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Activating Prior Knowledge

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Information about Activating Prior Knowledge

Published on June 1, 2008

Author: castanlucy

Source: slideshare.net

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Activating Prior Knowledge Presented by: Lucy Castañón

Did you know?

Did you know?

“ Each student brings to the classroom a rich storehouse of knowledge about the world.”

“ Each student brings to the classroom a rich storehouse of knowledge about the world.”

“ Tapping experiences enhances meaning.”

“ Tapping experiences enhances meaning.”

“ Activating Prior Knowledge increases comprehension”

“ Activating Prior Knowledge increases comprehension”

Pair work In pairs work and activate your knowledge about this workshop Use the following K-W-L or K-W-H-L

In pairs work and activate your knowledge about this workshop

Use the following K-W-L or

K-W-H-L

Report your answers

 

 

When I assign reading/listening … What do I ask students to do? Vocabulary When do they do it? Before they read/listen

What do I ask students to do?

Vocabulary

When do they do it?

Before they read/listen

Categories of Reading Strategies Pre Reading During Reading After Reading BEFORE DURING AFTER

Pre Reading

During Reading

After Reading

Pre-Reading Strategies Activate Prior Knowledge Prepare the brain for new coming information Help the students why they are reading the material Introduce new vocabulary Help students make connections

Activate Prior Knowledge

Prepare the brain for new coming information

Help the students why they are reading the material

Introduce new vocabulary

Help students make connections

Pre Reading Strategies Featured Strategies Activate Prior Knowledge Context clues Decoding K-W-L-chart Predicting

Activate Prior Knowledge

Context clues

Decoding

K-W-L-chart

Predicting

What’s schemata?

“Schemata” the reader's/listener’s preexisting concepts about the world and about the text to be read or heard. Into this framework, the reader/listener fits what s/he finds in any text.

“Schemata” the reader's/listener’s preexisting concepts about the world and about the text to be read or heard. Into this framework, the reader/listener fits what s/he finds in any text.

If new textual information does not fit into a reader's/listener’s schemata, the reader/listener misunderstands the new material, ignores the new material, or revises the schemata to match the facts within the text.

If new textual information does not fit into a reader's/listener’s schemata, the reader/listener misunderstands the new material, ignores the new material, or revises the schemata to match the facts within the text.

“ Developing comprehension helps bridge the gap between what is known and what is new . It opens students to new learning by reassuring them that the concepts are within their grasp. It gives them a reference point for assimilating new material and adds greater meaning to the new concept.”

“ Developing comprehension helps bridge the gap between what is known and what is new . It opens students to new learning by reassuring them that the concepts are within their grasp. It gives them a reference point for assimilating new material and adds greater meaning to the new concept.”

LEVEL OF PRIOR KNOWLEDGE Students generally fall into three categories: MUCH, SOME, or LITTLE prior knowledge.

Students generally fall into three categories: MUCH, SOME, or LITTLE prior knowledge.

MUCH: super ordinate concepts; definitions; analogies; linking.  SOME: examples; attributes; defining characteristics.  LITTLE: associations; morphemes; sound alikes; firsthand experiences.  PRIOR KNOWLEDGE

MUCH: super ordinate concepts; definitions; analogies; linking. 

SOME: examples; attributes; defining characteristics. 

LITTLE: associations; morphemes; sound alikes; firsthand experiences. 

In each instance, the teacher will make specific instructional decisions based on what is discovered in the prior knowledge part of the lesson. To check out what prior knowledge exists about a topic, idea, or concept, you may choose to do some of the following activities : 

In each instance, the teacher will make specific instructional decisions based on what is discovered in the prior knowledge part of the lesson.

To check out what prior knowledge exists about a topic, idea, or concept, you may choose to do some of the following activities : 

*BRAINSTORM the topic. Write all the information solicited from the students on the chalkboard, a piece of paper, or transparency. 

*BRAINSTORM the topic. Write all the information solicited from the students on the chalkboard, a piece of paper, or transparency. 

*ASK specific and/or general questions about the topic. See what responses are given. 

*ASK specific and/or general questions about the topic. See what responses are given. 

Questioning Developing inquiries about the text that will direct readers/listeners towards the purpose of reading.

Developing inquiries about the text that will direct readers/listeners towards the purpose of reading.

Four types of questions: Memory Convergent thinking Divergent thinking Evaluative thinking

Memory

Convergent thinking

Divergent thinking

Evaluative thinking

Memory questions Signal words: who, what, when, where Cognitive operations: naming, defining, identifying, designating Examples: What’s the definition for democracy? Ask a memory question to your neighbour

Signal words: who, what, when, where

Cognitive operations: naming, defining, identifying, designating

Examples: What’s the definition for democracy?

Ask a memory question to your neighbour

Convergent Thinking Questions: Signal words: why, how, in what ways Cognitive operations: explaining, stating relationships, contrasting/comparing Examples: In what ways is “coffee” similar to “tea” Ask a convergent thinking question to your neighbour

Signal words: why, how, in what ways

Cognitive operations: explaining, stating relationships, contrasting/comparing

Examples: In what ways is “coffee” similar to “tea”

Ask a convergent thinking question to

your neighbour

Divergent Thinking Questions Signal words: imagine, predict, if...then, how might, what are some possible consequences Cognitive operations: predicting, hypothesising, inferring, reconstructing Example: What are some possible consequences of drinking coffee? Ask a divergent thinking question to your neighbour

Signal words: imagine, predict, if...then, how might, what are some possible consequences

Cognitive operations: predicting, hypothesising, inferring, reconstructing

Example: What are some possible consequences of drinking coffee?

Ask a divergent thinking question to your

neighbour

Evaluative Thinking Questions Signal words: justify, defend, judge Cognitive operations: valuing, judging, defending, justifying choices Example: What do you think of capital punishment for drug dealers? Ask and evaluative question to your neighbour

Signal words: justify, defend, judge

Cognitive operations: valuing, judging, defending, justifying choices

Example: What do you think of capital punishment for drug dealers?

Ask and evaluative question to your

neighbour

*POST a PROBLEM or a SCENARIO. Based on this description, find out what the students know about the idea presented. 

*POST a PROBLEM or a SCENARIO. Based on this description, find out what the students know about the idea presented. 

Once the data is collected, a decision about the appropriate forms of instruction can be made. The following diagram can be helpful: 

Once the data is collected, a decision about the appropriate forms of instruction can be made. The following diagram can be helpful: 

Teachers should remember to:

(1) Present information which builds:  *Background ideas  *Concepts  *Principles      

(1) Present information which builds:  *Background ideas  *Concepts  *Principles  

 

 

(2) Show, don't tell through--  *Demonstrations  *Multi-media  *Graphics 

(3) Use outside resources, trips and speakers

(4) Tell about topic from your experience 

(5) Use any combination of the above! 

Can your prior knowledge tell you what this graphic means?

What can your prior knowledge tell you what these photos mean?

Activating Prior Knowledge Let’s read the heading of “State TV: China quake death toll could hit 50,000” and let’s set a purpose for reading and activate our Prior Knowledge.

Let’s read the heading of “State TV: China quake death toll could hit 50,000” and let’s set a purpose for reading and activate our Prior Knowledge.

 

Write your questions. Include all three types.

Write your questions. Include all three types.

Report your answers

GROUP WORK

GROUP WORK

Pretend you have to use the second text : “ Myanmar junta warns people not to hoard aid”

Pretend you have to use the

second text :

“ Myanmar junta warns people not to hoard aid”

Based on what you learned today activate your students Prior Knowledge about the topic. Report your ideas

Based on what you learned today activate your students Prior Knowledge about the topic.

Report your ideas

Add a comment

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