ACLS Lecture

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Information about ACLS Lecture

Published on November 10, 2007

Author: gotsunshyne

Source: slideshare.net

2005 AHA Guideline Changes BLS for Healthcare Providers ACLS Updates

 

Purpose of BLS Changes To improve survival from cardiac arrest by increasing the number of victims of cardiac arrest who receive early, high-quality CPR Planned, practiced response with CPR/AEDs yields survival rates of 49-74%

To improve survival from cardiac arrest by increasing the number of victims of cardiac arrest who receive early, high-quality CPR

Planned, practiced response with CPR/AEDs yields survival rates of 49-74%

What Have We Learned About CPR? 330,000 die annually from coronary heart disease CDC 60% from Sudden cardiac event @ home or en route 85-90% in VF/VT arrest 2-3 x greater survival if CPR is immediate, with defib <5 min. EMS relies on trained, willing, equipped public

330,000 die annually from coronary heart disease CDC

60% from Sudden cardiac event @ home or en route

85-90% in VF/VT arrest

2-3 x greater survival if CPR is immediate, with defib <5 min.

EMS relies on trained, willing, equipped public

Less than 1/3 get bystander CPR Even pros don’t do good CPR! Too slow Too shallow No CPR x 24-49% of the arrest!

Too slow

Too shallow

No CPR x 24-49% of the arrest!

Most significant changes 2005 IT’S ALL ABOUT BLOOD FLOW! Emphasis on effective CPR Fast; deep; 50/50; minimal interruption Single compression-to-ventilation ratio 30:2 single rescuer adult, child, infant, excluding newborns

IT’S ALL ABOUT BLOOD FLOW!

Emphasis on effective CPR

Fast; deep; 50/50; minimal interruption

Single compression-to-ventilation ratio

30:2 single rescuer adult, child, infant, excluding newborns

Most significant changes (cont.) Each shock from an AED should be followed by 2 minutes of CPR (5 cycles of 30:2) starting with compressions Each rescue breath should take one second and produce visible chest rise Reaffirmation that AEDs should be used for kids 1-8 y.o.

Each shock from an AED should be followed by 2 minutes of CPR (5 cycles of 30:2) starting with compressions

Each rescue breath should take one second and produce visible chest rise

Reaffirmation that AEDs should be used for kids 1-8 y.o.

Why change compressions? When compressions stop, blood flow stops! Universal compression ratio easier to learn/retain Higher ratio yields more blood flow; keeps pump “primed”

When compressions stop, blood flow stops!

Universal compression ratio easier to learn/retain

Higher ratio yields more blood flow; keeps pump “primed”

Why shorten breaths? Large volume breaths increase ITP; decrease venous return to heart Long breaths interrupt compressions Hyperventilation decreases coronary and cerebral perfusion pressures Over-ventilation increases air in stomach; regurgitation/aspiration

Large volume breaths increase ITP; decrease venous return to heart

Long breaths interrupt compressions

Hyperventilation decreases coronary and cerebral perfusion pressures

Over-ventilation increases air in stomach; regurgitation/aspiration

Why from 3 shocks to 1? Biphasic defibrillators eliminate VF 85% on first shock Current AED sequence can delay CPR 37 seconds Long CPR interruptions decrease likelihood of subsequent successful shocks Myocardial “stunning” (O2, ATP depletion)

Biphasic defibrillators eliminate VF 85% on first shock

Current AED sequence can delay CPR 37 seconds

Long CPR interruptions decrease likelihood of subsequent successful shocks

Myocardial “stunning” (O2, ATP depletion)

Chest Compressions 2005 (New): Push hard, fast, rate of 100 per minute Allow full chest recoil after each compression Minimize interruptions (no more than 10 seconds at a time) except for specific interventions (advanced airway/AED)

2005 (New):

Push hard, fast, rate of 100 per minute

Allow full chest recoil after each compression

Minimize interruptions (no more than 10 seconds at a time) except for specific interventions (advanced airway/AED)

Chest Compressions cont’d 2000 (Old): Less emphasis was given to need for adequate depth, complete chest recoil, and minimizing interruptions

2000 (Old):

Less emphasis was given to need for adequate depth, complete chest recoil, and minimizing interruptions

Chest Compressions cont’d Why: If chest not allowed to recoil: less venous return to heart reduced filling of heart Decreased cardiac output for subsequent chest compressions When chest compressions are interrupted, blood flow stops and coronary artery perfusion pressure falls

Why:

If chest not allowed to recoil:

less venous return to heart

reduced filling of heart

Decreased cardiac output for subsequent chest compressions

When chest compressions are interrupted, blood flow stops and coronary artery perfusion pressure falls

Chest Compressions cont’d Why: Study of CPR performed by healthcare providers found that: ½ of chest compressions too shallow No compressions provided during 24% to 49% of CPR time

Why:

Study of CPR performed by healthcare providers found that:

½ of chest compressions too shallow

No compressions provided during 24% to 49% of CPR time

Changing Compressors Every 2 Minutes 2005 (New): If more than 1 rescuer present, change “compressor” roles every 2 minutes 2000 (Old): Rescuers changed when fatigued-usually did not report feeling fatigued until 5min. or more Why: In manikin studies, rescuer fatigue developed in as little as 1-2minutes(as demonstrated by inadequate chest compressions)

2005 (New):

If more than 1 rescuer present, change “compressor” roles every 2 minutes

2000 (Old):

Rescuers changed when fatigued-usually did not report feeling fatigued until 5min. or more

Why:

In manikin studies, rescuer fatigue developed in as little as 1-2minutes(as demonstrated by inadequate chest compressions)

Rescue Breathing without Compressions 2005 (New): 10-12 breaths per minute (adults) 1 every 5-6 seconds 12-20 breaths per minute for infant or child 1 every 3-5 seconds 2000 (Old): 10-12 breaths for adults 20 breaths for infant or child

2005 (New):

10-12 breaths per minute (adults) 1 every 5-6 seconds

12-20 breaths per minute for infant or child 1 every 3-5 seconds

2000 (Old):

10-12 breaths for adults

20 breaths for infant or child

Rescue Breathing without Compressions cont’d Why: Wider range of acceptable breaths for infant and child will allow the provider to tailor support to patient Note: If you are assisting lay rescuer-they are not taught to deliver rescue breaths without chest compression

Why:

Wider range of acceptable breaths for infant and child will allow the provider to tailor support to patient

Note: If you are assisting lay rescuer-they are not taught to deliver rescue breaths without chest compression

Rescue Breaths with Compressions 2005 (New): Each rescue breath should be given over 1 second and produce visible chest rise Avoid breaths that are too large or too forceful Manikins configured so that visible chest rise occurs at 500-600ml 2000 (Old): Rescue breaths over 1-2 seconds Recommended tidal volume for adult rescue breaths was 700ml-1000ml

2005 (New):

Each rescue breath should be given over 1 second and produce visible chest rise

Avoid breaths that are too large or too forceful

Manikins configured so that visible chest rise occurs at 500-600ml

2000 (Old):

Rescue breaths over 1-2 seconds

Recommended tidal volume for adult rescue breaths was 700ml-1000ml

Rescue Breaths with Compressions cont’d Why: Oxygen Delivery Oxygen delivery is product of oxygen content in the arterial blood and cardiac output (blood flow) During first minutes of CPR for VF SCA, initial oxygen content in blood adequate/ cardiac output is reduced Effective chest compressions more important than rescue breaths immediately after VF SCA

Why:

Oxygen Delivery

Oxygen delivery is product of oxygen content in the arterial blood and cardiac output (blood flow)

During first minutes of CPR for VF SCA, initial oxygen content in blood adequate/ cardiac output is reduced

Effective chest compressions more important than rescue breaths immediately after VF SCA

Rescue Breaths with Compressions cont’d Why: Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio The best oxygenation of blood and elimination of CO2 occur when ventilation (volume of breaths x rate) closely matches perfusion During CPR , blood flow to lungs is about 25-33% of normal Less ventilations needed during cardiac arrest than when patient has perfusing rhythm

Why:

Ventilation-Perfusion Ratio

The best oxygenation of blood and elimination of CO2 occur when ventilation (volume of breaths x rate) closely matches perfusion

During CPR , blood flow to lungs is about 25-33% of normal

Less ventilations needed during cardiac arrest than when patient has perfusing rhythm

Rescue Breaths with Compressions cont’d Why: Hyperventilation leads to: Increased positive pressure in the chest Decreased venous return to the heart Limited refilling of heart Decreased cardiac output during subsequent compressions Gastric distention/vomiting

Why:

Hyperventilation leads to:

Increased positive pressure in the chest

Decreased venous return to the heart

Limited refilling of heart

Decreased cardiac output during subsequent compressions

Gastric distention/vomiting

 

2 Rescuer CPR with Advanced Airway 2005 (New): No pause for ventilation when there is an advanced airway in place 8-10 breaths per minute

2005 (New):

No pause for ventilation when there is an advanced airway in place

8-10 breaths per minute

2 Rescuer CPR with Advanced Airway cont’d 2000 (Old): Recommended “asynchronous” compressions and ventilations Ventilation rate of 12-15 per minute Rescuers taught to re-check for signs of circulation “every few minutes”

2000 (Old):

Recommended “asynchronous” compressions and ventilations

Ventilation rate of 12-15 per minute

Rescuers taught to re-check for signs of circulation “every few minutes”

2 Rescuer CPR with Advanced Airway cont’d Why: Ventilations can be delivered during compressions Avoid excessive number of breaths During CPR, blood flow to lungs decreased, so lower than normal respiratory rate will maintain adequate oxygenation

Why:

Ventilations can be delivered during compressions

Avoid excessive number of breaths

During CPR, blood flow to lungs decreased, so lower than normal respiratory rate will maintain adequate oxygenation

Airway/Trauma Victims 2005 (New): In patients with suspected cervical spine injuries-if unable to open airway using the jaw thrust, use the head-tilt chin lift 2000 (Old): Jaw thrust without head tilt taught to both lay rescuers and healthcare providers

2005 (New):

In patients with suspected cervical spine injuries-if unable to open airway using the jaw thrust, use the head-tilt chin lift

2000 (Old):

Jaw thrust without head tilt taught to both lay rescuers and healthcare providers

Airway/Trauma Victims cont’d Why: Jaw thrust difficult maneuver to learn,may not effectively open airway and it can cause spinal movement Opening the airway is a priority in an unresponsive trauma victim Manual stabilization preferred over immobilization devices during CPR

Why:

Jaw thrust difficult maneuver to learn,may not effectively open airway and it can cause spinal movement

Opening the airway is a priority in an unresponsive trauma victim

Manual stabilization preferred over immobilization devices during CPR

“ Adequate” vs.Presence or Absence of Breathing 2005 (New): BLS healthcare provider checks for: adequate breathing in adult victims presence or absence of breathing in children and infants Advanced healthcare provider (with ACLS and PALS/PEPP) will assess for adequate breathing in victims of all ages

2005 (New):

BLS healthcare provider checks for:

adequate breathing in adult victims

presence or absence of breathing in children and infants

Advanced healthcare provider (with ACLS and PALS/PEPP) will assess for adequate breathing in victims of all ages

Adequate vs. Presence or Absence of Breathing cont’d 2000 (Old): Healthcare provider checked for adequate breathing for victims of all ages Why: Children may demonstrate breathing patterns (rapid, grunting) which are adequate but not normal Assessment for adequate breathing is more consistent with advanced provider skill

2000 (Old):

Healthcare provider checked for adequate breathing for victims of all ages

Why:

Children may demonstrate breathing patterns (rapid, grunting) which are adequate but not normal

Assessment for adequate breathing is more consistent with advanced provider skill

Infant/Child: Give 2 Effective Breaths 2005 (New): Attempt “a couple of times” to deliver 2 effective breaths (that cause visible chest rise) 2000 (Old): Healthcare providers were taught to move head through a variety of positions to obtain optimal airway opening

2005 (New):

Attempt “a couple of times” to deliver 2 effective breaths (that cause visible chest rise)

2000 (Old):

Healthcare providers were taught to move head through a variety of positions to obtain optimal airway opening

Infant/Child: Give 2 Effective Breaths cont’d Why: Most common mechanism of cardiac arrest in infants and children is asphyxial Rescuer must be able to provide effective breaths

Why:

Most common mechanism of cardiac arrest in infants and children is asphyxial

Rescuer must be able to provide effective breaths

Lone Healthcare Provider-”phone first” vs. “CPR first” 2005 (New): Tailor sequence to most likely cause of cardiac arrest “ Phone First” Sudden witnessed collapse (adult or child)-likely to be cardiac in origin. Call 9-1-1 and get the AED “ CPR First” Hypoxic Arrest (adult or child)- give 5 cycles or about 2 minutes of CPR before leaving victim to call 9-1-1 and get the AED

2005 (New):

Tailor sequence to most likely cause of cardiac arrest

“ Phone First” Sudden witnessed collapse (adult or child)-likely to be cardiac in origin. Call 9-1-1 and get the AED

“ CPR First” Hypoxic Arrest (adult or child)- give 5 cycles or about 2 minutes of CPR before leaving victim to call 9-1-1 and get the AED

Lone Healthcare Provider cont’d 2000 (Old): Tailoring response to likely cause of arrest was not emphasized in training Why: Sudden collapse-likely cardiac and early CPR and defibrillation needed Victims of hypoxic arrest need immediate CPR

2000 (Old): Tailoring response to likely cause of arrest was not emphasized in training

Why:

Sudden collapse-likely cardiac and early CPR and defibrillation needed

Victims of hypoxic arrest need immediate CPR

“ Child” BLS Guidelines 2005 (New): Child CPR guidelines for healthcare providers apply to victims from 1 year of age to onset puberty (about 12-14 years old) 2000 (Old): Child CPR age 1-8

2005 (New):

Child CPR guidelines for healthcare providers apply to victims from 1 year of age to onset puberty (about 12-14 years old)

2000 (Old):

Child CPR age 1-8

“ Child” BLS cont’d Why: No single anatomic or physiologic characteristic that distinguishes a “child” victim from an “adult” victim No scientific evidence that identifies a precise age to begin adult techniques

Why:

No single anatomic or physiologic characteristic that distinguishes a “child” victim from an “adult” victim

No scientific evidence that identifies a precise age to begin adult techniques

Symptomatic Bradycardia Infants/Children 2005 (New): Chest compressions indicated if HR <60 and signs of poor perfusion, despite adequate ventilation 2000 (Old): Same recommendation in 2000 guidelines but it was not incorporated into the BLS training

2005 (New):

Chest compressions indicated if HR <60 and signs of poor perfusion, despite adequate ventilation

2000 (Old):

Same recommendation in 2000 guidelines but it was not incorporated into the BLS training

Symptomatic Bradycardia Infants/Children cont’d Why: Bradycardia is common terminal rhythm in infants and children Do not want to wait for development of pulseless arrest to begin chest compressions if there are signs of poor perfusion and no improvement with 02 and ventilatory support

Why:

Bradycardia is common terminal rhythm in infants and children

Do not want to wait for development of pulseless arrest to begin chest compressions if there are signs of poor perfusion and no improvement with 02 and ventilatory support

Child Chest Compressions 2005 (New): Use heel of 1 or 2 hands 2000 (Old): Use heel of 1 hand Why: Child manikin study showed that rescuers performed better chest compressions using the “adult” technique

2005 (New):

Use heel of 1 or 2 hands

2000 (Old):

Use heel of 1 hand

Why:

Child manikin study showed that rescuers performed better chest compressions using the “adult” technique

Infant Chest Compressions 2005 (New): Use the 2 thumb-encircling technique-sternum compressed with thumbs and use fingers to squeeze thorax 2000 (Old): Use of fingers to compress chest wall was not described Why: This technique results in higher coronary artery perfusion pressure

2005 (New):

Use the 2 thumb-encircling technique-sternum compressed with thumbs and use fingers to squeeze thorax

2000 (Old):

Use of fingers to compress chest wall was not described

Why:

This technique results in higher coronary artery perfusion pressure

Compression to Ventilation Ratios Infants/Children 2005 (New): Lone rescuer :Compression to ventilation ratio 30:2 for infants, children and adults for 2 Rescuer CPR : 15:2 ratio for infants and children 2000 (Old): 15:2 adults 5:1 infants/children

2005 (New):

Lone rescuer :Compression to ventilation ratio 30:2 for infants, children and adults for

2 Rescuer CPR : 15:2 ratio for infants and children

2000 (Old):

15:2 adults 5:1 infants/children

Compression to Ventilation Ratios Infants/Children cont’d Why: Simplify training Reduce interruptions in chest compressions 15:2 ratio for 2 rescuer CPR for infants/children will provide additional ventilations

Why:

Simplify training

Reduce interruptions in chest compressions

15:2 ratio for 2 rescuer CPR for infants/children will provide additional ventilations

 

Foreign Body Airway Obstruction 2005 (New): Airway obstructions classified as mild or severe Rescuers should act only if signs of severe obstruction present poor air exchange Increased respiratory distress Silent cough Cyanosis Inability to speak or breath

2005 (New):

Airway obstructions classified as mild or severe

Rescuers should act only if signs of severe obstruction present

poor air exchange

Increased respiratory distress

Silent cough

Cyanosis

Inability to speak or breath

Foreign Body Airway Obstruction cont’d 2005 (New) cont’d If victim becomes unresponsive ACTIVATE 9-1-1 and begin CPR When airway opened during CPR, look in mouth and remove object if seen No blind finger sweeps

2005 (New) cont’d

If victim becomes unresponsive

ACTIVATE 9-1-1 and begin CPR

When airway opened during CPR, look in mouth and remove object if seen

No blind finger sweeps

Foreign Body Airway Obstruction cont’d 2000 (Old): Rescuers taught to recognize Partial obstruction with good air exchange Partial obstruction with poor air exchange Complete airway obstruction Rescuers taught to ask 2 questions Are you choking? Can you speak? Sequence for unresponsive choking victim was a complicated sequence/included abdominal thrusts

2000 (Old):

Rescuers taught to recognize

Partial obstruction with good air exchange

Partial obstruction with poor air exchange

Complete airway obstruction

Rescuers taught to ask 2 questions

Are you choking?

Can you speak?

Sequence for unresponsive choking victim was a complicated sequence/included abdominal thrusts

Foreign Body Airway Obstruction cont’d Why: Simplification Compressions during CPR may increase intrathoracic pressure more than abdominal thrusts Blind finger sweeps may injure victims mouth/throat or rescuers finger

Why:

Simplification

Compressions during CPR may increase intrathoracic pressure more than abdominal thrusts

Blind finger sweeps may injure victims mouth/throat or rescuers finger

Shock /Immediate CPR 2005 (New): Delivery of single shock for VF and pulseless VT followed by immediate CPR Perform 2 minutes of CPR before checking for signs of circulation

2005 (New):

Delivery of single shock for VF and pulseless VT followed by immediate CPR

Perform 2 minutes of CPR before checking for signs of circulation

Shock /Immediate CPR cont’d 2000 (Old): 3 stacked shocks recommended Why: 3 shocks were based on use of monophasic waveforms New biphasic defibrillators have a higher first-shock success rate 3-shock sequence can result in delays up to 37 seconds or longer from delivery of shock and delivery of first post-shock compression

2000 (Old):

3 stacked shocks recommended

Why:

3 shocks were based on use of monophasic waveforms

New biphasic defibrillators have a higher first-shock success rate

3-shock sequence can result in delays up to 37 seconds or longer from delivery of shock and delivery of first post-shock compression

Monophasic Defibrillation dose 2005 (New): Initial and subsequent shocks for VF/pulseless VT in adults 360J 2000 (Old): 200, 200-300J, 360J Why: One dose to simplify training

2005 (New):

Initial and subsequent shocks for VF/pulseless VT in adults 360J

2000 (Old):

200, 200-300J, 360J

Why:

One dose to simplify training

Biphasic Defibrillation Dose 2005 (New): Initial shock for adults:150-200J for biphasic truncated exponential waveform 120J for rectilinear biphasic waveform The second dose should be the same or higher Rescuers should use the device-specific defibrillation dose. If rescuer unfamiliar with device-specific dose-use default dose of 200J

2005 (New):

Initial shock for adults:150-200J for biphasic truncated exponential waveform

120J for rectilinear biphasic waveform

The second dose should be the same or higher

Rescuers should use the device-specific defibrillation dose. If rescuer unfamiliar with device-specific dose-use default dose of 200J

Biphasic Defibrillation Dose cont’d 2000 (Old): 200J, 200-300J, 360J Why: Simplify defibrillation Support use of device-specific doses

2000 (Old):

200J, 200-300J, 360J

Why:

Simplify defibrillation

Support use of device-specific doses

Use of AED’s in Children 2005 (New): Recommended use of AED’s in children 1-8 years old 2000 (Old): Insufficient evidence to recommend for or against use of AED’s in children under 8 years old Why: Evidence published since 2000 shows AED’s safe and effective for use in infants and children

2005 (New):

Recommended use of AED’s in children 1-8 years old

2000 (Old):

Insufficient evidence to recommend for or against use of AED’s in children under 8 years old

Why:

Evidence published since 2000 shows AED’s safe and effective for use in infants and children

Community/Lay Rescuer AED Programs 2005 (New): CPR/AED use by public safety first responders recommended to increase SCA survival rates Insufficient evidence to recommend for or against AED’s in homes 2000 (Old): Key elements of an AED program included: Physician oversight Training of rescuers Integration with EMS Process of CQI

2005 (New):

CPR/AED use by public safety first responders recommended to increase SCA survival rates

Insufficient evidence to recommend for or against AED’s in homes

2000 (Old):

Key elements of an AED program included:

Physician oversight

Training of rescuers

Integration with EMS

Process of CQI

Community/Lay Rescuer AED Programs cont’d 2005 (Why): The North American PAD trial reinforced the importance of planned and practiced response. Even at sites with AED’s in place- the AED’s were deployed for less than half the of the cardiac arrests at those sites indicating the need for frequent CPR

2005 (Why):

The North American PAD trial reinforced the importance of planned and practiced response.

Even at sites with AED’s in place- the AED’s were deployed for less than half the of the cardiac arrests at those sites indicating the need for frequent CPR

 

Tx of Arrhythmias AHA 2005 Guidelines

CPR Algorithm

Pulseless Algorithm

Brady- Arryhthmias

Tachy- Arryhthymias

Pulseless Arrest 4 Basic Rhythms Shockable V-fib V-Tach Non-Shockable Asystole PEA

Shockable

V-fib

V-Tach

Non-Shockable

Asystole

PEA

Shockable Rhthyms Ventricular Tachycardia V-Fib Shock early ABC’s Tx of VT/VF Shock- biphashic 200j, monophasic 360j (one x) CPR-IV, ETT Shock CPR-epi/vasopressin Shock CPR-Lido/amiodarone Shock CPR-epi Shock CPR- lido/amio

Ventricular Tachycardia

V-Fib

Shock early

ABC’s

Tx of VT/VF

Shock- biphashic 200j, monophasic 360j (one x)

CPR-IV, ETT

Shock

CPR-epi/vasopressin

Shock

CPR-Lido/amiodarone

Shock

CPR-epi

Shock

CPR- lido/amio

NON-Shockable PEA Asystole Tx of Asystole & PEA CPR-IV,airway Meds-vasopressin/epi CPR-2 min Meds-epi,atropine* CPR Meds-epi,atro CPR *Atropine used in PEA, only for HR < 60

PEA

Asystole

Tx of Asystole & PEA

CPR-IV,airway

Meds-vasopressin/epi

CPR-2 min

Meds-epi,atropine*

CPR

Meds-epi,atro

CPR

*Atropine used in PEA, only for HR < 60

Contributing Factors H’s and T’s Hypovolemia Hypoxia Hydrogen ion (acidosis) Hypo/hyperkalemia Hypoglycemia Hypothermia Toxins (drugs) Tamponade (cardiac) Tension PTX Thrombosis (coronary or pulmonary) Trauma

Hypovolemia

Hypoxia

Hydrogen ion (acidosis)

Hypo/hyperkalemia

Hypoglycemia

Hypothermia

Toxins (drugs)

Tamponade (cardiac)

Tension PTX

Thrombosis (coronary or pulmonary)

Trauma

Tachycardia’s Stable vs. Unstable Stable MI 12 lead Narrow complex Wide complex Treat causes H’s and T’s Unstable Altered MS CP Hypotension Signs of shock

Stable

MI

12 lead

Narrow complex

Wide complex

Treat causes

H’s and T’s

Unstable

Altered MS

CP

Hypotension

Signs of shock

Tx of Stable Tachycardias A-fib/flutter Vagal maneuvers Diltiazem (Ca++ channel blocker) SVT Adenosine V-Tach (WITH PULSE) Antiarrhythmic: Lido, Amio, (Mg+ for torsades)

A-fib/flutter

Vagal maneuvers

Diltiazem (Ca++ channel blocker)

SVT

Adenosine

V-Tach (WITH PULSE)

Antiarrhythmic: Lido, Amio, (Mg+ for torsades)

Tx of Unstable Tachycardias Perform immediate synchronized cardioversion MI Sedate if conscious DO NOT DELAY CARDIOVERSION

Perform immediate synchronized cardioversion

MI

Sedate if conscious

DO NOT DELAY CARDIOVERSION

Bradycardias Tx of Bradycardias Stable MI Adequate perfusion? Monitor BP!! Unstable Poor perfusion Immediate transcutaneous pacing Consider atropine while awaiting pacer Consider epi or dopamine if pacing ineffective

Stable

MI

Adequate perfusion?

Monitor BP!!

Unstable

Poor perfusion

Immediate transcutaneous pacing

Consider atropine while awaiting pacer

Consider epi or dopamine if pacing ineffective

ACLS Class Recommendations Class I – Always do this! Class IIa – Intervention of choice. Class IIb – Give careful consideration. Class Indeterminate – Clinical judgment Class III – Not recommended!

ACLS Class Recommendations

Class I – Always do this!

Class IIa – Intervention of choice.

Class IIb – Give careful consideration.

Class Indeterminate – Clinical judgment

Class III – Not recommended!

 

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