Published on July 4, 2016
1. Topic 1(6 hrs) • Background and concept of Teacher as researcher (Lecture) – What it is – Origin and development – Professional standards for teachers • Action Research Principles and Practice (Self-learning and collaboration) • Individual v Collaborative Action Research
2. Inquiry-based research conducted by teachers that follows a process of examining existing practices, implementing new practices, and evaluating the results, leading to an improvement cycle that benefits both students and teachers. Also known as: practitioner research, teacher research, site-based research, and action science. cs3.wnmu.edu/elearning/a404/support/a404b0_50100.html
3. “Professionals studying their own practice in order to improve it. Applied to teaching, it involves gathering and interpreting "data" to better understand an aspect of your teaching that interests or concerns you. An alternative to teachers who have been encouraged to look to others, rather than to themselves and their students, for ways to improve their teaching. Action research is an important recent development in the broad territory of "teachers' professional development." Tom Russell, Queen’s University http://educ.queensu.ca/~russellt/howteach/arguide.htm#arwhy ACTION RESEARCH refers to:
4. Action Research – Tracing the origins and development in Teacher Education – Kurt Lewin (1940) – Stephen Corey (1950) – Lawrence Stenhouse (1970s) – Carr and Kemmis (1980s to date) – John Elliot (1990s to date) – Donald Schon (1980s) – Jack Whitehead (1970 to date) – Jean McNiff (1990 to date)
5. Kurt Lewin (1946) • Coined the word “Action Research”; • Research for social management or social engineering in industrial contexts. Lewin’s Action Research Involves a spiral of steps, ‘each of which is composed of a circle of planning, action and fact-finding about the result of the action’
6. Teacher as Researcher The teacher is like a gardener who treats different plants differently and not like a large-scale farmer who administers standardized treatments to as-near-as possible standardized plants. Under such conditions variation of treatment gives a better gross yield attempting to maximise the yield of every individual unit; and this is what is required of education. The teacher must diagnose before he prescribes and then vary the prescription. …both teachers and pupils are involved in meaningful action and meaningful action cannot be standardised by control or sampled.” Lawrence Stenhouse Feb 1979, University of East Anglia, UK In “Research as a basis for teaching – Readings from Lawrence Stenhouse by Rudduck and Hopkins Lawrence Stenhouse
7. Teacher as researcher: Real classrooms have to be our laboratories, and they are in the command of teachers, not of researchers. This is the characteristic of professional schools: the research act must conform to the obligations of the professional context. This is what we mean by action research. Lawrence Stenhouse Feb 1979, University of East Anglia, UK Lawrence Stenhouse
8. Teacher as researcher: We shall only teach better if we learn intelligently from the experience of shortfall, both in our grasp of the knowledge we offer and of how to offer it. That is the case for research as a basis for teaching. Lawrence Stenhouse Feb 1979, University of East Anglia, UK Lawrence Stenhouse
9. Teacher as researcher: “It is teachers who, in the end, will change the world of the school by understanding it.” Inscription on Lawrence Stenhouse’s memorial plaque at University of East Anglia. Lawrence Stenhouse
10. “Action research is simply a form of self- reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social situations in order to improve the rationality and justice of their own practices, their understanding of these practices, and the situations in which the practices are carried out.” Carr & Kemmis, 1986
11. • The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals think in Action (1983) • Educating the Reflective Practitioner (1987) Donald Schon Philosopher, researcher, professor emeritus (MIT), made significant contributions to the theory and practice of learning. Concerned with professional learning, learning processes in organizations, and with developing critical, self-reflecting practice http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-schon.htm Influential writing:
12. Reflection » Latin “reflectere” : To bend back • Involves “shuttling back and forth between thinking and action”
14. “Levels of Reflectivity” Level 1 Involves technical application of knowledge and skills in the classroom setting. Level 2 Emphasizes examination of assumptions underlying practice. Level 3 Emphasizes moral and ethical issues of practicality to values and beliefs. Quality Teaching: Reflection, the heart of Practice by Joelle K. Jay. 2003
15. Knowing in Action • The sorts of knowledge we reveal in our intelligent action – publicly observable, physical performances like riding a bicycle and private operations like instant analysis of a balance sheet. In both cases, the knowing is in the action. We reveal it by our spontaneous, skillful execution of the performance…” Schon, 1987 • Knowing in action: knowing more than we can say, the capacity to do the right thing (tacit knowledge). http://hci.stanford.edu/other/schon87.htm Donald Schon
16. Reflection in Action • Reflection takes place in the midst of action • Capacity to respond to surprise through improvisation on the spot • Involves a surprise (an unexpected outcome/behaviour that challenges one’s knowing in action), a response to surprise …conducting an action experiment on the spot by which we seek to solve the new problems … we test our new way of seeing the situation, and also try to change that situation for the better. • This is not method but art and a talent. http://hci.stanford.edu/other/schon87.htm Donald Schon
17. Reflection on action http://www.infed.org/biblio/b-reflect.htm#Schon Pausing after an activity to see how it went – what went well, what did not, what could be changed; We develop sets of questions and ideaas about our activities and practice Donald Schon
18. Reflection • Looking back on experience to improve practice • Learning in the midst of practice • Making decisions about what to do
19. Stop to reflectStop to reflect
20. Rushing aroundRushing around Life becomes a blurLife becomes a blur
21. Reflection helps us toReflection helps us to focus…focus…
22. To think and actTo think and act and think again…and think again…
23. ReflectionReflection is the bridgeis the bridge betweenbetween thinkingthinking andand actingacting
24. A reflective thinker is aware of her own knowledge and lack of knowledge and recognizes that there may not be only a single correct solution to a problem or interpretation of a situation. A reflective thinker relies on all available resources to find relevant needed information and opinions in order to come to a personal understanding of a situation, knowing that this understanding may change, as she gains more information and insight into the matter. http://ldt.stanford.edu/ldt1999/Students/cmazow/MajorProject/refThinkLoMain.htm
25. This methodological approach can then be developed as an action plan, which can take the form: 1. What is my concern? 2. Why am I concerned? 3. What do I think I can do about the situation? 4. What will I do? 5. How will I show whether I am influencing the situation for good? 6. How will I produce evidence of my influence? 7. How will I ensure that any claims I make are reasonably fair and accurate? 8. What will I do then? Jack Whitehead and Jean McNiff Jack Whitehead at the University of Bath “Living Educational Theory”
26. Action Research refers to: • A particular way of researching your own learning; • A practical way of looking at your practice in order to check whether it is as you feel it should be…; • If you feel that your practice needs attention in some way you will be able to take action to improve it, and then produce evidence to show in what way the practice has improved. Jean McNiff, 2002 Action Research Principles and Practice Jean McNiff
27. “…teacher-initiated classroom investigationinvestigation which seeks to increaseincrease the teachers’ understandingthe teachers’ understanding of classroom teaching and learningof classroom teaching and learning, and to bring about changechange in classroom practices.” Teachers’ Network (Ministry of Education, Singapore) publication on Learning Circles Action Research in Singapore (1998)
28. Action Research Process in MOE ReflectReflect – Think about what we want to focus on PlanPlan – – Plan what to do ActAct – – Carry out plan, collect evidence ObserveObserve – Observe, monitor and record ReflectReflect – Reflect on what has happened to improve further. To improve the quality of teaching and learning
29. A professional development framework for teachers in ITE Based on Action Research. A professional development framework for teachers in ITE Based on Action Research. Since Feb 2002 EXPLOREEXPLORE PRACTISEPRACTISEPERFORMPERFORM PLAN Quality Teaching & Learning EEnquirynquiry RReflectioneflection Process Product Habits In ITE
30. PEPP&ER process - improving the quality of teaching and learning PLAN to improve the quality of teaching and learning EXPLORE new and innovative strategies PRACTICE – carry out the plan agreed upon PERFORM – reflect on learning experience and share findings PEPP&ER is founded on Action Research Principles and practice
31. Teaching effectiveness – better understanding, grades, attitude towards learning, teaching materials and acquisition of the key competencies Classroom management & discipline – better student behaviour (punctuality, reduced disruptions in class, better attention span) Use of information technology - effective use of IT to deliver the content) Curriculum innovation - interdisciplinary efforts using Pmodel or similar frameworks eg. PBL Assessment methodologies - use of alternative assessment tools – student portfolios, checklists, peer assessment, student reflections Development of students through CCA - leadership skills, self-esteem, personal development Reflect on:
32. "Action research is the process through which teachers collaborate in evaluating their practice jointly; raise awareness of their personal theory; articulate a shared conception of values; try out new strategies to render the values expressed in their practice more consistent with the educational values they espouse; record their work in a form which is readily available to and understandable by other teachers; and thus develop a shared theory of teaching by researching practice." - John Elliott Products of Action Research: Teachers’ Professional Knowledge
33. Institute of Technical Education, Singapore 2004 1997
34. New role for teachers Students in the KBE need to be adaptable, flexible and creative…there is a need to develop a thinking student • Teachers should share valuable insights and experiences in real classroom situations about students’ learning, about their subjects, about themselves • Teachers should not work alone…should network and talk with other teachers to develop more innovative teaching strategies • Teachers should reflect continually on what they do and work with colleagues on how to do things better. RADM Teo Chee Hean at the Teachers’ Conference 2001 PM Lee Hsien Loong
35. • Who is a Reflective Practitioner; • Who creates professional knowledge; • Who is a lifelong learner; • Who continually improves on the quality of Teaching and Learning.
36. “Teacher research will force the re-evaluation of current theories and will significantly influence what is known about teaching, learning, and schooling. It has often been said, ‘Teachers leave a mark on their students, but they seldom leave a mark on their profession’ (Wolf, 1989). Through the process and products of action research teachers will do both.” What are the key effects of Action Research on the Professional development of teachers?
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