Acids & Bases

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Information about Acids & Bases

Published on May 14, 2010

Author: kwarne



A set of slides created to teach Titrations to learners at Bishops Diocesan College in Cape Town.

Acid strength & pHH3O+ concentration (mol/dm3)1 0.01 0.001Strong acids Weak acids0.0001 0.000001(1x10-4) (1x10-5) Diluting a strong acid by a factor of ten changesits pH by one unit.pH = - log10[H3O+]WEAK STRONG[H3O+](mol/dm3)Log [H3O+]pH= -log[H3O+]0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14B A S E SA C I D S W A T E RWEAKSTRONG NEUTRAL1 0.1 0.01 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 10-10 10-11 10-12 10-13 10-140 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 12 -13 -14SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY 1

Acids - IonisationAll acids ionise in solution to give H+ ions.HCl  H+ + Cl- (100%)HCl (+ H2O)  H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq)H2O + H+  H3O+Nitric Acid: HNO3  H+ + NO3- (nitrate anion)Sulphuric Acid: H2SO4  2H+ + SO42- (sulphate anion)Carbonic Acid: H2CO3  2H+ + CO32- (carbonate anion)Ethanoic acid: CH3COOH  H+ + CH3COO-(ethanoate anion)SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY 2

SALTS A SALT is a compound formed when a metal is ionically bonded to anon-metal. Salts are formed in many acid-base reactions.Acid + Metal  SALT + hydrogenAcid + Metal Oxide  SALT + waterAcid + Metal hydroxide  SALT + waterAcid + Metal carbonate  SALT + carbon dioxide + waterAcid + Metal hydrogen carbonate  SALT + carbon dioxide + waterSALT ACID BASE ACID BASE SALTMgCl2 HCL Mg HCl Mg(OH)2 MgCl2Fe(NO3)2 HNO3 Fe(OH)2 H2SO3 NaOH Na2SO3MgCO3 H2 CO3 MgO H2CO3 CaO CaCO3Al2 (SO4 )3 H2 SO4 Al(OH)3 H2CO3 CaCO3 CaCO3(NH4)3 PO4 H3PO4 NH3 H2SO4 Mg MgSO4.SAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY 3

Cl-Acids - ionisation2H+H+H+Cl-Cl-Cl-H+H+Cl-Cl-20 HClDilute Strong acid• all moleculesdissociated• few molecules / dm3.Concentrated Strong Acid:• All molecules dissociated• Many molecules per dm3H ClH+Cl-Cl-Cl-Cl-H+H+H+H+H+H+H+H+H+H+H+H+H+Cl-Cl-Cl-Cl-Cl-H ClSAMPLE ONLY SAMPLE ONLY 4

pH calculations 1EquationspH = -log10[H+] [H+] = 10-pHExample:Calculate the pH for a specific [H+]: Given [H+] = 1.4 x 10-5 M pH = log10[H+]= log10(1.4 x 10-5)= 4.85Calculate the [H+] from pH: Given pH = 3.5[H+] = 10-pH= 10-3.5= 3.16 x 10-4 ONLY SAMPLE ONLY 5

Keith Warne This is a SAMPLE presentation only My full presentations contains loads more slides (20-100) andare available on the mycomlink website. (paste into your browser if link above does not work) I have other resources available from my Science Café sitefeel free to have a lookSAMPLE ONLYSAMPLE ONLY 6

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