Published on February 7, 2008
Acknowledgement Systems: Acknowledgement Systems Lorie Spanjers Alliance Trainer, AEA 8 Carol Bauer PBS Trainers, AEA 8 Outcomes for this Session: Outcomes for this Session Understand the rationale for developing a school-wide acknowledgement system Identify guidelines for developing an effective school-wide acknowledgement system Understand factors that cause staff members to balk at use of positive rewards/reinforcers Identify ways to encourage the use of positive rewards/reinforcers in classrooms & schools Evidence-based features of SW-PBS: Evidence-based features of SW-PBS Prevention Define and teach positive social expectations Acknowledge positive behavior Arrange consistent consequences for problem behavior On-going collection and use of data for decision-making Continuum of intensive, individual interventions Administrative leadership – Team-based implementation (systems that support effective practices) Slide 4: Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior Tertiary Prevention: Specialized Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior ~80% of Students ~15% ~5% CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT School-wide Acknowledgement Systems: Rationale: School-wide Acknowledgement Systems: Rationale Focuses staff and student attention on desired behaviors Increases the likelihood that desired behaviors will be repeated Fosters a positive school climate Reduces the need for time consuming disciplinary measures, increasing student time on-task Social & academic behaviors/skills are learned and taught in the same manner.: Social & academic behaviors/skills are learned and taught in the same manner. New behaviors are taught by explanation, modeling, practice, & feedback New behaviors become durable with practice & feedback Behaviors become useful when effective & relevant Correct behaviors are taught & strengthened to replace error behaviors School-wide Acknowledgement Systems: Guidelines: School-wide Acknowledgement Systems: Guidelines Keep it simple The system should be for all students Make sure that rewards reflect the interests of the students (ask them!) Students should be eligible to earn rewards throughout the day contingent upon appropriate behavior Increase reinforcement before difficult times Deliver reinforcement unpredictably (you never know when you will get a surprise!) – but consistently Refrain from using the loss of rewards as a strategy for motivating desired behaviors…earned = kept School-wide Acknowledgement Systems: Guidelines: School-wide Acknowledgement Systems: Guidelines Provide staff with opportunities to recognize students in common areas who are not in their classes Encourage staff to reinforce students and students to earn the rewards Share data with staff Teach principles of reinforcement Principles of Reinforcement: Why Use Positive Reinforcement?: Principles of Reinforcement: Why Use Positive Reinforcement? Effective and evidence-based Teaches new skills Punishment alone is ineffective Leads to long term/lasting change Motivates and engages youth, staff and families More positive environment Reinforcement: Consequence events influence likelihood of future behavior occurrences: Reinforcement: Consequence events influence likelihood of future behavior occurrences Behaviors that are followed by Pleasing/reinforcing events are more likely to occur in future Aversive/punishing events are less likely to occur in future Most people find common consequence outcomes, objects, & events to be pleasing/reinforcing E.g., money, social contact, smiles, applause, recreation, escape or avoidance of tedious task, food, praise, academic/vocational success Slide 11: Most individuals find both external & internal events to be pleasing/reinforcing E.g., positive self-statements, relief from discomfort, hunger satisfaction, tension release, etc. Some people require more (or less) externally-provided pleasing/reinforcing events to maintain their efforts Reinforcement Reinforcers are acquired, take many forms, & are individually effective: Reinforcers are acquired, take many forms, & are individually effective Most social & tangible objects & events are initially neutral but become reinforcing/rewarding by being associated with other already reinforcing/rewarding objects & events Reinforcers can be any object or event “What is reinforcing/rewarding/pleasing” is affected by learning history, culture, community, etc. Activity: Activity Individually, look over the handout for Activity One at the back of your packet. Identify personal reinforcers for the activities listed. Share with members of your group. Formal & frequent use of positive rewards/reinforcers for appropriate student behavior contributes to development of environments that are described as positive, caring, safe, facilitating, etc.: Formal & frequent use of positive rewards/reinforcers for appropriate student behavior contributes to development of environments that are described as positive, caring, safe, facilitating, etc. Incentives: You were seen Exhibiting Dexter PRIDE This entitles you to a “Leave 5 minutes early for breakfast pass”. ____________________________ Given by ____________________________ Incentives You have exhibited exemplary Dexter PRIDE This entitles you to a “Free Car Wash”. See Mr. Gomez to set up an appointment ____________________________ Given by ____________________________ Dexter High School: Dexter, NM Slide 16: Incentives Slide 19: Student's Name__________ observer's initials Parent's Signature _______________ Date______ This student was noticed being: (mark all that apply) C a r e s considerate accountable respectful enthusiastic safe White Mt. Intermediate: Ruidoso, NM Slide 20: Rewards and Prizes Weekly drawings- Parent Council donates popcorn to be given to a winning student from each class. Teachers have option of having additional weekly drawings. Monthly drawing for a winner from each class to attend pizza party with the principal. Each 9 weeks a drawing for 2 winning students (one per grade level) to take his or her family to dinner at a local restaurant. White Mt. Intermediate: Ruidoso, NM Slide 21: P.A.W.S. Rewards Program was caught following the P.A.W.S. guidelines. P = Please listen A = Always be prepared W = Work/act responsibly S =Show respect Caught by: 2 tickets: candy treat first in line for lunch 10 tickets: 15 min. computer time lunch with an adult video for the weekend earn back Wolverine letter 50 tickets (whole class): popcorn party extra 30 minute recess 30 minute video School Example : School Example Tickets given out by all staff to students found meeting school-wide expectations When a student is observed following the school-wide expectation, circle it on the buck and acknowledge the student for the appropriate behavior observed Write the students name on the buck Sign and date the buck in order to prevent theft Only BLUE BUCKS are given by substitute teachers and are worth two points Bucks should not be taken away from students once they are earned Slide 23: 1st in line for lunch (gets to leave class 2 minutes early) Free pop Snack from vending machine Open Campus for you and a friend for lunch (with parent signatures) Free entry to a home sporting event Preferred parking for a week Cougar Traits t-shirt Cougar Traits Lanyard Free homework assignment (not on a major project or test) Free piece of pizza from Casey’s (donated ½) Free video rental (donated by local store) Free gas from Casey’s (we purchased in 2.00 coupons) Percentage off a haircut or product at local salons (donated) Prizes for Weekly Drawings Sample Secondary Rewards: Sample Secondary Rewards Business Donations for Monthly Raffle 10 minutes early to lunch Duffle Bags with School Logo Hamburger Cook Out with Karaoke Every Year a One Day Workshop designated to improve student character & Life Skills Webster City Middle School: Webster City Middle School How Low Can You Go?Webster City High School: How Low Can You Go?Webster City High School Additional School Examples: Additional School Examples “A, B, C” dances each grading period School bucks to use in a school store on a regular basis (weekly) “Caught Being Good” certificates Weekly lottery drawings Positive parent telephone contacts Positive office referrals Coupons (homework, tardy, athletic event ticket) Cougar Traits in the Community Student Name __________________________________Displayed the Cougar Trait of: RespectResponsibilityCaringCitizenship(Circle the trait you observed)Signature _____________________________________________If you would like to write on the back the details of what you observed feel free! Thank you for supporting our youth.: Cougar Traits in the Community Student Name __________________________________Displayed the Cougar Trait of: RespectResponsibilityCaringCitizenship(Circle the trait you observed)Signature _____________________________________________If you would like to write on the back the details of what you observed feel free! Thank you for supporting our youth. Slide 29: To build staff moral we began recognizing the positive things we were seeing among the adults in our building. Staff Examples: Staff Examples Team Action Planning: Acknowledgement System: Team Action Planning: Acknowledgement System What is your acknowledgement system? How frequently does it occur? Are you using verbal reinforcement? Is it consistent? Is it visible (do all staff, students, family know what it is and how it works)? Is it accessible to all? Use Activity Two Handout to review or generate ideas for your team’s Acknowledgement System action plan. Consider: Why do educators rebel at use of positive acknowledgements (misrules)?: Why do educators rebel at use of positive acknowledgements (misrules)? Use of extrinsic rewards will inhibit development of intrinsic motivation. Students don’t need rewards & acknowledgements to do what’s right. A strong, aversive natural consequence will get the message across. Give them time, & maturity will kick in. If they can’t do it on their own, they shouldn’t be in this course. Why do educators rebel (continued): Why do educators rebel (continued) Any students who need me to tell them what’s right and wrong aren’t going to make it my class. I teach biology. I don’t and shouldn’t have to teach respect and responsibility. It’s obvious to me, just look at her family. When I was his age, I had to do it all on my own….no breaks & privileges in my class. Are Rewards Dangerous?: Are Rewards Dangerous? “…our research team has conducted a series of reviews and analysis of (the reward) literature; our conclusion is that there is no inherent negative property of reward. Our analyses indicate that the argument against the use of rewards is an overgeneralization based on a narrow set of circumstances.” Judy Cameron, 2002 “…programs that show increased intrinsic motivation are those programs that incorporate the elements of good, comprehensive behavioral intervention…” Akin-Little, Little, Eckert, & Lovett, 2004 “The undermining effect of extrinsic reward on intrinsic motivation remains unproven” Steven Reiss, 2005 “What the Worlds Greatest Managers Do Differently” -- Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup Interviews with 1 million workers, 80,000 managers, in 40 companies. : “What the Worlds Greatest Managers Do Differently” -- Buckingham & Coffman 2002, Gallup Interviews with 1 million workers, 80,000 managers, in 40 companies. Create working environments where employees: Know what is expected Have the materials and equipment to do the job correctly Receive recognition each week for good work Have a supervisor who cares, and pays attention Receive encouragement to contribute and improve Can identify a person at work who is a “best friend” Feel the mission of the organization makes them feel like their jobs are important See the people around them committed to doing a good job Feel like they are learning new things (getting better) Have the opportunity to do their job well Create learning environments where students:: Create learning environments where students: Know what is expected Have the materials and equipment to do the job correctly Receive recognition each week for good work Have a teacher who cares, and pays attention Receive encouragement to contribute and improve Can identify a person at school who is a “best friend” Feel the mission of the school makes them feel like their jobs are important See the people around them committed to doing a good job Feel like they are learning new things (getting better) Have the opportunity to do their job well Team Activity:: Team Activity: Working as a team, take turns asking and answering the questions on the Activity Three handout (i.e., one team member reads a question and another answers it- then switch roles!) Keep a quick pace. After reading and answering a question, members can respond with a short statement if desired. Remember to keep responses brief and keep moving! When you have finished, take 5 minutes as a group and discuss your responses to the information presented. School-wide Acknowledgement Systems: Challenges: School-wide Acknowledgement Systems: Challenges Remaining focused on the positive Providing meaningful rewards Maintaining consistency with all staff Tracking your reward system Keeping it interesting & exciting Remembering that what reinforces one student will not necessarily work for others School-wide Acknowledgement Systems: Solutions: School-wide Acknowledgement Systems: Solutions Keep ratios of reinforcement to correction high (5:1 minimum) Gather input from students Train staff on use of rewards and review often Develop data-based system for monitoring and documenting appropriate behaviors Use reward “menus” so students can gain preferred options
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