Published on April 19, 2014
1 THE UNITED CHURCH OF ZAMBIA ST. MARGARETS CHURCH KITWE SOUTH CONSISTORY CONGREGATION ANAMED Seminar 16th FEBRUARY 2013
2 DISCLAIMER The information contained in this write up is presented solely for general informational purposes only. NOTHING CONTAINED IN THIS PAPER IS INTENDED TO CONSTITUTE, NOR SHOULD IT BE CONSIDERED, MEDICAL ADVICE OR TO SERVE AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR THE ADVICE OF A PHYSICIAN OR OTHER QUALIFIED HEALTH CARE PROVIDER. I MAKE NO ASSURANCES OF THE INFORMATION BEING FIT OR SUITED TO YOUR MEDICAL NEEDS, AND TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT ALLOWED BY LAW DISCLAIM ANY AND ALL WARRANTIES AND LIABILITIES RELATED TO YOUR USE OF ANY OF THE INFORMATION OBTAINED FROM THE WRITE UP. YOUR USE OF THE WRITE UP WILL NEVER CONSTITUTE A DOCTOR PATIENT RELATIONSHIP. ANAMED INTRODUCTION ( By Mr Symon Banda) ANAMED stands for Action on Natural Medicine. Who we are ANAMED international is a Christian organisation. Our work is based on the life and ministry of Jesus, who healed people irrespective of their belief or ethnicity. In John 9: 1-7 it is described how Jesus uses locally available resources to heal a blind man. It all began in a village in the tropical rain forest ... in the former Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of Congo. From 1985 to 1991 the German Pharmacist Hans-Martin Hirt spoke with hundreds of local healers about the possibilities and limitations of their treatments with healing plants. Doctors and Development Workers joined the search for ways in which to improve the disastrous state of the health provision. The results were presented in the book “Natural Medicine in the Tropics”. And became an International Movement... This book has become popular throughout the world. The movement “Action for Natural Medicine” now comprises 35 ANAMED groups in 15 countries. In 1994 ANAMED was registered as a charitable trust in Germany. Natural medicine is cheaper, readily available and has no side effects. Natural medicine does not use animal extracts such as used by witchdoctors. Visit the English ANAMED Website at :- http://www.anamed.net/English_Home/english_home.html
3 DEVOTIONAL The Seminar was started with a Devotional by Mrs Dora Kapambwe and the gospel was from Hosea 4: 6 which says:- “My people are destroyed from lack of knowledge. “Because you have rejected knowledge, I also reject you as my priests; because you have ignored the law of your God, I also will ignore your children.” The knowledge we get in life should be used, otherwise it is useless.
4 Note:The notes below have been expanded from the notes taken during the Seminar from Wikipedia, the free Encyclopaedia and other Internet sources. MALARIA-byMrs Gertrude Mufana Definition Malaria is an acute attack which is brought about by a bite from a female mosquito called Anopheles. Every year over 500 million people are affected in the world with 1- 2 million dying from the disease. The incubation period of Malaria is 7 – 14 days.
5 TREATMENT OF MALARIA USING PHARMACEUTICAL DRUGS 1. CHLOROQUINE Chloroquine was discovered in 1934 by Hans Andersag and co-workers at the Bayer laboratories, who named it "Resochin". It has long been used in the treatment or prevention of malaria. After the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum started to develop widespread resistance to chloroquine Chloroquine can be used for preventing malaria from Plasmodium vivax, P. ovale and P. malariae. Popular drugs based on chloroquine phosphate (also called nivaquine) are Chloroquine FNA, Resochin and Dawaquin. Resochin Tablet Package
6 Side Effects Side effects include gastrointestinal problems, stomach ache, itch, headache, postural hypotension, nightmares and blurred vision. Resistance Since the first documentation of chloroquine resistance in the 1950s, resistant strains have appeared throughout East and West Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America. The effectiveness of chloroquine against malaria has declined as resistant strains of the parasite evolved. 2. FANSIDAR Fansidar(Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine) is a combination antimalarial containing the sulfonamide antibacterial sulfadoxine and the antiparasiticpyrimethamine. Both drugs are antifolates; they inhibit the production of enzymes involved in the synthesis of folic acid within the parasites. Either drug by itself is only moderately effective in treating malaria, because the parasite Plasmodium falciparum may be able to use exogenous folic acid, i.e. folic acid which is present in the parasite's environment, while in combination, the two substances have a synergistic effect which outbalances that ability. The combination is considered to be more effective in treating malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum than that caused by Plasmodium vivax, for which chloroquine is considered more effective, though in the absence of a species-specific diagnosis the sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine combination may be indicated. Due to side effects, however, it is no longer recommended as a routine preventative, but only to treat serious malaria infections or to prevent them in areas where other drugs may not work. Programmatic use Fansidar has been used in mass drug administrations as well as in intermittent preventive therapy. The drug is widely used in antenatal clinics. It is used for prevention of malaria in expectant mothers.
7 3. COARTEM The combination artemether/lumefantrine (trade names Coartem and Riamet) is a fixed-dose combination artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) indicated for the treatment of acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The individual drugs were both initially developed in China. Artemether is one of the semi-synthetic derivatives of artemisinin, and lumefantrine (also known as benflumetol and CGP 56695 during development) is purely synthetic. The combination is an effective and well-tolerated malaria treatment, providing high cure rates even in areas of multi-drug resistance. In 2001, Coartem became the first fixed dose artemisinin-based combination therapy to meet the World Health Organization's (WHO) pre-qualification criteria for efficacy, safety and quality. In 2002, artemether/lumefantrine tablets were added to the WHO's Essential Medicines list, an index of essential drugs which help guide the purchasing decisions of Member States and UN agencies. Coartem is approved in over 80 countries worldwide, including various countries in Africa, as well as Swissmedic, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Side effects Coartem can cause anaphylactic reactions. The drug frequently causes headache, dizziness and anorexia, although mild forms in most cases. Other fairly common side effects (more than 3% of patients) include sleep disorder, tinnitus, tremor, palpitation, as well as unspecific reactions like vertigo, gastrointestinal disorders, itch and nasopharyngitis Effect of food and interactions Food enhances the absorption of both artemether and lumefantrine, and patients are advised to take the tablets with food as soon as a meal can be tolerated. Coartem has a potential to prolong the QT interval, so combinations with other drugs having that property can cause irregular heartbeat, potentially leading to lethal ventricular fibrillation. The combination with halofantrine, another antimalarial, can cause a life-threatening QT prolongation. Drugs and other substances influencing the activity of the liver enzyme CYP3A4, including grapefruit juice, can either increase or lower blood levels of artemether/lumefantrine, depending on the sort of substance. This can either lead to more severe side effects or to reduced efficiency.
8 4. QUININE Quinine is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic (fever-reducing), antimalarial, analgesic (painkilling), and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. It is a stereoisomer of quinidine which, unlike quinine, is an antiarrhythmic. Quinine contains two major fused-ring systems: the aromatic quinoline and the bicyclic quinuclidine. Though it has been synthesized in the laboratory, quinine occurs naturally in the bark of the cinchona tree. The medicinal properties of the cinchona tree were originally discovered by the Quechua, who are indigenous to Peru and Bolivia; later, the Jesuits were the first to bring cinchona to Europe. Quinine was the first effective treatment for malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum, appearing in therapeutics in the 17th century. It remained the antimalarial drug of choice until the 1940s, when other drugs such as chloroquine that have less unpleasant side effects replaced it. Since then, many effective antimalarials have been introduced, although quinine is still used to treat the disease in certain critical circumstances, such as severe malaria, and in impoverished regions due to its low cost. Quinine is available with a prescription in the United States and over-the- counter, in minute quantities, in tonic water. Quinine is also used to treat lupus and arthritis. Quinine was also frequently prescribed in the US as an off-label treatment for nocturnal leg cramps, but this has become less prevalent due to a Food and Drug Administration statement warning against the practice. Quinine is very sensitive to ultraviolet (UV) light and will fluoresce in direct sunlight due to its highly conjugated resonance structure.
9 SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF MALARIA Headache – caused by dehydration which disturbs the lymphatic system. Fever– High temperature Muscular Pain Nausea/Vomiting Diarrhoea Bitter taste Convulsions (Fitting) Anaemia Unconsciousness Lethargic - Deficient in alertness or activity PREVENTION OF MALARIA -(4Ways) 1. Reduce contact between man and the mosquito by 1.1 Using a mosquito net. 1.2 Using wire gauze / grids on windows. 1.3 Adding Neem oil to kerosene (paraffin) used in lamps. 1.4 Using mosquito repellents (The feeding time for mosquitoes is 21:00hrs to 03:00 hrs.) 1.5 Put on long sleeved tops and trousers to cover the legs. 2. Reduce the number of mosquitoes in your yard by 2.1 Cutting grass around the house. 2.2 Getting rid of stagnant water. 2.3 Getting rid of tins, old tyres, etc. where mosquitoes could lay their eggs. 2.4 Protecting the forest, where mosquitoes breed naturally. 2.5 Plant flowers and plants that repel mosquitoes such as Lemon grass and Artemisia plant. 3. Reduce the number of parasites in the body by 3.1 Reducing the number of parasites in the body by treating the sick with appropriate medicinal plants as Lemon grass and Artemisia plant. 3.2 Prevent malaria by combination of plant treatment. 4. Develop a good immunity by 4.1 Eating a lot of fruits, vegetables, iron and calcium. 4.2 Include raw Garlic in the diet. 4.3 Avoid alcohol and smoking 4.4 Exercising 4.5 Drinking a lot of water.
10 TREATMENT OF MALARIA WITH HERBS The dosage for any patient is a fist full of the herbs. Herbs treat the malaria through sweating and urinating. Lemon Grass and Artemisia Hot Tea Two litres of tea in boiling water; to be taken within a 24-hour period. Continue for 7 days. Drink the Tea without sugar but can be taken with natural honey. Do not use milk. Make fresh Tea every day. Don’t take carbonated drinks during treatment. 2 to 3 litres per day may be taken. Use fresh leaves whenever possible. When the leaves are dry the dosage is different at 15 grams of lemon grass and 5 grams for Artemisia plant. Boil for 2 minutes and let it stand for 10 minutes, sieve and drink. Take three times per day. Lemon Grass Plant
11 Artemisia Annua Plant A Note on the Artemisia Plant Artemisinin has startling effects on malaria patients; in its first clinical trial, all 18 patients given the herb felt better within hours and recovered within days. Chinese herbalists have used the leaves of the Artemisia annua, or sweet wormwood shrub, to treat malaria for more than 1,500 years. In the 1960s, artemisinin was identified as the active anti-malarial ingredient. One of the ingredients used to make Coartem (see above) is Artemisia annua. Today artemisinin is regarded as the best drug against malaria, a deadly disease that kills someone every 30 seconds, mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. Malaria infects 300 million to 500 million people each year, killing more than a million, and there is no vaccine against it. However, small supplies of artemisinin have led to fake substitute drugs, some of which have caused deaths. Fakes containing no artemisinin have been seized in Vietnam, Cambodia and Thailand. Some 97 per-cent of the fakes are simply chalk.
12 Treatment with Artemisia Plant Tea This must be drank in 4 portions per day Weight of Person (Kg) Age Taken orally in water 5 - 6 2 – 3 months 0.5 g/ 100ml 7 - 10 4 – 11 months 1 g/ 200ml 11 - 14 1 – 2 years 1.5 g/ 300ml 15 - 18 3 – 4 years 2 g/ 400ml 19 - 29 5 – 9 years 3 g/ 600ml 30 - 39 10 – 11 years 3.5 g/ 700ml 40 - 49 12 – 13 years 4 g/ 800ml 50+ Adult 5 g/ 1000ml
13 Neem Tree Neem has been used in the treatment of malaria for centuries. It has been taken as an infusion of bark, leaves or roots boiled in water or as dispersion of neem seed powder. Recent experiments have shown that several of Neem's components are effective against malaria parasites. Irodin A, a substance found in neem leaves, is toxic for resistant strains of malaria. Studies showed a 100percent mortality in 72 hours at a ratio of 1:20,000 in vitro. Gedunin and quercentin, to other compounds found in neem leaves, are at least as effective against malaria as quinine and chloroquine. Because the anti-malarial effects of neem appear to be greater in the body than on the petri dish, there has been some speculation that stimulation of the immune system is a major factor in neem's effectiveness against malaria. In addition to its anti-malarial activity, neem also lowers the fever and increases the appetite. Thus, strengthening the body and speeding recovery. Read more at: http://www.gigers.com/matthias/engmala/neemtree.htm
14 A NOTE OF CAUTION The Neem Tree has been mistaken for with a similar tree which is NOT the Neem Tree! This tree is very common in most urban areas but has no medicinal usage as the Neem Tree. So be careful when you are looking for the Neem Tree! The Photo above shows a plant always mistaken for the Neem Tree. It is a very common tree found in nearly all the localities in Zambia. Do not use it as a substitute for Neem Tree. NOTE: The Neem Tree leaves have sharp edges
15 Vernonia Amygdalina (Bitter Leaf) Vernonia amygdalina, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a small shrub that grows in the tropical Africa. V. amygdalina typically grows to a height of 2- -5 m. The leaves are elliptical and up to 20 cm long. Its bark is rough.V. amygdalina is commonly called bitter leaf in English because of its bitter taste. African common names include grawa (Amharic), ewuro (Yoruba), etidot (Ibibio), onugbu (Igbo), ityuna (Tiv), oriwo (Edo), chusar-doki (Hausa), muluuza (Luganda), labwori (Acholi), and olusia (Luo). In a preliminary clinical trial, a decoction of 25 g fresh leaves of V. amygdalina was 67% effective in creating an adequate clinical response in African patients with mild falciparum malaria. Of these 32% had complete parasite clearance. Unfortunately 71% of subjects had recrudescence. The treatment was without significant adverse effects. While clearly this dose and protocol is not sufficient it suggests real potential for this herb to play a role in treating malaria in Africa. The bark of the tree is more effective than the leaves. When using the roots select the finger roots rather than the main roots. Get ta handful of he bark of the roots boil in on litre of water for 20 minutes , filter and drink in four portions per day for 7 days. The medicine is quite bitter.
16 Cinchona Officinalis Cinchona officinalis is a medicinal plant, one of several Cinchona species used for the production of quinine, which is an anti-fever agent. It is especially useful in the prevention and treatment of malaria. Cinchona calisaya is the tree most cultivated for quinine production. There are a number of other alkaloids that are extracted from this tree. They include cinchonine, cinchonidine and quinidine Boil 3 teaspoon heaps of pulverised bark of the plant in on litre of water. Drink in four portions for 7 days. Combine with 2 litres of Lemon grass tea or combine with Fansidar if need be. This is for mild malaria.
17 DIARRHOEAbyMrs Gertrude Mufana Definition Diarrhoea isthe frequent passing of watery stool. Usually more than three times in a day. It is caused by bacteria of the salmonella and e coli type. What is the difference between Salmonella and E. coli? Salmonella and E.coli are different types of bacteria. Salmonella Salmonella is the name of a group of bacteria. In the United States, it is the most common cause of foodborne illness. Salmonella occurs in raw poultry, eggs, beef, and sometimes on unwashed fruit and vegetables. Symptoms include fever, diarrhoea, abdominal cramps and headache. Symptoms usually last 4 - 7 days. Most people get better without treatment. It can be more serious in the elderly, infants and people with chronic conditions. If Salmonella gets into the bloodstream, it can be serious, or even life- threatening. The usual treatment is antibiotics. Read more about Salmonella infections. (MedlinePlus.gov) E.coli E. coliis the name of a type of bacteria that lives in your intestines. Most types of E. coli are harmless. However, some types can make you sick and cause diarrhea. One type causes travelers'diarrhea. The worst type of E. coli causes bloody diarrhea, and can sometimes cause kidney failure and even death. These problems are most likely to occur in children and in adults with weak immune systems. You can get E. coli infections by eating foods containing the bacteria. To help avoid food poisoning and prevent infection, handle food safely. Cook meat well, wash fruits and vegetables before eating or cooking them, and avoid unpasteurized milk and juices. You can also get the infection by swallowing water in a swimming pool contaminated with human waste. Diarrhoea is a common cause of death in developing countries and the second most common cause of infant deaths worldwide. The loss of fluids through diarrhoea can cause dehydration and electrolyte disturbances such as potassium deficiency or other salt imbalances.
18 SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DIARRHOEA Abdominal pains. Dehydration In children sunken eyes In babies sunken fontanelle Flappy skin Lethargic Muscular pains PREVENTION OF DIARRHOEA 1. Cleanliness – Proper usage of toilet, clean surroundings, clean water, clean sanitation, proper disposal of garbage and faecal matter such as diapers. Boil drinking water or add chlorine to it. 2. Cover all foods – use of food nets, etc. 3. Warm all leftover foods – 4. Wash hands before and after taking food- this must be under running water. The practice of several people washing from the same basin is unhygienic! 5. Eat good food – Food that improves the immunity system, vitamins, water and fruits with plenty of exercise. 6. Eat fresh garlic 7. Chew a piece of Pawpaw leaf (5cm²) –to prevent worms and amoebic infection. 8. Eat dry pawpaw seeds. – dry them indoors.
19 TREATMENTOF DIARRHOEA Replace lost fluids Rehydrate with ORS (Oral Rehydration Salts) How to Make Oral Rehydration Salts Boil water and cool it. Measure one litre Add 4 table spoonfuls of organically made honey or 2 table spoonfuls of sugar ½ of a level of teaspoon of salt. ORS tastes like tears with a bit of sugar. The Oral Rehydration Salts must be taken within 24 hours after making them. DAILY DOZES OF ORS Age Mls. No. of Bottles of Bottle Size (in litres) 0.33 0.5 0.75 1.0 Under 6 months 700 2 1½ 1 ¾ 2 years 1400 4 3 2 1½ 2 – 6 years 2100 6 4 3 2 7 years 2800 8 6 4 3 Adult 3500 10 7 5 3½
20 Natural Medicine for Diarrhoea 1. Asthma Weed – Euphorbia Hirta This is a very common plant which is found around many localities in Zambia Cut the plant with scissors leaving roots in the ground.Get one handful of a whole fresh herb. NOTE:Be careful what plant you use as there are several plants that look similar to the Asthma Weed. The real one produces milk and grows above the ground. Boil in a litre of water allow to stay for thirty minutes. Drink in 4 portions per day. Repeat every 8 days. This medicine is very effective against amoebic diarrhoea.
21 2. PsidiumGuajava – Guava Guava is a disinfectant How to make Guava Tea One handful of fresh guava leaves or one tablespoon of grounded dried guava leaves. Boil in one litre of water for 2 minutes. Let it stand for 30 minutes, filter and drink. This must be drank within 24 hours Guava Tea may be used for ORS by adding honey or sugar and salt to it as described above instead of using plain water. Drink Guava Tea when travelling to prevent stomach upsets whilst taking unfamiliar food. Guava Tea is also very good for gastritis by taking a mouthful every hour.
22 3. Vinca Rosea ( Jerusalem plant with red flower) Very helpful in life threatening cases of diarrhoea. Use it in combination with Artemisia Tea. Use it with care as it is a toxic plant if taken in large quantities. Anamed Diarrhoea Tea Remove Artemisia Tea from fire then add a handful of Vinca Rosea. Allow to stand for 30 minutes. Filter and drink during course of the day in equal parts.
23 4. Mangifera Indica ( Mango) Do not use the old leaves as they are poisonous. Always use the young leaves. Make Tea as for guava above.
24 5. Carica Papaya (Pawpaw) Use leaves and make Tea as for guava above. 6. Artemisia See method of making Artemisia tea above. 7. Rice Water Rice water can be used to fight diarrhoea. 8. Medicinal Charcoal Medicinal Charcoal is made from groundnut shells.
25 9. Anamed Diarrhoea Tea Take a handful of Asthma weed, Guava leaves and mango leaves. Boil for 2 minutes in one litre of water. Let it stand for 30 minutes, filter and drink. The Tea may also be used for making ORS. It is a very bitter tea. Take it slowly in the course of 8 days continuously. Dosage Age Daily Dosage 1 – 3 years ¼litre daily 4 – 6 years ½litre daily 7 – 12 years ¾litre daily 13 years and above 1 litre daily General Notes: 1. Carbonated drinks are not good for healing purposes. Sick people should not take them as they are not nutritious. Water is better for a sick person. 2. Remember no two patients are the same so you have to discover what is good for you. 3. Pregnant women must not use Neem tree or bitter leaf. 4. Artemisia must not be used be used in the first three months of pregnancy. Only Lemon grass tea should be used. 5. The treatments above do not in any way represent any method of treatment used by qualified medical personnel in hospitals. They are a first line of treatment for people who are in need of treatment away from the medical centres. 6. Always consult your Physician for diagnostic treatment of acute illnesses.
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