Published on September 11, 2014
EDUCATION AND TRAINING The evaluation of foreign students (dott. Giulio Ricotti)
Learning occurs when a significant change in the environmental conditions (stimulus) causes a real change of behavior (response). The learning of foreign students
Indicators of the learning process 1) Participation and commitment (motivation) 2) Sociability and collaboration (overcoming cognitive egocentrism) 3) Application (using appropriately the proposed model / deliveries) 4) Transfer (problem solving highlighting similarities / differences between known and unknown situations) 5) Reconstruction / generalization (reflection on their own work) View slide
Cosa? Cosa sa? Cosa sa fare? Raccogliere dati su: 1)saperi legati alla conoscenza della L2 2)saperi e procedure legati alle diverse discipline ( utilizzo degli indicatori per indagare abilità oltre quelle linguistiche ) Passi essenziali della procedura valutativa View slide
L2 (second language) L1 (first language) Macro-disciplinary skills Listening and understanding Listening and understanding Bind symbol to quantity Reading and understanding Reading and understanding / reading aloud Solve the problematic situation Scripture: copied dictation Autonomous based on input Scripture: copied dictation Autonomous based on input Classified according to assigned criterion From the general to find subsets Working with numbers Memorise Draw
1. Associate a symbol to a quantity (abstract) arithmetic, geometry, geography, music, history 2. Resolve a problematic situation (reasoning) all disciplines 3. Classified according to since criterion (categorize) all disciplines 4. Recognize major and minor compared to a quantity (compare and rank) mathematics, Italian, geography 5. Working with numbers (calculated) mathematics Main links between macro-skills and disciplines 1/3
Main links between macro-skills and disciplines 2/3 6. Put in a logical sequence of data, follow the rhythms (reasoning) mathematics, Italian language, foreign language, music, history, science 7. Grasp the difference (compare, differentiate and classify) all disciplines 8. Memorise all disciplines 9. Locate and use the colors (to perceive, distinguish, to attribute meaning) geography, basic skills
Main links between macro-skills and disciplines 3/3 10. Manipulate different materials (use fine motor skills, organize themselves spatially) mathematics, geography, physical education 11. Draw (perceive, using fine motor skills) First language, foreign language, geography, mathematics 12. Use the body in motion (locomotion, perception Rhythms, sequencing) all disciplines
Building academic success of foreign students The school must take responsibility for: enhancement of knowledge and skills prior (linguistic / disciplinary) training agreement with the student and / or his family programming, and then subsequent evaluation, custom
The evaluation is a process that allows to make choices
What is success in school? Variables: It depends on the different degrees of school Depends on the objectives that arises school Depends on the objectives that confront families and students Are there objective parameters to determine this? Do we put it in perspective formative or evaluative?
STATISTICAL (Italy) When are you happier at school? 38% of foreign children responded "When I get good grades" The 36% "when I understand now what the teacher says" Among the most common expectations research reports: "I go to school to be able to speak and write well" Source : MIUR
Let's not forget the role of motivation At the base of the desire for self-determination and self- It is powered by: news attraction functionality
Quali tipi di valutazione? Valutazione diagnostica fase iniziale del percorso formativo Valutazione in itinere accompagna costantemente il processo didattico - formativo Valutazione sommativa fase finale
Evaluation and correction of errors The error in the history of language teaching Structuralist approach (50s): developed on the linguistic theories of Bloomfield and those of psychology neocomportamentaristica Skinner. The path of L2 instruction was based on the sequence STIMULUS ANSWER CONFIRM OR CORRECTION Student regarded as a tabula rasa, the error is perceived as a problem.
Communicative approach (60): the theories of reference are to be attributed all'antropolinguistica of Malinowski, sociolinguistics Fishman and Lado. The student is no longer a blank slate, it is called to play an ACTIVE ROLE, it begins to speak of communicative competence (oral skills / receiving / production) From communicative approach to humanistic-affective The error is perceived as a signal of the process language acquisition
It is possible to control the input to a certain point. Even in the learning of the mother tongue is the child who selects the input with respect to the magnitude of the stimuli it receives. The error analysis is significant for 3 reasons: 1. The teacher can detect progress or setbacks in learning 2. It's Possible to identify the strategies used by learners 3. A student can develop awareness of mechanism of language acquisition (LAD)
These considerations undermine the old beliefs according to which is the teacher who decides how you learn, what you learn and when you learn. Making mistakes is an inevitable and necessary part of the Process of language acquisition
When and how to correct? Two schools of thought : Opponents of the correction correction causes frustration, insecurity and loss of self-esteem Favorable to the correction the error is a negative habit and if you don’t remove there is a risk of fossilization From our point of view, the question to ask is not "correct or not correct" rather “When and how to correct?”
omission addition replacement inversion Segmentation (linguistic elements are interpreted as independent when they are bound, or vice versa) Cataloging error
Grouping errors Occasional or pre-systematic errors : the student has not yet aware of the existence of a rule for a linguistic appearance Systematic errors : the error occurs when the student try to apply what he’s discovering post-systematic or superfluous errors : the student has discovered the rule but he’s inconsistent in applying
The most frequent causes of errors - Transfer the mother tongue - Overgeneralization: the rule should apply also to cases which behave differently - Simplification: omission of anything that can be deemed unnecessary - Mingling structures
Criteria for correction and evaluation 1.Establish clear and shared correcting codes 2.Correct only what is identified as real error 3.In written texts mark the error on the text of the student and offer the student the correct text himself (compare the error) 4. Speaking, never interrupt the spontaneous production, write down the errors and repeat in correct model
Criteria for correction and evaluation On the evaluation is necessary to reflect upstream. The error is due to a gap, lack of study, Superficial approach to discipline? The error can be traced back to a lack of knowledge rule because of the untimely with respect to the phase interlanguage? The error has undermined the effectiveness of communication or not? How "serious" can be considered?
The 4 functions of evaluation didactic function The teacher informs the student about his learning process (stages and objectives). relational function provides for the assessment in the classroom, as a public deed (not to underestimate the scale: the creation of hierarchies, influence social relations within the class, Induces comparisons on "justice" and "egualianza") bureaucratic function summative assessment ("vote" / "certification") pedagogical function regulative of the educational process in general
Types of evaluation The idiographic evaluation provides a comparison between the initial situation of the student and the final one, noting trends and changes. Positive in the early stages, however, is likely to consider the student divorced from the social context (class) and away from the standards of his peers. The regulatory evaluation provides a comparison of the performance of the individual and the group, it may be detrimental to pupils experiencing momentary difficulties . The criterial evaluation establishes a comparison between the results achieved by individual pupils and predetermined criteria earlier in programming.
Standard of Reference Directive CEE n.77/486 states that for the children of foreign countries of the European Community the "educational programming should include specific activities to support or integration, in favor of the same, in order to: a) adapt the teaching of the language of the host country and other subjects of study to their specific needs; b) promote the teaching of the language and culture of the country of origin in coordination with the teaching of the compulsory subjects included in the curriculum. "
With the support of the Lifelong Learning Programme — Grundtvig of the European Union This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This communication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein
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