test agent monitoring. w = mesh width d = wire diameter Tolerance for mean value (Y): The mean value of the mesh width must not differ from the nominal value w by more than the tolerance ± Y. w w Ø d Ød Technical requirements & testing according to ISO 3310
65. CAMSIZER XT finding Fibers in Beads 66© Retsch Technology GmbH Finding the Fibers
66. 67© Retsch Technology GmbH Finding the Fibers CAMSIZER XT finding Fibers in Beads
67. CAMSIZER XT Laser sizer 68© Retsch Technology GmbH Laser sizer CAMSIZER XT Size range down to 20nm > 1µm Shape analysis no yes Detection of oversized particles percent range few big particles < 0.1% Vol. Resolution good for fines better resolution for large particles Multi-modal distributions more difficult better volume model, better size resolution Comparison with sieving not possible identical results Information content black box + mathematics pictures
68. CAMSIZER XT Optical Microscope 69© Retsch Technology GmbH Microscope CAMSIZER XT Size range 0.5 – 500 µm 1 µm -3 mm Shape analysis yes superior image quality yes Detection of oversized particles no few big particles < 0.1% Vol. Resolution better good Statistics Low, few 1,000 particles million particles/minute Comparison with sieving not possible identical results possible Handling time consuming fast Representative Sample Amounts difficult, only narrow distributions yes, small and large amounts
69. 70© Retsch Technology GmbH CAMSIZER XT Optical Microscope
70. 71© Retsch Technology GmbH xc_min [µm]200 400 600 800 10000 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Q3 [%] PPO-646_xc_min_001.rdf RT1766_ppo646_sieve.ref CAMSIZER XT Optical Microscope
71. 72© Retsch Technology GmbH CAMSIZER XT CAMSIZER CAMSIZER CAMSIZER XT Size range 30 µm – 30mm 1 µm -3 mm Shape analysis yes yes Detection of oversized particles yes yes Images / second 60 277 Resolution CCD-Cameras 790,000 1,300,000 Comparison with sieving identical results possible identical results possible Handling fast fast Representative Sample Amounts yes, small and large amounts yes, small and large amounts
72. 73© Retsch Technology GmbH Comparison of CAMSIZER and CAMSIZER XT Results of CAMSIZER (black) and CAMSIZER-XT (red) of sample #30 CAMSIZER distribution is wider, the results are not that accurate and repeatable as results from CAMSIZER XT. Results of Metal Powder xc_min [µm]15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Q3 [%] XT-with-X-Jet-#30-Einzel-250kPa_xc_min_005.rdf XT-with-X-Jet-#30-Einzel-250kPa_xc_min_006.rdf XT-with-X-Jet-#30-Einzel-250kPa_xc_min_007.rdf XT-with-X-Jet-#30-Einzel-250kPa_xc_min_008.rdf #30-classic-CAMSIZER-Repeatability-xc_min_013.rdf #30-classic-CAMSIZER-Repeatability-xc_min_014.rdf #30-classic-CAMSIZER-Repeatability-xc_min_015.rdf #30-classic-CAMSIZER-Repeatability-xc_min_Mv.rdf
73. CAMSIZER XT for 3D Printing Powders 74© Retsch Technology GmbH • Unique, almost 100% agreement with sieve results (particle width = xc min) • Reliable detection of oversized and undersized particles down to 0.01% • Fast: typically 1-3 minutes per measurement • Flexible dispersion options (air pressure, liquid, free fall) • Shape analysis (roundness, aspect ratio, circularity, etc.) • Surface area calculation • Independent measurement of particle length and width provides more details • CAMSIZER’s “equivalent circle area” (xarea) to compare with laser particle sizers • Very repeatable and reproducible results, with excellent instrument-to-instrument agreement • Very high resolution (excellent capability to detect multimodal distributions!) • Easy to operate, results independent from operators Applications Plastic, Ceramic & Metal Powder
74. Thank you for your attention!
Adding to Additive Manufacturing With Particle Size and Shape. Back to Top. Share This Page. Copyright © 2016 Additive Manufacturing Today. All rights ...
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