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Actuation and Control System

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Information about Actuation and Control System
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Published on January 4, 2008

Author: Junyo

Source: authorstream.com

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Actuation and Control System for Human Oriented Robots:  Actuation and Control System for Human Oriented Robots Т.Тiankov, D.Gotseva*, T.Petrov*, V.Latkovski, D. Chakarov, К.Kostadinov Institute of Mechanics-BAS, 1113 Sofia, “Acad.G.Bonchev” Str.,Bl.4 *Technical University of Sofia, 1000 Sofia, Kliment Ohridski St.,8 Outline:  Outline Introduction Actuators and control system PC communication and control Implementation of the system on robotized devices Conclusion 1.Introduction(1/1):  1.Introduction(1/1) A big number of scientific publications and scientific congregations and events in recent years form a new scientific area dedicated to the mutual interaction “man-robot” [1-2]. This is an interdisciplinary scientific field that includes robotics, cognition sciences, physiology and sociology. Variable software and hardware problems must be solved before human and robots to begin existing together. Problems must be solved with the structure, functions and the intellect of the robots in order to be implemented in the human environment. These robots have to meet the safety requirements except the traditional requirements for performance. 1.Introduction(1/2):  1.Introduction(1/2) Currently, only electro-magnetic, hydraulic, and pneumatic actuators have the power and torque capabilities required for robotic manipulation tasks. Unfortunately, all of these actuation methods have serious deficiencies, limiting their inherent safety and/or performance characteristics [3]. Primarily as a result of the impedance limitations of pneumatic and hydraulic actuators, many current human-oriented research efforts use manipulation devices that employ electromagnetic actuation as their primary torque source. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the possible solutions of electromagnetic actuation, to choose the suitable actuators and motor controllers for human oriented devices. The article also presents the chosen control schemes, control software and implementation of these developments on human oriented robotized devices. 2. Actuators and control system.(2/1):  2. Actuators and control system.(2/1) For some human-oriented applications, there is a choice between using servomotors and stepping motors. Both types of motors offer similar opportunities for precise positioning, but they differ in a number of ways. Servomotors require analog feedback control systems of some type. Stepping motors can be viewed as electric motors without commutators [7]. Typically, all windings in the motor are part of the stator, and the rotor is either a permanent magnet or, a toothed block of some magnetically soft material. All of the commutation must be handled externally by the motor controller, and typically, the motors and controllers are designed so that the motor may be held in any fixed position as well as being rotated one way or the other. Stepping motors can be used in simple open-loop control systems; these are generally adequate for systems that operate at low accelerations as human oriented devices. 2. Actuators and control system.(2/2):  2. Actuators and control system.(2/2) In this work a variant of computer controlled drive system is chosen. Here the drive motors are step motors with 1,8o step resolution. The control system consists of 4 drivers, forming the impulses with desired phase and power. The block scheme of this control system is presented on Fig.1. Fig.1. Block scheme of computer controlled system. 3.1 PC communication and control. :  3.1 PC communication and control. The The IBM-PC's parallel printer port for communication with the robotized system is used. The PC parallel port adapter is specifically designed to attach printers with a parallel port interface, but it can be used as a general input/output port for any device or application that matches its input/output capabilities. It has 12 TTL-buffer output points, which are latched and can be written and read under program control using the processor In or Out instruction. The adapter also has five steady-state input points that may be read using the processor instruction. 3.2 PC communication and control. :  3.2 PC communication and control. The original IBM-PC's parallel printer port (Fig. 3) has a total of 12 digital outputs and 5 digital inputs: - 8 output pins accessed via the DATA Port; - 5 input pins (one inverted) accessed via the STATUS Port; - 4 output pins (three inverted) accessed via the CONTROL Port - The remaining 8 pins are grounded. Fig. 3: 25-way Female D-Type Connector 3.3 PC communication and control. :  3.3 PC communication and control. Via parallel port [LPT] impulse series are fed to each of the drivers time independently. The set of the 3 independent signals to each of the drivers are enable [E], direction [R/D] and impulse series, defining the rotation speed [P]. Drivers are with 48V DC supply via AC/DC converter. The general view of the control system is shown on Fig.2. Fig.2. Control system – general view. 3.4. PC communication and control. :  3.4. PC communication and control. For realization of the system mentioned above we created C++ Builder windows based application software. To realize parallel control of step motors are created four threads (fig. 4). Every of them is responsible for step motors actuation. Fig. 4: Functional block scheme 4. Implementation of the system on robotized devices.(4/1):  4. Implementation of the system on robotized devices.(4/1) The developed system is utilized for drive and control of an experimental robot shown on Fig.6. used for laboratory and educational purposes. Fig.6. Experimental robot with 4 controlled axes. 4. Implementation of the system on robotized devices.(4/2):  4. Implementation of the system on robotized devices.(4/2) The presented robot has anthropomorphic structure with 3 degrees of freedom in regional structure. To keep the vertical orientation of the end-effector a parallelogram is used. The controlled axes are 4, three of them in regional structure and one in the gripper. Those 4 axes as it is mentioned are driven by 4 phase step motors. The regional robot system possess closed structure including three driving modules with step motors and drive screws. The driving modules in the regional robot system are attached in parallel to the base sequential anthropomorphic chain [4]. The griper is actuated through one motor by means of core. The control of the robot is based on the developed C++ Builder windows based application software, whose main window screenshot has been presented at fig.5. 4. Implementation of the system on robotized devices.(4/3):  4. Implementation of the system on robotized devices.(4/3) Main window screenshot of the computer controlled system is presented at the fig.5. Fig.5. 4. Implementation of the system on robotized devices.(4/4):  4. Implementation of the system on robotized devices.(4/4) The application software propose tree main control modes: A. Control on the motor axes. In this control mode the four stepping motors are controlled independent. The operator use four different buttons on the window screenshot. B. Control on the joint axes of the regional robot system. In this control mode the three join axes of the base sequential anthropomorphic chain are controlled. The operator use three other buttons in the right site on the window screenshot. The mechanical model is used, based on the kinematics of the parallel structure. The three motors of the regional system are controlled at once. , 4. Implementation of the system on robotized devices.(4/5):  4. Implementation of the system on robotized devices.(4/5) C. Control on the axes of a base fixed coordinate system XYZ. In this control mode the end effector is controlled on the three axes of the base fixed coordinate system. The operator use three other buttons in the right bottom site on the window screenshot for control among of each axis X, Y and Z. The mechanical model is used, based on the direct and inverse kinematics of the base sequential chain and on the kinematics of the parallel structure. In all regimes motion planning is performed point-to-point. The calculations are performed on-line while execution the point commands. The references to the motors are series of points to be executed. They kept into a file for recursive execution. The program allows reference of different speeds, time delay and initial positioning. 5.Experiments.:  5.Experiments. The developed system is experimented for drive and control of the experimental robot shown on Fig.6 The experimental set up of robot is utilized for adaptive assembly of ferromagnetic screws into the non-destructive testing socket [5-6]. The control system discussed is applied too for non-holonomic wheel mobile robot with 2 degrees of freedom, too [9] Fig.6.Eexperimental robot 6. Conclusion.:  6. Conclusion. The developed actuation and control system, based on stepping motors and interfaced on the IBM - PC parallel printer port is describe as simple, effective and inexpensive. The system is suitable for control of robots and other human oriented mechatronic devises. Such devices are laboratory devices for scientific experiments, mechatronic devices for education, and robotized devices for entertainment and play. The created actuation and control system is of course not an industrial product. It is only a prototype provided for future development. Thanks for your attention!!:  Thanks for your attention!!

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