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Acha hemcheav(អាចារ្យ ហែម ជៀវ)

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Information about Acha hemcheav(អាចារ្យ ហែម ជៀវ)
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Published on March 10, 2014

Author: sokengheng39

Source: slideshare.net

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វីរៈបុរសខ្មែរដែរបានការសាងប្រទេសកម្ពុជានាទស្សវត្តទី ៦០
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®BHeJFiv&gß sUr-hay eroberogngBnt¥ i i i Kg'-sm∏ar karpßayrbssarBtmanGgrbrI ' ·  U B˘s˘2548

sUmåTiÊscMeJH vrbrsExrTSgGs' EdlbCaCvt I u µ U Ii edm∫Cati sasna [manesrPaBeLgvj ! I I I I i ®BHsgÙEdl®Tgsl ' i dlmtyTCnEdlkarJrsaFarNrdExr ' i † u Ï Ω µ ngmtTKtTSgLay˘˘˘ i i † u · N eroberogtam‰ksar rbselak Ebn-yt†i caghagsarNtman®bCaCati ' " u √ · tamefrdka®BHsgÙcas@Cae®cnGg i ' I elak bN-cnml ufl ˆ Ê u" elak Qm-sm Gttsa®sacar¥salaVlCanxs' w ufl I † I ' ı EdlVnrmVtkmtva[VrSgElg Y u µ " Gacar¥ Ehm-ecov mkvj . i

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 1 Garm∏kfaeVHBum®KaTI3 ı mtGkGanCaTem®t,I i † ~ I enAeBleVHBmelkT3enH xVTVnykeTA®beKn ®BHeJFvgß sru ı I I ¨∆M i & U hay Bnt¥ngbEnmxHEdlxHxat edm∫[‰ksarvrbrsCatmanPaB®tm i i i ƒ ¬ √ I I I u i w ®tveLg . ®BHeJFvgß sr-hay febCabkckarde®cnkeday ®BHGgeB U I i & U √I I ' i ç * I *  jhÚTyCyBnt¥esovePAenH yagrkrayCaTbpt . ®BHGgmanefr:dka & Y i i " I I M u  dI mkkanxfa «elaksresrlKrsmehy EtmanxsxH GataVnemlmg ' ¨∆M Ì Y I u ¬ µ I † ehy . smelakxtx®sav®Cav®bvtvrbrsCateTotcH cSGataCyBnt¥ I U i M †i I u i u µ Y i i ebGatamanlTPaB˘˘˘» ®BHefr:dkaenHeF[ctxrePbeBk´®k ®s´mnkeXI µ Ï dI √I i † ¨∆M M I w I jdlCnxH EdlEtgEtedreBb®Caydlsa´ddmanxmsarenH . xsay ' ¬ I ' ~ * w¬ ¨∆M † Nas' sayedayCnTSgnHmn®BmepesckEkt®mv…rHKntamEbbGkecH † ±u i ∆I †I U i ' ~ dgesaH eKelgEtesøtJlsaman¥lcbnxeTAvj . smmtGkGanCw ~ Y ¬ ' ¨∆M i U i † ~ Y yBcarNaemlpgcH ! etbnanstvtßreToteTbeKeVHbgKntG®by i I u I u" µ _ I ' M i i enHecal ? eNyxlKt eygKtEtvrbrsGacar¥ Ehm-ecov EdlCanmtrb´nvr ˙I Çi i I i I u i i †U I brsExrTSgGsVnehy . u µ ' I xmanctrePbBneBkNas' enAeBlEdlrdaPVlelkzan:elakCa ¨∆M i †M I ' Ω i I e vrbrsCatT1 ´nsmyGaNanKmVrSg febxnxVn®beKnzan:enHdl' I u i I & i √I I Á¬ ¨∆M e ®BHGacar¥mnkeday . u * xmanCenOyagmSfa CnNakeday[EtecHdgnkKNbkar´nbBbr¨∆M M " * w w u U u √ u s mxCamnsabsn¥eLy . u i U I CaTGvsan xsmbgsgdlKNbN¥®BHrtn®tysmVrm®BGgCY I ¨∆M U Y Y ' u u & U I  yTaj®BlgExrNa EdlkBgveggedaytNak†I ®TB¥sm∫tk†I menaKm w µ M u √ ˙ †i vCak†I [vlmkkgsgmExrPakrlkEtmyvj edm∫ksag®beTstammaKa i Ç i ¨~  µ ∆ ' w Y i I I · vrbrs ®kLaehamKg,' Gacar¥Ehm-ecov, eGov-eks .l. ng .l. eLg I u I i I vj . i smbgbnrmQamEdlkBgrgTkevTnaedaysarsÂgam®KbEbbya U ËÌ Y M u u ≈  ' " g [VnCbEtsx:terogeTA . Y u t PeBj´f© 10 kkda 1972 M~ ˚ Gkeroberog ~

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 2 C®mabG~kGan ! eBlenHkdcCaeBlmnEdr, * U u ®beTsExreyg®tvBkGaNanKmVrSgess CHCan®tt®tamystµ I U Y i i ' Y Y vtß KBqS1863mkdl1953 eTbmhaCneygrlasnmdc´®gnHecal W I ~ ' I I ' w * ±u ecjVn . etExreygsxctedk[VrSg®tt®taTSgGsKaedayKankart I µ I u i † Y ' ~ µ s®byTtbvj… ? Ufl u Ï i eygVndgmkehytamry:esovePA bNS®kLaehamKg' faExreyI I w I e † µ gmnEmneFcEPk[breTssgtsgneTAtamGeBcteT KmanEtescxHni i µ ~ ˚ ' i˚ M I i † W † ¬ gmÂnxHeT Edle®cnEteCOeKarB{nk∫al[VrSgCan' edm∫[xneKVnenA †I ¬ I I I Á¬ htQam®bCara®sExrteTAeTot . u † µ TkEPkEdl®skGBkar®bmlcg®kg ®bvtngskmPaB´nvrbrsExr w ~ ' M I U †i i µ I u µ enH KCaskPaBrbsyvCne®sac®sgCati EdlkBg®byT®KbEbbyag W ≈I ' u ' M u u Ï ' " ®bqSgngBkeyokkg, mÂnF@syrly ngrlkeLgvjnvGttkald* w Y u †I M ¨Ì Y i M w I i U I QcabckQam . W ' u K˘s˘1864 ®beTsExr®tveFsnsJaCamy®beTsVrSg edayyk µ U √I Ïi Ô Y eKCaGaNaB¥aVl . lHmkdlqS1884 Exr®tvFakkgGnsJarbsVrSgess Edlman u ' ~ µ U ¬ ' ¨~ u Ô ' escneratm CaGkcHhtelxadak®beTsExreTAe®kamGaNanKmnymV † † ~ u ƒ ' µ i i rSgess . BqS1864mkdl1942 vrbrsGacar¥sa, eJrkeVr, Gacar¥lak,' sv I ~ ' I u √ M uI ta, ®kLaehamKg,' BselakQk ®BmmyGeneday®bCara®srmpg Vn ƒ i ¨ˆ U Y ¬I †Y eFkartsyagstsaj edm∫deNmyk®beTsrbsxnmkvj . Et®tv √I Ufl " √i √ I I †I ' Á¬ i U BkescxßbexßøvngVrSg [smabvrbrseshaCateygGsCae®cn . Y † i w ¬ ' I u ~ i I ' I e ma H e h y e s c kr a g c a l b nc m g @ k e T A B n s mkg e b H d g E x r [ P y x a c ¬" I †I †i † * Y M© ¨~ U µ & ¬ E®kgmane®KaHfakVtbgCvtdcGkmn@eTot . karFakcH´n®beTseyg ~ ' ' ' I i U ~ u ¬ ' u I e®bobVnngskeQ®CHcakEmk edaysarGkßrsa®sCati ®tvVrSgham w w¬ I u † U mn[knExreron eK[eronEtGkßrsa®srbseK e®b®Vssmar:®beTseK i U µ † ' I ' ∏ ® cabtSgBselokbJkeLgeTA . emaHehyxrk∫alExr ®tvvlvlElg ' I M M ' I ¬" I Y µ U i ' emleXjrbsxnCadacxat . mak@EdlVneFkarraCkar …EtGtsresr I I ' Á¬ ' ~ ' √I Y I PasaVrSg exmPasaCat‰g sbEm‰gEdlBsarsa esøksBtcgk∫n ıI i Ì ' " i ¬ ¬ M ' i

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 3 ®sLajEmeKEdllabe®km CkVrI esøksBtxH®kNateTAvj ! ®tghw~ ' " ' ¬ M ' √ ' i ' gehyCamlehteF[ExrlgxnehAElgæ ! emlElgyl' ! I U u √I µ © ' Á¬ I karBtEdleF[®bCara®sckQamenaH KerOgGkßrsa®seygEtmg. i √I † u W † I † ®beTsVn‰kraC¥Ct´mqSenH ExreygBTaneXjksagVnGCaeKalcri i ∏ ~ µ I uM ' I √I ksrab®bCaCatesaH eXjEtelktemgPasaVrSgelsBVrSgenA®tt M ' i I I ˚I I I Y ®taExr®tPaK . ebeygKt[dleTA mnsßFabxeK KntvaenAEtxeKdEdµ I I I i ' u ¬ ' ¨∆M M i ¨∆M l mn®Bmelkdemgxn‰g[esngCateKesaH . kare®bPasabreTsCa i I ˚I Á¬ µI w i I pvkardecHehy eF[Gkrdkarng®bCara®smanPaBdac®syalBKa . d ˬ U ~ I √I ~ Ω i † ' I ~ rabNamnsßTSgBr®bePTKanPaBCtsTngKa drabenaHdeNrksagsa u I µ i i~ Ï w ~ M I FarNrdeyg mxCamnVnsercsPmgleTotehy . Ω I u i M u  I Ga®symldanhgehy EdleF[ebHdg®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov x®bw & U Ω w~ I √I U M gE®bgeTsnaBn¥lBTbrsTlgexA ®k®k lgsartI [e®kakQreLg ' u Ï i & © ' ¬ I ' µ I ksagCvtedayxn‰g kedkpßgsNageTAtamyfakmµ . elakxtxeF√I I i Á¬ uM M i M karedayKanKteBlevlangCvtbg' e®JHelakBGacrsenAe®kamGNac µ i i I i uM ' M BkbreTsekt . Y I decHknesovePAdtcenH KanbNgGe®kABcg[BlrdExr EdlmnTa U ~ U * U µ M √I I ' Ω µ i nVnsalelak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov [salEtbeNaHeT . '  ' U  ' u" ˆ xsmeKarBvJaNknÏ ngGnvttamGselakvrbrsTSgGs' edayeB ¨∆M U i Ô ≈ i u † ' i u jctCaTbpt . i † I M u emagÚsß,I ´fT10 emsa 1971 © I Kg'-sm∏ar saFarNrdΩ®bCaFibety¥niym

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 4 Twkcit† ®BHGacar¥Ehm-ecov qSgVyelaksgÙKenAng®bCaCn ~ W w eb®bCaCnevTna, GtVy, ®bCaCn I ' KansTesrPaB, µ i Ïi I eb®bCaCnenAkg I ¨~ zan:CaxkJHeK elaksgÙkTTl C ¨∆M Ç * Y G Me N a y p l G a ® k k 'E d r . d Ue c ~H elaksgÙEdlmanPar: e®Vsst√ elak K®tvs®bedAeF[mnsßman W U †I √I u suI manesøk manesrPaB kg®beT ¬ I ¨~ s‰kraC¥ ngsnPaBdbrbN· . i †i * i U ‹ TkEPk®bCara®s† KTkEPk®BHsgÙ ‹ w ~ W w ~ ( ®sgecjBsarBtman®bCaCati ) ' I ·

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 5 kfaTmy I Y Cv®bvt´nelak®K®BHVLat' I †i U Ehm-ecov mnngskßaBeKalKnt´nvrbrsnmy@ Cabzmeyg®tvskßaGBCv u w i I M i I u I Y I U i M I I ®bvtsegbrbsJk¥sn . kgeBlenH eygnSKaskßaGBCv®bvtelak †i ≈ ' i ¨~ I ~ i M I I †i ®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov EdlCamhaefrmyGg®keLkeXj®bCara®s† TTl U Y  I Y TkeTastamzan:xnCamnsßkgGaNanKm ehykgsmyenaH (qS19u ≈ xÁ¬ u ¨~ i I ¨~ & ~ 33-1942) eKVnelkelakCavrbrsmydeqmkgpvneyaVy rhtmk I I u Y * ~I ¨~ ˬ U dlsB´f© . etelakbdsnkg®tklEbbNa ? kgTNa ? ' √ I i Ïi ¨~ U ¨~ I elak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov ®bs®t´fGgar qSc B˘s˘2440 K˘s˘18U U ©  ~ 98 enAPmGrkneTj (ekaNJ) sgatdbkmanlkßN_ ®skådg extkM U i U U &Î Ô ˚ ' M U u ¨† † BgsWı (enAxageCgCtsansanyrfePgVtdg) . ' I i ı ƒ i ¬I ' w “BkelakeQaH Ehm eFCaem®skdbkmanlkßN_ . mayelak u µ √I u M U † eQaHåVska Tv x®bgE®bgeFE®scmareday≤txachtenOy . ®Ksar µ i I M w √I ˚ ¬ ' Y enHmanbgbn5nakKW Ehm-l,I Ehm-ecov, Ehm-ht, nagEhm-sc, Eh ËÌ ' Y u m-say . bg®bselakeQaH Ehm-lI eFCasak†I (emFav) e®kaymkeF√I u µ √I µ I Caem®sktB“Bk . u I u kalenABkmar elakVnsalnvescklVk®KbEbbyag dcCakn I u  ' U †I M ' " U U kskr®k®kTeTAEdr KelakVnXaleKa rkGs edjcab tamzan:´nkn i I U W √ u ´ U kskrCamy“Bkmay®BklacrhtdlGay12qS eTbem®sk Ehm Ca i Y u † w © U ' u ~ I u “BknSykeTA®beKn®BHsgÙsta Cn-Nat vtåNaelam®kgPeBj eda u ƒ Y † ˆ u M~ yehtem®sk Ehm ng®BH®KsgÙstaCamtPkngKayagCtsTÏ . u u i U ƒ i † †i w ~ " i i~ kmar Ehm-ecov CaekgmanslFmlEbkCagekgd´TeTot@ manmat' u µ I · Ì ¬ µ Jk¥rhsc∫aslas' mansNabFabsmrm¥Kr[GkpgeBjct† . kmar & ' † ' ~ ' Y ~ i u enHmanB¥ayamxabxnlNas' VneronGkßrsa®skgsNak®BH®KsÇ ' ÁÇ Ì † ¨~ M ' U gÙstatSgGBdbg rhtTalEtemlVn sresrGkßrektedaybrbN· . ƒ M I M U U ' I I i U kmar Ehm-ecov VnenAskßaGbrkgsNak®BH®KsgÙsta Cnu i ' M ¨~ M ' U ƒ Y Nat GsyrqSedayVnedrsayyam®BH®KsgÙsta Edl®tvnmneTA ' U ~ I ı U ƒ U i † eTsnakg®skext‰eTot@Cajkjy . kmar Ehm-ecov VnsabFmeT ¨~ u † w u † ' ·

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 6 snarbs®BH®KsgÙstaGse®cnqS eTbCaehtnS[kmar ecov manesc ' U ƒ ' I ~ I u u keqøvqas ylehtplkgpvelakpvFmCae®cnyagNas' Cakmarman †I ¬ ¬ ' u ¨~ ˬ ˬ · I " u sdevahare®Jk®VCBEkCagkmar‰eTot@TSgGs' . kdEdlkmarsaksi M I ∆ U u u i u ~ ' kßa stenAxage®kaymhakdsB´fenH . ƒi u i √ © kmar Ehm-ecov B¥ayamerons®t≤teFs®bEhs…xl®cGseT . ku u U √ Çi U marxeronmnfaybmnfa´f© e®JHelakcSbNSbtakgkalEdl“BknSyk M i ' i † i ¨~ u eTATkkgsNak´n®BH®KsgÙstafa – u ¨~ M ' U ƒ - ecov kn®bssLaj“Bk @KanGEck[kneT KmanEtvCaenHehy U u M ' u µ √I U W i Ç I Edl‰gGacyteyag®Ksareyg[xgxsVn . mnsßlgeKemlgay W Y I ı ' ı ' u © ' I Naskn ! ebknecH“BkkecHEdr ! knenAPeBjxeroneLg ! keQaH®b ' U I U u * U M~ M I uM ¬ EkkKaNa± ! xs®tvemcma®tvecHGtFteTb®besr e®JHeygCaknkst' ~ u U † † U ' µ ' I I I U M edrEsgrkvCadcKa . decH®tvecH®sLajKa eTbGkpgsresr crkncS I √ i Ç U ~ U ~ U ' ~ I ~ I U U sPastbraNmyXafa «enApHmayT´T eTA´®BmayCamy» . elak®KU u i u Y ¬ Ê † I † Y ® B H s g Ù s ta G ge n H C a Gk ® V Ce ® C A ® C H V n C a G j n S kn ‰ g m k [ e n A ng ƒ  ~ ∆ U w elak ®tvkn‰gxeronsF¥ykctTkdak[EmnETn . U U M U i † u ' - VTelak“Bk knngeKarBtamsdBklH´fsab' ! smBkk®ByV u U w M I u u © ¬ U u uM Y rm[esaH ! ∏ - lehykn®bs“Bk ! ‰gCatNQamrbsGjehy˘˘˘ GjsgÙw Ì I U u u M ' I mel‰g®Kbdb' ! I ' - Jk¥enHeF[kmar ecov cgcSTkkgebHdg≤tman´fePc . kmar®s √I u u ¨~ U © ¬ u LajeKarBtam{vaTmatabtaNas' mnEdleF[GkmanKN®Byctmg ' i i √I ~ u Y i † † NaeLy . I ❑ ❑ ❑

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 7 kfaTBr I I sagp~Ás vy16qSkclmkdl' elakem®skEhmngPryaVnCnKa GBkarbbY & ~ * U u i i M uM ~ M I M sknCasameNr ehymlmtfa®tvbbsenAvtåNaelam ehy[Kg' U I U i U M Y † ˆ I sNakskßabrbtFmenAvtåNaelamdEdl . lHbsrcehy samM ' i i †i · † ˆ u Y Y I eNrecovTenjems®t (mlevy¥akrNVl) cSyagsatCnaj . Ê U U _ I " Ê ' M ´fExecHEtkngCaldab˘˘˘ © ¬ M ' sameNr Ehm-ecov GayVn20qS kbeBjåbsm∫Ta CaPkPav:kg u ~ * M i ¨≈ k¨~ BTsmaenAvtlga Edlman®BHmhavmlFmµ efag (caghagsalaVlCa u Ï I † ˚ i √ I nxsmndbg) CaåbCŒay man®BH®KbvrvCa l-‰m ng®BH®KsgÙsta ' ı ' u M U U i Ç √I i U ƒ Cn-Nat Ca®Ks®t . enAeBlbeBjCaPkehy elakkVn®bLgcl Y U U M i ¨≈ I * U eronsalaVlCanxsCabdcct®Vfa . karskßacnn7qSenAsalaVlI I ' ı ' ' U i † ~ i M Y ~ Canxs' eF[elakecHdgpvelak pvFm· lme®bkarVnedayeBjbrbN· ' ı √I w ˬ ˬ µ I i U kgpv®BHBTsasna . elakCassßsNbmyrb ´n®BH®KsgÙstaCn ¨~ ˬ u Ï i M ' Y U U ƒ Y -Nat Edlelak®sLajCageK edayPkEhm-ecovCabBCt Qas´v ' i ¨≈ √ i ¬ rhsrhn ecHKrsmeTAtamzan:CamnsßdcKa . lHKrbqST7 elakVn & Y Y C u U ~ u M ' ~ I ®bLgyksJab®tDbmsalaVlCanxsCabelx6 xagPasaVlEd Ô & I ˬ I ' ı ' ' I lsmyenaH ExreygkBgrabGanNas' . & µ I M u ' enAeBl®bLgecjBsalaVlehy kgqS1927 kaleNaHelak I I I ¨~ ~ ers¥m CatVrSg eFCaersdgextkBt VnBgelelakemKNvtGgsrPI " Ë i √I " uI ' † M w I †  u ehAkena ®skkBg®tac [CyrkelaksgÙmyGg EdlmansJab®t ƒ u M ' Y Y Ô & salaVlCanxs' kgkalenaHelak®KemKNvtkenanmnmk‰vtåNa I ' ı ¨~ U † ƒ i † † ˆ elam®kgPeBj mkBg®BH®KsgÙsta Cn-Nat smnmnelakmyGg u M~ w U ƒ Y U i † Y EdlmansJab®tDbmsalaVlCanxs' eTAbe®gonGkßrsa®sExrenA Ô & I ˬ I ' ı † µ extkBt edayehtelakersdg' ers¥m extkBtbegtGgkarskßaGkßr † M u " uI " Ë † M ˚I  i sa®sExr[manrebob®tm®tveLg . † µ w U I kalenaH®BH®KsgÙsta VncatelakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov [eTAbe®gon U ƒ ' Gkßrsa®sCat‰extkBt ykvt®kSgdg®skbnaymas ngvtkena®sk † i † M † U u Ê i † ƒ u kBg®tacCamCŒmNl . ®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov VneTAenAbe®gonGkßrsa M ' Î U

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 8 ®sCatkgextkBtGs6qS KtSgBqS1927dl1932 eTb®tLbmkenAPM~ † i ¨~ † M ' ~ W I ~ ' I ' eBjvj rcVn®bLgCabCasa®sacar¥enAsalaVlCanxskgqSenaH i Y ' † I ' ı ' ¨~ ~ ‰g . e®kABemagbe®gonssß elakGac¥arEtgnmneTAeTsnaCajkjy . I " i i † w eTsnkEngNakdckEngNaEdr elake®cnEtykBTPastfa vreyn Tu _ ¬ * U ¬ I u Ï i ii krect i ehyng Gta hi Gtena naefa mkGFb∫ayBn¥lelkåTahrN_ ≈ œ I i † † i ' I edm∫[BTbrsTgaysabVn . I I u Ï i & † ' ❑ ❑ ❑

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 9 lk≈N:x¬HEdlKYrdwg elak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov mansemgF®kGn manTkdmKr[cgsab' U ¬ M Y w Y ' † ehysabeTot, manevahaek∫aHk∫ayrGleTAmxCadrab BmanxnJk¥dEd I † ' i u uM ÁÇ l@ sm∫EtmymatkKanEdr . bEnelakBsvBEkxagsresresovePAeT U I Y " ' * µ u" † uM U U e®JHsm∫rNJk¥eBcnngrvlbe®goneTsnaeBk . Ë _ _ i ' cENkdeNreTsnaecjEbbdc®KrbselakebHbt Ksemc®BH M M I U U ' i W † sgÙraC Cn-Nat (tam®bsasnrbselak Qm-sm) . ®tgenHVn Y _ ' w ufl ' esckfa elak®K®BHVLateXasnanaK Ehm-ecov manlkN:mnxsBI †I U ' ≈ mi u semc®BHsgÙraCbnaneT . † u" µ ceJHePøvBnelakTTledayrakTak' ≤tersmxfaGkmanGk®kGeT . M ∆ ¬W Y ' I u ~ ~ √I CnNaEdlVn®V®syCamyelakmgehy CnenaHrEngcg®V®sy & Y † I ' & mgeTot edm∫sabelakGFb∫ayEjkEvk GB®Ts®BHBTEdldknSst√ † I I † ' i M I w †I u Ï w elak[dle®ty´nsPmgl . ' I u  r‰karbe®gonssßvj BEkBn¥lxagecHeF[ssßclcteronNas' I i i U ' √I i U i † sm∫Etsa®sacar¥enAsalaVlCanxs' kmnGacGt®TSsresrelakV U I † I ' ı * i ' I nEdr . ssßrbselak®sLajelak®Kb@Ka e®JHCasa®sacar¥mn®bkan' i ' ' ' ~ † i FmGKti . ebeXjssßNaxlerons®t elakEtgeJlceJHssß · I I i Çi U M i enaHedaysemgfm@ – ¬ ~ - crelakxeroneLg ! kbENtbeNaye®JHeygCaePTEdlGkpg U M I uM † † I ~ eKeKarBrabGan eKepTan˘˘˘ Em“eygenAe®kamkar®tt®tarbsbreTs ®BH ' ∆I " I Y ' BTsasna®tvcHGnfyCaldab' Gkßrsa®seygesrsabsn¥eTAehy u Ï U u ' M † I ÊI U I Kreyg®bgE®bgkxacenOyht' edm∫e®sac®sgmatPm[rcBxkJHVrS Y I w uM ¬ I I ' u U i Y I ¨∆M Ç g kePcxn[esaHfa eygCaGkbsrsedaysar®bCaCncJm ®tvEtman uM ¬ Á¬ I ~ Y ' i wç U ceNHvCae®CA®CH eTbeF[GkcJmeygmansTa®CHfa . cHebeyglg' M i Ç I √I ~ i wç I Ï ¬ u I I © exA etdknSeKemcekt ? etnrNaeKeKarBrabGaneyg ? bJaenHsmela ¬ I w † I I ' I ˙ U kKtBcarNaeml[EmnETn bNaceygecal®skecalE®scmar Em“ i i I M ' I u ˚ " bgbnmkeronenATenH. eteygmkedm∫G√I ? eygsTEtknGk®kdcKa®tv ËÌ I I I I I I u Ï U ~ U ~† U

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 10 CyKaeLg keFs®bEhs[esaH ®byteKemlgayNa xKanGCyela Y ~ I uM √ & ~ I ± ¨∆M µ √I Y keT manEtceNHvCadscesgbeNaH . elak ! karEdlxnyayenHmn M i Ç * Á† †I u" ˆ ¨∆M i i EmnCakare®bon®bedAeT KCakarrlkKaeTAvjeTAmk kgfan:CaknGkE®s W M w ~ i ¨~ C U ~ ngGkbsdcKa eyg®tvEtENnSKaedm∫EsgrksPmgl[®beTseyg i ~ Y U ~ I U ~ I I √ u  I EdlVnVtbge®cnqSmkehy˘˘˘. ' ' I ~ I Jk¥dasetOnrbselak®KVLateXasnaK Ehm-ecov eF[ssß ' ' U ' √I i salaVlCanxs®sLaj®KU ehyxtxerons®t≤thaneFs®bEhs I ' ı ' ' I i M U fl √ esaHeLy . mn®tmEt®sLaj' xeronbeNaHeT EfmTSgmankarQcab' I i w M u" ˆ W ngBkGaNanKmVrSgxSgeLg@Caldab' eF[mCŒdanGkeshaCatekat w Y i ¬ I M √I Ω ~ ~ i sresrssßsalaVlCanxs®Kb@Ka . I i I ' ı ' ' ~ kgeBlenaHehy EdleF[ktnamrbselak®K®BHVLatEhm-ecov ¨~ I √I i †i ' U ' ®kGb®KbTsTI . ®skNaPmNaextNa kcgnmnelakeTAsEdgFm· U ' i u U i † * ' i † M eTsnaEdr emaHehyelakmaneBlsraktcNas' . ¬" I M i ❑ ❑ ❑

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 11 kfaTbI I skmµPaBedIm∫ICatisasna lHcbkcskßaehy elakVneTAeFCa®Kbe®gonGkßrsa®sCatenA u ' i ç i I √I U † i vt®kSdg be®gon®BHsgÙsrabeF®KU teTA ®bkbeTAedayeCaKCyCaTb† U M ' √I & I M pt . u e®kABeBlbe®gon elakeqøtskßaxn‰geTot edm∫eQagcabyk I ¬ i Á¬ I I ' esckBtmkTnanxnngssßanssß ®BmCamyGenedayåVsk åV †I i U µ Á¬ i i u i Y ¬I skaEdl®tvkarcgecHcgdg . i U ' ' w enAeBlelakeTsnamatTeTelkdbg mnsvmanGksabe®cnbnan ' I M U i U ~ † ' I u" µ eT e®JHExrCanedmTmabEteTsntamsa®saskrt . emaHehycas@xH µ ' I ¬ ' _ † w¬ w ¬" I ' ¬ ®bkanfa «FmsmyfeKmnecHsabeT» . ehtkarNTSgenHBVneF[ ' · & µI i † ' u _ uM √I elak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov ®ByVrmlVkctGeT edayelakQas´vkg U Y ∏ M i † √I ¬ ¨~ karBn¥lmndbgvaEtgman®btkmdecHehy ebeygmntseT mxCamn ' u M U i µ U ~ I I I i Ufl u i VnsercbNgeLy . cabtSgBeBlenaHmk ®BHGacar¥EtgeFescksi~ M M I ' I √I †I TsalceJHcas@NaEdlmnsvclctsabelaksEmgFmmatTeT Ca Ï ~ M ' i U U i † † ' † · ' gGkpgTSgBg . mnyrbnanGkTSgenaHksabVn gayyl' EfmTSg ~ Y i U u" µ ~ * † ' semgBeraHpg ehy®sLajelakhsnyay cg[EtelakGacar¥s¬ i I ' Y i ' M EdgFmeTsnaral´fslngbN¥Tan . enAqSenaHehyEdl®BHsgÙ · ' © I i u ~ I Exreyg cabE®bs®tmnBPasaVlmkCaPasaExr . kaE®bmk[sabVn µ I ' U † I I µ † ' enH eF[GkKtmndleCrtHtHedoldl®BHsgÙEdlxtxE®byagsebm √I ~ i i ' µ i ' i M " M I rhtdlmanbgpleTAcltlakarEfmeTot . U ' w† † ' U u bEnesckts®bgE®bgeFkar edm∫[sasnaVnrgerOgman®beyaC u" † †I Ufl w √I I I u ndlmhaCn edaymntbteTAtamGeBJllgexA kckarenaHkVnserc _ ' i M I © ' ¬ i ç * M eCaKCyCasaBr rhtmkdlsB´fenH . & ƒ U ' √ © mkdlPeBj elajGacar¥ Ehm-ecov VnTTlfan:CaGacar¥sala ' M~ Y C VlCanxs' (sa®sacar¥) mank´r®bcSEx50erol lmng®T®TgCvPaB[ I ' ı † M µ w ' I serceTAekt . M I elak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov mansamNskCa®BHVLateXasnaKrb U †i ' ssemc®BHsgÙraC Cn-Nat kalelakenACa®BHBTeXasacar¥ mxgar ' † Y u Ï u

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 12 fenHBGacTajkmSgcteshaCatrbselak[ePcVneLy . elakrg µI uM ¬ i † ~ i ' ¬ I w rtEtxeron xGanesovePAExrbreTsEdlsxan@sGBerOgsasna neya w M M µ M ' †I M I Vy esdkcç Gkßrsa®s† TsßnvCa®KbTvara®tI ≤tbbeNay[eBlevΩ i i Ç ' i I † lakngptedayBVneFGCa®beyaCneT . e®kABkarskßabe®gonssß ¬ u iM √I √I _ I i i eTsna Bn¥lExrltlg' ®BHVLateXasnaK Ehm-ecov eqøteBleTA ' µ i© © ' ¬ ®V®syTakTgngvrCnF@EdleshamatPmCae®cneTot dcCaelakVc & ' w M ~ u U i I U " Sn, sg-gkfaj,' C-mg, nn-dg ngsm-va" .l. edm∫rHrkmeF¥aVy W W u" uM Y Y Y i uw I Ii redaHCat[rcBxVrSg . M i Y I ¨∆M evla´fmy elaksg-gkfaj' VneTACb®BHVLat' Ehm-ecov ehI © Y W u" Y y®beKndNg – M w - elak®K®BHVLatbNgeygCtVnsercehy ! U ' M I i M I - Br ! CtVnsercGelak ? i M I ®BHVLat' Ehm-ecov ecaTsNredayegOgql' . M Y © elaksg-gkfajjjmbncrcbnvaca – W u" ' w †i Y W¬ - krNamas' sB´fenH dcCaelak®KGacar¥dg®sabehy TahaneCI u ç √ © U U w ' I g®khmngeCgexAmn®tvKaeT edaysarVrSgecHEtcakrk[EbksamKI . i I µ i U ~ 'u ≤LvenHVrSgVncat[xkrNa nmn®BHsgÙeTsnaBn¥lBkTahanTSg Ë ' ¨∆M u i † ' Y nH, edm∫k[TasKaeTot . kgeBlenH xkrNasmnmnelakGacar¥eh±u I I uM ' ~ ¨~ ¨∆M u U i † I y. - yW ! emckelakmnnmnelakGacar¥ Vg-xat, s-hay pg ? " * i i † " U - krNa xnmnEtTSgGsGghg mn[sleT EteFyagNak[Bk u ¨∆M i † '  w~ i ' √I " uM Y vadg…sgßy E®kgeTAeTsna…Bn¥leTot . w & ' - Br karenHmnfeTceJHrbGataPaB EtGata®ByE®kgExreygxHcg' i √I M U µ µ Y µ I ¬ VnbN¥skBVrSg ehyykkarNeTA[VrSgvj ! u †i I I _ i - krNavaBtehy Eteygmn®tvxaceT . eyg®tvxBHJr®Kbåbu i I I i U ¬ I U M u ' sK eTbbNgrbseygVnserc . I M ' I M - Br®tvehyelak ! GatamnEdlnkxacdle®KaHfakGpalxneT KW U I µ i w ¬ ' ~ ' √I Ê ' Á¬ xacEbkkarsmatrbs®kmbdvtneyg ! GatamnEmnCaGkneyaVydc ¬ © ' ' u i † _ I µ i ~ U elakeT KCaGkbs ®KanEteTsnaBn¥lBTbrsT[sal' [dg [yl' W ~ Y ' ' u Ï i &  w [Gnvttam®BHsmTeTetI ! ebsabedm∫Cati sasna GatakmntcctEdr u † ¨ı Ï I ¬ ' I I µ * i U i † eFemcvasnamnsßva®tvTTldecH ! √I "† u U Y U ~

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 13 - ®tvehyelak®Kmas' karBtEdleyg®tvnyayenaH eyg®tvEtni U I U ç i I U i I U yay[®bCara®sdg . elgFmnymEGbGb mxCara®slclgdEdl . † w · i u † i ' xkrNasxctbCaCvtCnCati sasna Gsehy BmanxacsabeT ! ¨∆M u u i † U I i U ' I uM ¬ ¬ ' e®JHeygektmkrEmgsabeTAvjCaFmta . xkrNaKtsfaybglasn I I ¬ ' i µ ¨∆M u i uM √ M i ehy ! I - k®bjabGeJjeBkelak ! uM ' ÇI - xkrNamankare®cneTotEdl®tveF√I ! cS´fe®kay cSCECk[yrbn†i ¨∆M u I U © U c. - BrGeJjcHelak sm[Vnsx ! ÇI u U u elaksg-gkfajk®kabbgla®BHGacar¥ vleTAlenAvj®bkbeday W u" ' * M i M i TkctrkrayCaGenk . w i †I ®kmExrGkPakrlk ecHEtedreXasnabJHbJlra®s† ®BHsgÙ ®Kb' u µ ~ ∆ ' w I ¨ç Ëç nKmCnbT[mankarQcabeLg . elakVc-Qn mannaml∫xrxaredai W ' I " W I &Ê Ê yeFCacaghagsarBtman «nKrvt» manGkGansTCaGk®sLajCatBt √I √ · † ~ u Ï ~ ' i i ®Vkd . ®bCara®sng®BHsgÙ VnKS®TsarBtmanenHyageBjThg . † i · " M w cENkxag®BHsgÙ Edlxtsyagstsajmnxacsabedm∫matPU M M Ufl " √i √ i ¬ ¬ ' I I u mrsenaHKW elakGacar¥Vg-xat ' sa®sacar¥Pasas®st, elak®KGacar¥ i ' " † M w˚ U sr-hay ®kmCn®BH´®tbdk, elak®KGacar¥ exov-CuM KgenAvtlga, ®BH U u M uM i U ' † ˚ gacar¥ Ehm-ecov sa®sacar¥PasaVlI ngsamNssßenAsalaVlI † i i CanxsCae®cnGgeTotCypg . ®BHsgÙTSgGgGsenHehy EdleF[ ' ı ' I  Y  ' I √I TahanExrPakrlk ElgeQaHTasETgKaedayxsbT . ®kmTahanVrS µ ∆ ' w ¬ ' ~ u u gkacsahavNas' mnsalc∫abTmabGesaH . bgbnExreygsbexm i  ' ' ¬ ' √I ËÌ µ I Ì ' ıI mn[kneT . decHehy VnCaGk®skE®scmarhammn[kneFTahan i U U ~ I ~ u ˚ i U √I e®JHxaceKsb' rhtdlsB´f© . ®kmTahanTSgenaH cleTAdlPmNa ¬ Ì U ' √ u U ' U i PmenaHmxCahnehac®TB¥sm∫tmnxan . enHCaneyaVybEbkbVk' U i u i †i i M M edm∫®tt®tarbsecar´®BVrSg . I I Y ' K˘s˘1940 . kgTBCbnkclmkdl' (smemlKkneyaVyrbselak bNcn& u" * U U I u ' ufl ˆ Ê ml ebcg®Cabc∫as) edm∫vaykcats®tvrbsxnKVrSg GaemrkSg Gg' u" I ' ' I I M ' U ' Á¬ W i eKs enAkg≤NcnTSgml . eBlenaHkgTBVrSg mankmSgexßayNa ¬ ¨~ ËÎ i U & ¬ seTAehy . ExreygeXjdecH kcleTATakTgngCbn edm∫[eKCy ' I µ I I U ~ * U ' w u" I I Y

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 14 BkCbnkyl®Bmtamesckesrbselaksg-gkfaj' EdlCaGktNa Y u" * ' †I ~I ' W u" ~ M g®kmbdvtn_ . u i † enAeBleTsnamg@ ®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov VnelkykBTPastxxa † I u Ï i M n@ EdlTakTgngCvPaB®bCara®s† edm∫[®Cabc∫as' Vndgc∫asnveKa ' ' w I I I w ' U lbNg´n®BHbrm®Krbseyg . BTPastTSgenaHKW – M U ' I u Ï i ‹ keFmnsß[cegøtelak . uM √I u Ì ‹ ®tvKtbcb∫n[VnsxCamn e®JHfaebVnsxkgbcb∫nehy G U i ¨ç ~ u u I u ¨~ ¨ç ~ I naKtmxCaVnsxeTot . u u ‹ ®tvxeFkar kedkpßgsNag . U M √I uM M ‹ kngesckTkVn e®JHB¥ayamxabxn . ¬ †I u ≈ Ç ' ÁÇ ‹ manEtxneygeT EdlCaTBngVn . Á¬ I I M w ‹ bKlmnKb∫esBKbnvmtdlamkTSgLayeLy mnKb∫esBKb' u  i I ' U i † * I i I nvbrsdTabefakTSgLayeLy U u * I Kb∫esBKbEtngkl¥amtTSg I ' w i † Lay Kb∫esBKbnvbrsdåtmTSgLay (100Kafa) . I ' U u * † ‹ mnsß≤t®VCa rEmgENnSnvcENkEdlmnKrENnS rEmgdknS u ∆ U M i Y w [®bkbkgcENkEdlmnCaFr: CamnsßKeKENnS …®bedA[Vn ¨~ M i u u W ledaylVk kalebeKnyayl@ k®sabEt®ceLatxg, mnsß Ì M I i Ì * ' w u enaHmnecHdgvnyc∫abGeLy, kryamnCb®bTH …mneXjnvmnu i w i & ' √I I ii i Y i I U sßdcenaH CakarlÌ (100Kafa) . U ‹ bKl mnKrGa®syGkd´TcJmCvteLy . u  i Y & ~ i wç I i I BTPastTSgGsenH elakcg[®bCara®smanesrPaB edayBgEpk u Ï i ' ' † I w Ì elxg‰gCamldan, kepvasnaeTAelesc EdlCamnsßeXareXAsb∫a I ~ U Ω uM ∆I I † u yePcCati enaHmnleT . e®kABelkBTPast elakGacar¥VnTajåTa¬ i Ì I I u Ï i hrNl@B®beTsnana EdleKecHksagCat[VnrgerOg®Kbvsy . mi _ Ì I i u ' i & n®tmEtbNHsart[Exre®kakQr®byTyk‰kraC¥BVrSgenaHeT elak w ¨† µ I µ u Ï I VnbNHsartknExr[®sLajkarskßa [ylt´m´nvCaEfmeTotpg . ¨† µ I U µ ' i ' ¬ i Ç mhavsßmkalkclmkdl˘˘˘ i * U ' ®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov VnnmneTAvtkeNt edm∫srsxTkejamja i † † M I I I Y u u ti ngPksameNr‰eTotEdlrabGanKa . enAeBlybeLg mancas@®sI i i ¨≈ ' ~ ' I ' ®bs ngPksameNrVnmkecameram edm∫[elakGFb∫ayFm…erOgrav u i i ¨≈ I I i · " epßg@[sab' . mndbg elakelkerOgGepßg@Edlman®beyaCn_ eTb † u M U I √I I

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 15 elakmanefrdkamy@ – I Y - ®beTseygmndgeBlNa rcBxVrSgeT . VrSgmk®tt®ta®sk I i w Y I ¨∆M Y u eyg hnehac®TB¥sm∫tGs' KanGcernrgerOgesaH, dceygralKaeXI I i †i µ √I M I u U I ' ~ j®sabehy GataeFbN¥ral´f© bgsgs[ExrVn‰kraC¥mkvj edm∫I ' I µ √I u ' Y Y uM µ i I k[breTsCHCaneygteTAeTot . uM i ' I xN:enaHelaktamakeJleLg – e ~ ' I - krNamaskKtdcelak®KGacar¥Edr EtmndgeFemcVnQHBkV u ç ' * i U U i w √I " ~ Y rSgeT . cNcenHVneF[Tk®BHTy®BHGacar¥rkrayeBk´®k . elakktbeda M u √I w & I * ysemg®kGn®BmTSgjjmpg – ¬ Y w - BrCakargayeT elakraebeygcgVn‰kraC¥ e®JH®BHsmasmTÏ I I ' µ ¨ı ®Tgbgajpv[eygedr ehyfa «escksamKI nSmknvescksx®Kb' ' ˙ ˬ I I I †I U †I u yag» . " EtkalNaeyg®sH®slKa eygngGaceFG@ektmnxan . Gatas I u Y ~ I w √I √I I i µ gÙmfa eb®bCara®seyg®sH®slKa mxCaQHVrSgeBlqab@enHmnxa w I † I u Y ~ u ~ ' i n . EtebExreygmn®sbKaeT eygBGacdeNmykesrPaBenaHmkvj I µ I i ~ I uM †I I i VneLy . GatamneBjctngGkxH EdleKyk®BHBTsasna edm∫bM I µ i i † w ~ ¬ u Ï I I Pnmt®bCara®s† ehyeVk®bCara®sCadacxat . elakta ! elakTSgGs' ^ † i I † ' eXj®sabehy ®beTseygmanGkbnxn ekgykk´rBsasnasem∫m I ' I I ~ M¬ Á¬ M I I Nas' . - krNamas' BtehykarenH ! u ç i I karsnnaGBerOgsasnaneyaVy ngGBkarENnS[®bCaCnecH®b Ê M I i M I kbkargarcJmCvt ®sbtamKng®BHsmTÏ Vn®b®BteTArhtJkkNai wç I i ¬ ¨ı w † U ' † lGa®Fa®teTbQb' . I eBlnmneTA®skmg@ ®BHGacar¥Etgnmn®KbpHbgbnNaEdl®k®k i † u † i † ' Ê ËÌ I CageK . elakeBjct®V®syCamyCnCBkenaH kdcCaelakeBjct† i † & Y M U * U i ngPmkeNt…®BHsmTEdr . w U i M I ¨ı Ï ❑ ❑ ❑

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 16 kfaTbn I Y ®BHVLat' Ehm-ecov ®tUvVraMgcab'pßwk ®BHGaTt¥CtGsgtrltrseTAehy˘˘˘ i i †  ' µI I semg´ry®Klc BelcgKKrmkbH®tecokbrCn [®segH®segac ¬ M Y I I u I " uI exacpßa esrTbClen®tBVn . ¬ ÊI ' uM qS 1 9 4 2 C a qS E d l ® b e T s e yg ® tv V tb gGk e sh a C a tm a tPmG s ' ~ ~ I U ' ' ~ ~ i u U i Cae®cn . I ®BtkarNsklelak VntgEtgCaldab' . w †i _ w M sÂgamelakelkT2kpHeLg .  I I * ¨Ê I sankarNkg®beTsExr mansPaBtgEtgesrEkElgrc e®JH®bCa ƒ _ ¨~ µ w ÊI Y CnExreyghakdcCalglk' edaymndgfa ®beTsGjenAe®kamGNac µ I ' U ' i w M rbsVrSgeT . Etebdgvj k®KanEt®tmdgesr mnhaneFskmPaBG√I ' I w i * ' w w ÊI i fl √I µ eLy . etedaysarG√I ? CnCatExrEdlVrSgcabxn KanvrCn…escNa I I i µ ' Á¬ µ † eTAstva[rcxnmkvjeT . eKEbrCaCrj[breTssmabecaleTAvj . uM " Y Á¬ i Mu ¬ ' i emaHehy, GkmanceNHtcrEmgxacsabCaFmta karPyxackektman ¬" I ~ M i ¬ ¬ ' µ & ¬ * I eLg . I EtExrQamGgrvt† FabeFCamhaGNacmyngeKEdr ke®kakQrTaµ  ¬ ' √I M Y w * j´dbgbnQamxn[ts®byTeLg . ËÌ Á¬ Ufl u Ï I ®kmbdvtnVntseFskmPaBrbsxnyagmmajk edm∫[Tansan u i † _ Ufl √I µ ' Á¬ " w I I ' ƒ karNsklelakEdlkBgc∫SgKa . eBlenaH®BHgacar¥ Ehm-ecov Etg _ M u ~ nmneTAGbrExr®skE®sckarCajkjy edm∫skaråbtmB®bCara®s† ®K i † 'M µ u M w I I uM ƒ ∏ I bmeF¥aVyng®Kbsmar: . ' i ' ∏ cENk®bCara®sng®BHsgÙ VnKS®T®kmbdvtn_ tSgpvctpvkay M † i u i † ˬ i † ˬ ≤tsgßyeLy . & I EpnkarsmatrbsExrbdvtn_ Vndgdl®ksgesbGegt´nBkbreT © ' ' µ i † w ' Y uI ˚ Y s . karenHdgedaysarTahanExreygEdlenA®sLajVrSg ehyyk w µ I ' I

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 17 karNeTA[VrSgedm∫xnVnbN¥sk†i (1) . _ I I Á¬ u & tamesovePAKkneyaVyrbselakbN-cnml EdlCasmaCkma u ' ufl ˆ Ê u" i ~ k´dsxan´n®kmbdvtn_ Vnsresryagc∫aslasfa edayBkTahan ' M ' u i † " ' ' Y ExrEdlVnmkTakTgCamyelak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov ngelak nn-Dg µ ' Y U i Y Y enaH, manTahanxHEdl®sLajVrSgdHEskgxrdHmn®CHenaH, vanSerOg ¬ ' u ¬ ¨~ Y u i smabenHeTA®VbVrSg faelakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov ngelak nn-Dg Caem ¬ ' ' i Y Y dknSBkTahanExr[bHeVr®bqSgngVrSg . TahanExrcnn15nak' ®tv w Y µ w µ M Y U cabsat@edm∫k[EbkkarN_ . ' © ' I I uM enA´f17 kkda 1942 ®sabEteXjcaghagKjVrSgmak' ngelxa © ˚ ' I √ i ~ i FkarExrBrnakeTot mankansNlxtmydpg, VneTACbelak Gg-GuI i µ I ' ' M uM i i Y uM Y uw n a y k r d m  n † I ® B m T S g e l a k T a - s a n r d Ωm  n I†® k s Yg m h a ´ p Ên ig F m µk a r Ω ngmÂn‰eTot . ®KaenaH elak Ta-san VnbJaelak C-mg (kaleNaH i †I Ç uM Y eFCaelxaFkare®kambgabelak) [eTAnmnelak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov mk √I i  ' i † U . elak C-mg nk®bEhlCamankarFehy kgerOgsmatCamyKa Etca uM Y w M I ¨~ © ' Y ~ belak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov eTAngraldaldlGataGjmnxan, bEnBTan' ' U w ' µ i u" † uM dgc∫asCaerOgGEdr ? edayBhansreK . w ' √I uM fl Y elak C-mg keTAvtåNaelam nmnelak®KU Ehm-ecov elakkVn uM Y * † ˆ i † * nmnCamyKaCabnan' . tampv, elakVnsrelak C-mg BdeNrEdl i † Y ~ Ê Ë¬ * Y uM Y I M I elakrdmÂn[mknmnenH . elak C-mg kTlelaktamdeNrEdlVn Ω †I i † uM Y * U M I eXj EtBdgCaerOgG√I . elakmanefrdkafa – ebvasrBerOgeyg eygeq¬I I uM w I I Y I I I y®bEkkfa EtBVndgeTA ! rcelakmanefrdkatmkeTotfa elaksguM w Y I W gkfajVnpSfa ebVrSgvadgerOg ®tv[®bjabrtcleTA‰mnrkgGavF u" ' † I w U ' ' U ÊI u htCbnCa®bjab' eTbrcxn ! eyablTSgBrnakylfa c∫asCaVrSgva ƒ u" I Y Á¬ ' I ' ' ' dgerOgsmatehy, bEnBVnKtdlerOgGeT nkfa®bEhlCava®KanEt w © ' I u" † uM i ' √I w ' ehAsrsnEtbeNaHeTyageml ? Y i u" ˆ " I lHelak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov eTAdl' ®sabEtelak Ta-san e®b[bM u U ' I ereTATjxa1 Gav1 mkehy bgelak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov [pass∫gcI i I M≈ U ¬ ' ' I BrBxn ehyesøkJkexaGavPamrcVrSgvanSeTAtamrfynvaVteTAEtmg I Á¬ I ¬ ' ¬ Y † ' † -----------(1) mancas@xHVnnyayfa Gacar¥ Ehm-ecov Edl®tvVrSgcabenH mkBIescshnxßb[ ' ¬ i U ' † I u w VrSgcab' eTbVnCaBkvadg . escshnu xac®kmbdvtnrlayraCblgecal eTbeFdecH . I Y w † I ¬ u i † _M ¬ ˚ I √I U ~

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 18 r k E t r te T A ® V bGk N a kmn T a n ' . Kt e T A Bk e K c a be l a k p ßk T S g ≤ t Cnu M ' ' ~ * i i Y ' w M esaH . elak C-mg kanEtPyxSgfa Gjc∫asCaVrSgvacabxneTotCaBxan uM Y ' & ¬ ' ' Á¬ uM . lHdleBlecjBeFkar keTACrabelak sg-gkfaj' tamdeNr . u ' I √I * M W u" M I elakk®Vbfa [®bytxn[EmnETn VrSg®VkdCacabeygehy . * ' & ~ Á¬ ' I I erOgcabelak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov kepleqaeLaeLg kgbNaBk ' U * ÌI I ¨~ † Y elaksgÙCansßt´nsalaVlCanxs' ngvtnanakg®kgPeBj Edl i i I ' ı i † ¨~ u M~ e®cnEtCamtPkngCassßrbselak . I i † & †i i i ' kgeBlCamyKaenaH elak nn-Dg k®tvKjVrSgeTAcab‰pHEdr . ¨~ Y ~ Y Y * U i ' Ê enAeBlEdlVrSgcabpßk elak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov mankarQcab' ' w U W ≤tåbma eF[Tken®taelakhredaymndgxn . elaknktcctngExrKa √I w U i w Á¬ w U i † w µ ~ ‰g EdleFFehymnCyQqalkarJrktys®BHsgÙ, EbrCabeNay √I M I i Y W Ì i †i † [CnbreTs jSjtamGeBctrbseK . elakKannkxacfa VrSgeFTaI M I i † ' µ w ¬ √I rNkmGeT EtelaknksayKeragkarN_ EdlngCtVnsercplpl' u µ √I w † M w i M † eTA[®bCara®sExr EdlrskgGngTke®kam®kjSbsacVrSg ngesc † µ ' ¨~ ¬ ' u ≈ i i † ygXgCae®cnqSmkehy . ' ~ I ~ I enAkgTXXSg elakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov Ggysmgtamrntcmy emI ¨~ I uM ¨ w¬ Ï U Y leTAemXaEdlmandBBkrsate®KOn@ e®bobdcCadTkpsecjB®keGA uM ' U uM u ≈ u I ebHdg´n®bCaCnrmCati . ®BHGacar¥eJlEtmak‰g TSgTkEPks®sak' – U Y ~ ' w ~ - { ! ®beTsGjeGy ! etkalNaeTAngVn‰kraC¥ sm∫rsb∫ay I I w Ë dcsmymhanKrvj ! ebmÂnF@sTsglkk∫alyagdac´f¬ [VrSg U & i I †I M u Ï w ' " ' eTAehy˘˘˘. I - et´fNa eTbExreyge®kakBedk ? eTbExrsalxn‰gCamnsß I © I µ I I I µ  ' Á¬ u dcsasnd´T ! U _ - { ! ®bymt† ! Edlrmefm sbrCvt≤tsay®seNaH edm∫s®Kla i i Y ¬I Ufl ˆ I i † I I Ufl sxn [rcBnmGaNanKmVrSgEss ! mtmndgCa®ByyagNaeT ! ' Á¬ Y I w i i † i w Y " e®JHxacEbkkarN_ (Epnkarsmat) rbseyg ! mteGy eTaHbGaecarGb ¬ © ' ' I i † I I lkßNTSgenaH ykGavFmkBH®Tgrgykefmxkeday xmneqy®Vbnv _ u u U U ¬I ¨∆M * ¨∆M i ¬I ' U karNBtTSgenaHeLy ! xmnsxct[®beTsxsabCadacxat ehyx¨∆M _ i I ¨∆M i u i † ¨∆M ¬ ' ' I mnsxctrsedayeXj®beTsxkJHeKEdr . i u i † ' I ¨∆M Ç {mtrmsasna ! xsmbgsgdlKNbN¥®BHrtn®ty ngvJaN i †Y ¨∆M U Y Y ' u u & i i Ô

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 19 kn´nvrbrsExr Edlmanelak®kLaehamKgCaedm CyKSJr[kartsUfl ≈ Ï I u µ ' I Y rbseygVnse®mceCaKCykbxan edm∫[knecArbseyg salnvsi ' I & uM I I I U ' I  ' U TÏi esrPaB ytFm· sPmgl dcGar¥®beTsnana˘˘˘. I u †i u  U TnjdesakesAenH VnehrcleTAkgebHdgExrGkeshaCati [rg M Y * I U ¨~ U µ ~ ~ w rtEtkahaneLgCaeTPaK . esckTklVkrbselak EdlVrSgVneF√I w ¬ I √ †I u ≈ M ' TarNkmyag´®B´pß edm∫srcemyenaH manvsalPaBmnGacBNna u µ " I I Y ¬I i i · VneLy . I r‰elak nn-Dg eFkarenA®kmCnE®b®BH´®tbdk k®tvTTlGeByg' I Y Y √I u M uM i * U Y M I Xg dc®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov Edr EtvrbrsTSgBrrbenH VnrkßaTkkt~ U I u I U u i †i ysExreygrhtmkdlsB´f© . µ I U ' √ ❑ ❑ ❑

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 20 kfaT®VM I mhaVtukmµ´f©20 kk˚da 1942 dNgVrSgcabpßkelak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov VneF[samNssß M w ' w U √I i enAsalaVlCanxs' reCbrClyagxSg ehypßayeTA®KbvtGaramng I ' ı M I M Y " ¬ I ' † i exte®kAedm∫rm®bCKa eFVtkmtva[VrSgedaHElgelak®KGacar¥ Ehm † I IY uM ~ √I u µ " U ecov ngelak nn-Dg BTXXSgmkvj . i Y Y I I uM i mhaVtkmenH brgeFenA´fT18 kkda Et®tvGakxaneTAvj edayenA u µ Mu √I © I ˚ U ' i vtlgaCabrvleFbN¥cern®BHCnvsßa®BHFmlxt l-‰m Cacaghag † ˚ ' ' √I u M I µ µ i i √I √ salaVlCanxs' kg{kasEdlelakeLgsmNskTCa®BHFmlxt I ' ı ¨~ I & †i I µ i i . BFbN¥enHVnbegyenA´fT19 kkda . i I u ˙I © I ˚ eBlenaH elak sg-gkfaj' VnePosxneTABn‰karyalykgGa W u" Á¬ Y i & vFhtCbn edm∫eKcxn[ptBkNab´dVrSgEss kgeKalbNgdk u ƒ u" I I Á¬ u I † ' ¨~ M w nS®kmbdvtnkgkarredaHCat[Vnse®mc . u i † _ ¨~ M i karTakTgrvagelak sg-gkfaj' ngemdknSxagVtkmµ Vn®b®Bt† ' W u" i w u w eTAyagskmµ edaymanelak bN-cnml CaGknSJk¥ eTAC®mabelak " ufl ˆ Ê u" ~ Vc-Qn EdlCabrsmakmanctrgdcfµ . " W u ~ ' i †w U ra®t´fT19kkda emdknSBkVtkrVnerobck∫neday®km@ tamkmµ I © I ˚ w Y u M Á u vFrbsxnCae®sc . i I ' Á¬ ´fT20 kkda kclmkdl˘˘˘ © I ˚ * U ' ®bCara®sng®BHsgÙExr enAT®kgPeBj ´dkandgbda edrsedAeTA † i µ I u M~ ' I M vmaneTsaPVlVrSg enAxaglcvtPM~ (TskarrdmÂn®ksgEpnkarsB√ i i i † I †I Ω †I Y ´f) ®bkbedayTkmxGgGackahanngxgpg . enAxagelpSgbdaenaH © w u ' ¬ i w I Ê mancarkJk¥esakfa «eygxsm[edaHElgelak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov ni i ¬ I ¨∆M U U gelak nn-Dg mkvj» . Y Y i BkVtkr VneTAdlkaryalyeTsaPVlVrSgyagkHkr edaycM Y u ' i & i " u rHedayBNelOgpg eF[TdPaBenHKrKyKn≤tKNna . u · √I i Ω Y ' enAmxBkVtkrrabmnnak' eK®keLkeXjelak Vc-Qn Qryag u Y u ' uW I " W " sga Kan®BeramxacBkVrSgygXgeFVbGeLy . mndbgelakVc˙ µ W ¬ Y ' ~ √I √I I u M U "

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 21 QnVnrayrab®VbVrSgBehtkarNepßg@ ngsCbeTsaPVlVrS W " " ' ' I u _ i uM Y i g EtVrSg[clBrbnakbeNaH . ®kmVtkrmn®Bme®JHxacBkvacab' U I I ' u" ˆ u u i ¬ Y eTot . eBlenaHedaymnsß®calcH®caleLg eF[elakVc-Qn®Cu u I √I " W u lxnclkgrbgkaryalyrbsbreTs ehyVrSgkbTTar rcvanSemV Á¬ U ¨~ i & ' I * i √ Y tkrtampve®kayVteTA . u ˬ ' eXjVrSgcabelakVc-QndecH ®kmVtkr®TSmnVn kbHKlva I ' " W U ~ u u i * i yKjVrSg ynEbkk∫alhrQameLg . ®BHsgÙedjcabVrSgngdg i Y U I ' w q®t e®JHEtxgeKeFVbsa®sacar¥rbsxn . cENk®Khse®bdfµ d& w √I † ' Á¬ M ƒ I uM M bgngkntgCaGavFEdr . i U w u karbHeVrvaydecH eF[xcKeragkarGsrlg Edlelaksg-gkfa U ~ √I U M ' I W u" jVnTakTg[CbnCyeFGnraKmn_ eb®bsnNaeTsaPVlVrSgmn ' ' u" Y √I † I i i i edaHElgvrCnTSgBreT (smGanKkneyaVyrbselak bN-cnml) I I U u ' u" ˆ Ê u" eBlkBgvay®bLkKaenaH BkVrSgVnftrbVtkr edm∫®sledr M u Ë ~ Y U u I I Y I cab' . ®BHPk¨≈ Vg-xat' ng®BHGacar¥ Gk-Ca, elakbN-cnml, elak i " i ufl u" ˆ Ê u" C-mg, PkFmVl exov-CuM .l. VnrteKcxnyagrhs . CnNayt uM Y i ¨≈ µ ' Á¬ " & W deNrk®tvBkVrSgcabdakKkGs' . M I * U Y ' ' u ®BHetC®BHKN Vg-xat' eKcxnrc ehyEbrCanmneTA[VrSgcab' u " Á¬ Y I i † edayctkahanCaTbpt . elakbN-cnmlk®tvVrSgcabEdr . i † ¬ I M u u" ˆ Ê u" * U ' r‰®BHGacar¥ Gk-Ca ngPkFmVl exov-CuM VnnmnePosxneTAkan' I ufl i i ¨≈ µ i † Á¬ ®beTsesomTSgTkEPk . (®BHGacar¥ Gk-Ca KgenA®skesomrhtmk w ~ ufl ' u U dlsB´f) . ' √ © cENkelak C-mg kVneKcxneTAVtdbgEdr . M uM Y * Á¬ ' M ExrGkeshaCati TSg®BHsgÙ TSg®Khsƒ EdlcabVn eKdakkgTI µ ~ ~ ' ' ¨~ XXSg rcbJneTAKkFPeBjTkkateTas . uM Y ËÇ u M M~ u ' cENkescshnu KanKtbJa®beTsCateT KKtEtsb∫ayng®sI M † I µ i ˙ i W i w jI rSErk eBjcnqaya BCyQqalBkVtkresaH EdlCacl´dngVrS Ê uM Y W Ì Y u U w geCr®BHsgÙfa «Ga®tegalbsbpajVy» eTAvj ehyEfmTSgham Y M ¬ i I mn[ssßsalaVlCanxse®bq®tdgEdkeTotpg . (elaktamakman i i I ' ı ' I & ~ ' ®bsasnfa escsra®mtVndk®VksTngmaseTAskVrSge®cnNa _ † u i w ' u Ï i U I s' edm∫[knxnVnesayraC¥ . VrSgkyl®Bmehydakxsn¥ak[ I I U Á¬ * ' I ' uM shnePcVrSg . decHehyVnCaescshnnkKNVrSgmnePc . I u ¬ U ~ I † I u w u i ¬

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 22 VtkmenHBVnsercdceKalbNgeT KhakdcCa®KanEteF[Ca u µ uM M U M W ' U ' √I karsakl∫g [ExrTeTAdgxnbeNaH . µ U w Á¬ u" ˆ e®kaymkGkeTasneyaVy k®tvVrSgbJneTA´®BnKrtamkVl' ~ * U ËÇ " edm∫kateTas . I I ' ❑ ❑ ❑

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 23 kfaT®Vmy I M Y karkat'eTas®bharCIvit navaE®sklakBgEpPeBjbvm kTmakknyehyeFdeNre®KOn@ M ' ~M I U * ¬ ' ¨Ê I √I M I eTA . enAelnava elak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov, elakVc-Qn, elak nn-Dg I U " W Y Y ngGkeTas‰eToteCgCab®cvak' smgemlkBlvtåNaelam sEmg i ~ I ' w¬ I M U † ˆ † nvesckGaelaHGalymatPmi mncgXatqayeT elaksayxanVnrs' U †I & u U i ' ¬ © † enACamyCnrmQamCaTesha ! sayxaneXjmxåVskåVska Ed Y Y I ~ † I u i lEtgBe®KaHKaGBbJaCat-sasna . elakGacar¥kstelk´dTSgBr i ~ M I ˙ i M ' I I ®bNmehyeJlxßb@ – I w - xmassmfay®BHbglaehy mndg´fNaVnCbvjeT ! sm ¨∆M ç ' U √ M I i w © Y i U ®BHVrmCyEfrkßaTl®BHbgpg TlbgcgrsteTAeTotedm∫e®sac®s I Y U M U M ' ' I I g®beTs Edllclge®cnqSmkehyNas˘˘˘. ' i ' I ~ I ' {kEngdmenarm¥ ! EdlFabplnvvCangescksx®KbEbbyag ! x¨∆M ¬ * ¬ ' † ' U i Ç i †I u ' " mnePcGkeT ! eTaHbGaecar´®Bsmabx¨∆M kvJaNknxehrmkenATenHvj i ¬ ~ I ¬ ' * i Ô ≈ Ï ¨∆M I I i Edr . smGkGPyeTasdlx¨∆M EdlmnVnclladlkEng e®JHxCa U ~ & ' i U ' ¬ ¨∆M mnsßmaneTas mnGacmanesrPaBeFeGekttamctcg' ! Etxmntcct† u i I √I √I I i † ¨∆M i U i eLy nveTaskhsEdlVrSgvaecaT edaysarx®sLajCat-sasna I U M u ¨∆M ' i xsabksabcH[EtCati ! sasnars˘˘˘. ¨∆M ¬ ' * ¬ ' u ' kVlebkmkdlmxvSg jSgcnaelak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov ngmt† " ' I ' u ¨ i † U i i Pk‰eTot[ekAeqHqlhs®bmaN, elaksbexmBkescEdlkaceXar †i † Y Y ı ' Iı Y † eXA smabmnsßKanBcarNa rkytFm· KanKt®bCara®s®k®k elmla ¬ ' u µ i u †i µ i † I ˙ ˙ m EdlBkbreTssgtsgn mancn yn VrSgCaedm . emlcHvSg®V Y ˚ ' i˚ i Y I I u saTrbseKmanrsPrnal GslyCatrabrylan ! cENklenA®bCa ' µI ¬W Ê ' u i ' M M ra®s† rkEtskVgmnCtTkePøgngkedApg ! eKTkxneKCaGk®Kb®Kg w¬ M i i w ¬ i M u Á¬ ~ ' ®bCara®s† . EttamBtBkeKCabkß´n®bCara®seTb®tm®tv eTbsmngs i Y † I w U I w kmPaBEdleKVn®b®Bt† . karQct† karPakrlkrbselakGacar¥ Ehm µ w W i ∆ ' w ' ecov mantSgBelakenACassßsalaVlCanxsemH . elakCaembdvt† I i I ' ı ' ¬" i

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 24 ndåtmmakEdleygk®mngVnCb . _ * † ~ ' I w Y bnce®kaymk navacVgdkGkeTasenH kmkdlmxsalaVlCan' †i M M w ~ * ' u I xs' EdlCaTbNHvCarbselak . elaksmgkBlsalaedayckEN ı I ¨† i Ç ' w¬ M U u n{ra ehybegtsemgtamx¥leTAssßkst' – I ˚I ¬ ' i M - {ssßCaTeshaeGy ! etGkVn®KNabe®gonGkeTot ! ebx®tv i I ~ I I ~ U ~ I ¨∆M U breTseKdkeTA®bharCvtdecH ! xmncgXatGkeT ! GkCassß®bkb w I i U ~ ¨∆M i ' ¬ ~ ~ i edayFm· ecH®sLajvCadcct®Kbg®Vfa ! ´fenHxXatBGkehy ! cr ' i Ç U i † U " ~ © ¨∆M ¬ I ~ I U GkxskßaCamy®Kf[EmnETn ebGkBtCa®sLajExrEmn ! crGkxrkßa ~ M i Y U µI I ~ i ' µ U ~ M ktys sasna eygk[sabsn¥Na± ! xKanGepmkGke®kABbNSmi †i I uM U ¨∆M µ √I ∆I ~ I † Y ymatenHeT KebGk®sLajx¨∆M TkxCa®K®tvxeron ehyredaH®beTs[ " ' W I ~ ' u ¨∆M U U M I M Vn‰kraC¥eLg . I CeyasalaVlI ! xlaehy laTSgmnVneXjmxGkralKa la ¨∆M I i I u ~ ' ~ ehykEngFaberon FabCnKa ! laehymatPmCaTeshaesedayCvt ! I ¬ ¬ ' ¬ ' M uM ~ I u U i I ~ µI I i laehyejamjati EdlFab®sLajrabGanKa≤tmanhg˘˘˘ laehyTI I ¬ ' ' ' ~ µ I ®kgkstEdl®tveKsgtsgn ! laehy®bym®tEdlKt®beyaCn_ u M ' U ˚ ' i˚ I i i i Cati ! xlaTSgGalyngQctCaTbpt ! ¨∆M & i W i † I M u cENkelak nn-Dg ngelak Vc-Qn kmandTkdcCaelak®KU M Y Y i " W * uM u ≈ U Ehm-ecov Edr . elakVc-Qnk†I elak nn-Dgk†I elak®KGacar¥Ehm " W Y Y U ecovk†I ngGk‰eTotk†I Kansay®seNaHCvteT EtsaksayxanVnbn† i ~ µ † I i † skmPaB edm∫redaHCat[rcBnmEdkGaNanKmnymVrSg[rcsn . µ I IM i Y I w i i Y i karKtEvgqaynvbJaCatTSgenHehy EdleF[Clen®tvrbrsExreyI i © U ˙ i I √I I u µ ghredaymndgxn . elakTSgenHBVnsnnaKaenAtamsemgeT K®Ka U i w Á¬ uM Ê ~ ¬ W nEtsnnatamExßEPkbeNaH . ' Ê ~ u" ˆ deNrnavaeTAmxCancç ≤tKtdlmnsßEdlmanTkeTashs®BEd M I u i i ' u u ≈ Y M nesaHeLy . eTsPaBdgTenBPeBjeTA´®BnKrmansPaBe®kom®ksmM© I ¬ I M~ M esømQg hakdcCaQreKarBvrbrsEdlVrSgdkeTAkateTasna®kg © w ' U I u w ' u ´®BnKrkgeBlxagmxenH . sPaBsbsatenH rgrtEtTaj®BlgvrCn ¨~ u © ' © ' w w w I eyg[rePb≤tåbma . I M I enAeBlEdlnavaebkhs®B®bTlEdnExr elaknn-Qg Vnbns I Y M ' µ Y Y ¬W emgeTAkanelakGacar¥Ehm-ecovedayjr@ – ¬ ' & - ®BHetC®BHKN eygXatBmatPmeygehy ! u I ¬ I u U i I I

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 25 - eGelak ! enHCakarFmtarbseygeT˘˘˘ smkeTamnsßGI ! I µ ' I U uM - BtEmnehy ! Et®Blgxvamn®BmdacGalyBExreygesaH ! i I w ¨∆M i ' & I µ I - eGI ! xnxkyagenaHEdr ! xmnGacbePcCateygVneT eTaHbVrSg Á¬ ¨∆M * " ¨∆M i M ¬ i I I smabecalkeday xmnKtEdr KxacEt®beTseygBVnesrPaBb¬ ' * ¨∆M i i W ¬ I uM I u" eNaH . ˆ elak nn-Dg eqy – Y Y ¬I - mnGeT ExreygPakrlkxHehy®BHetC®BHKN ! i I µ I ∆ ' w ¬ I u kBgsnnaKaCabmat' ®sabEtsk2VrSgedrmkCtehyE®sk – M u Ê ~ ' ' & †i I i I - QbCECkKaeTA ! erobcxneLgdlEp≤Lvehy ! ' ~ M Á¬ I ' Ë I GkeTasTSgGskeFtamVrSgenaH . ~ ' * √I dl´®BnKr rfyn®TgmyVnmkdkGkeTas ykeTAdakkgKkFM . ' † u Y w ~ ' ¨~ u GeBygXgenAKk´®BnKr kdcCaenAKkFPeBjEdr . M I ' ~ u * U u M M~ BkGkclfµI EtgTTlfSxSgBGkeTas´deqtesr®KbKa . GeB®V Y ~ U Y ~ ¬ I ~ I ÊI ' ~ M I scakmnsßFmenHektedaysarBkVrSgvabegteLg k[GkeTas®tv u · I Y ˚I I uM ~ U ngGkeTas KCaneyaVybEbkbVk' edm∫®sl®tt®taeTAeTot . Exr w ~ W M M I I Y Y µ GkeTasxHedayVrSgkaneCg xnkeLg´d vayeFVbCat‰gKanKtmx ~ ¬ ' I Á¬ * I √I i µ i u Kte®kayGesaH . eBlcleTAdl' elak nn-Dg Vn®tvemt®mtKk i √I U Y Y U Y u ´®BnKrvayFakrhtsnbVtsartI ElgdgxnenAceJHGkeTasCae®cn ' U ¬ ' ' µ w Á¬ M ~ I e®JHEtelakeqyfa «k∫tVrSg» GeBenHeF[kl¥aNmtelakGaNt ¬I ' M I √I i † i esrePcsartI . Gacar¥ Ehm-ecov eXjmtxnTTlTNkmdsahavdU ÊI ¬ µ I i † Á¬ Y Î µ * ecH elakVrmkgctxHEdr edayxacTTlrganG®byBCnTys dc ~ ∏ ¨~ i † ¬ ¬ Y √ ' i I u · U elak nn-Dg . EtxN:enaHelaknkeXj «enHCakarFmtarbsGkeTa Y Y e w I µ ' ~ seT ! enHehyCasannrkelaky ! Gjmn®tvrjraeLy˘˘˘» bnabBBk I ƒ i i U u I Ê ' I Y ynvaeFVb elakGar¥ nn-Dg Gsctehy CnG®byenaHkmkehAGa Y √I Y Y ' i † I i * car¥ Ehm-ecov eTAsrmg . elakGacar¥kcleTACttamTmabeKnymGnu Y † * U i ¬ ' i vtenaH edaymnhanegbemlmxeKpg . em®tt®takeVHsdTSgkeral † i fl I I u Y * M I M eTAkanGacar¥Ehm-ecov – ' - cHGae®TkenaHmanerOgGEdr ? u I I elakGacar¥keqyeTAvavj – * ¬I i - ®bVT®BHetC®BHKNmas' ! xVT®tvVrSgcabCamyKa edaysg u ç ¨∆M U ' Y ~ gßyfaxk∫tVrSg, EttamBtVrSgeKnmnx¨∆M [edreTsnaBn¥lGk®sk & ¨∆M ' i i † I ' ~ u

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 26 Tahank[TasKa . lHeXjBkTSgenaHclctxVTe®cn VrSgPyxac uM ' ~ u I Y U i † ¨∆M I & ¬ xbbHbeVr eKkcabxVTmk ! ¨∆M M M * ' ¨∆M - eGmnGeTGa‰grcxn ! eTAkEngvjcH ! I i I Y Á¬ ¬ i u cabtSgBclmkenAkgKk´®BnKr elakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov mnEdl ' I U ¨~ u i e®bGakab∫krya®ceLsebseT, elakEtgnyayENnSGbrGkeTasExr I ii I I i 'M ~ µ ®sLajGkeTasExr k[ePcCatxn . mn®tmEtExreygeTEdl®sLa ' ~ µ uM ¬ i Á¬ i w µ I jelakGacar¥ sm∫EtBkCabBnFnaKarCamyk®sLajeKarBdlelak ' U I Y ' Ï Y * ' ' CaerOy@Edr . kryasPaBrabsa sdBeraH ctlmnecHQanHCnNamY ii u M I i i † Ì i ~ i ydcelakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov EtgVnTTlnvesckGaNtGasrBGkpg U Y U †I i U I ~ Cancç . eKVndakelakTSgBrenAelGaKarCanT4 bnbelx3 . KkenA i ' I I ' I Ê ' u ´®BnKrmansPaBsatsFTlayCagKkenAPeBje®cn ehyselokbM Ì MÌ M U u M~ I I M JkesatkelPeBjEdr . etbJaenHmkBG√I ebeygTSgBrkJHVrSgdc ' * I M~ I ˙ I I I I Ç U Ka ? ~ karCnGkeTasExreygBrbdgeTAehy enAEtmnTansercfayag M uM ~ µ I I I I i ' M " NaesaH . eXjEt®BHGacar¥ Vg-xat' my®tvrcvlmkPeBjvj . I " Y U Y i M~ i «cENkGselak‰eTotkBgnÂnaKgfas CJgKtfa etvasnaGj M ' M u i Ê © wÇ i I ngFakdlNa± ! EtskseTAcH e®JHCvtGj@VnbCaCnCate®sceTA w ¬ ' ' ÌI * ÌI u I i U U i ehy» karebCactEbbenHehy EdleF[vrbrsTSgenaHKantkstG√I I † ∆ i † I √I I u µ ' ¨¬ esaH . rhtmkdlmanGselakxH E®skeCr[sk®VVrSgfa – U ' ' ¬ & †i M - «BkGaErgcgeFGGjkeFeTAcH ! Gaecarlc®beTsGj ! Gjexm Y " ' √I I * √I u Y ıI rs' e®kamkarCHCanrbsGa‰gNasGahnyuM ! Gaksak ! smabGjeTA» i ' ' ' Ê M ¬ ' ´fkateTaskmkdl' ! © ' * e®kayBCnCrHse®mcesckmk elaksk®VcaghagtlakarskV I M uM M †I & †i M √ u w nkansNerOg ecjmkQrenAceJHmxGkeTasExryagkahan eday ' M uM M u ~ µ " ¬ manExreygmakCaGkbkE®bPasaGmpg . CabzmeKehAeQaHelakVc µ I ~ ' ~ µ " Qn . elakVc-Qn e®kakQryagsgarrceqy – W " W " ˙ Y ¬I - VT ! - Gk‰g®tvmaneTas®bharCvtbg' ! ‰elakEhm-ecov kmaneTas ~ U I i * ®bharCvtEdr ! elak nn-Dg kmaneTas®bharCvtEdr ! cENkelak I i Y Y * I i M bN-cnml maneTasKk5qS ngnreTsmn[cl®sk15qSeTot .l. u" ˆ Ê u" u ~ i i i U u ~ kgceNamGkeTastSgenHmanEtelakbN-cnmlmakeTEdlPy ¨~ M ~ u" ˆ Ê u" ~ ' &

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 27 xH e®JHelakmanvyekgCageK . cENkelakVc-Qn, Gacar¥Ehm¬ & µ M " W ecov, Gacar¥nn-Dg enAmansartrgbgdEdl . elakTSgb®VNjjm Y Y µ Iw uw I w edaykarQcab≤tåbma ceJHkarkateTasdlamkenH . bnabmkelak W ' M ' * Ê ' sk®VenaH keJlmkkanGkeTas®bharCvtbg' – & †i M * ' ~ I i - eygngbJnsNerOgGk‰g eTAssraleTasBelakåtmes I w Ëç M uM ~ uM M I † ny ebtSg ®bmxrdaPVlVrSg edm∫[elakGne®KaHeTasxHdlGkra i " u Ω i I I u ¬ ' ~ lKa . ' ~ semgrbselaksk®Vcbedayesømsat' KanæGkeTasExrNa ¬ ' & †i M ' © © µ ~ µ mak' EfgnvGNrKNesaHeLy . elaksk®VkNacenaHkbJa[Pak' ~ ¬ U M u I & †i M M * Ç ~ garKk nSGkeTasvlmkanTXXSg . u ~ i ' I uM rvag2Exe®kay elakGacar¥Ehm-ecov manctGaNtGasrelakbi † i U u" N-cnmlngmt‰eTotNas' eday®tveKbJneTA[enAKk‰ekaH®tLa ˆ Ê u" i i † U ËÇ u c . ‰elakTSgbmnTanbJneTAPam@eT e®JHrgcSescksercctBåt† I i ' ËÇ ¬ ' †I M i † I mesny ebtSg sn . i " i ❑ ❑ ❑ drabNaExrElgmanKntkcExr µ M i †i µ drabenaHCateygngVnrgerOgmnxan . i I w u i

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 28 kfaT®VBr I M I ®BHGacar¥Ehm-ecov mrN:k~¨gKukekaH®tLac karrsenAkgBnnaKarmyqS e®bobdceygrsenAxage®kAmyst' ¨~ Ï Y ~ U I ' Y vtß . elakGacar¥Ehm-ecov cabtSgBVrSgpßkmk elakmnEdlTTl ' I w i Y T a n G a h a r l a c e T . v r C n e n H m n ® t m E t m n B s a r G a h a r l a c be N a H e T © I i w i i © u" ˆ Kelakrkßasl®VbCabCancpg . W i M I ' i ç TkEPkrbselakGacar¥ EtFakesrralTvara®tI edayeXjmnsßeTa w ~ ' ¬ ' ÊI ' i I u sTSgnH ®tveKeFVbCagsttrcaneTAeTot . eBlenaHehyEdl®BHGa ±u U √I √ i œ I car¥ ykKkCasalaeron sBsgmsa®s† . mhabrsenHnkKtfa «kg u †I I  u w i ¨~ elaksnvaseygenH KanstNaGa®kkCagmnsßeygeT ! my´f@ ~i I µ √ ' u I Y © eXjEtkabcak' Tat-Fak-dakexaHvaydM ®bharCvtKaeday≤t®ta®bNI I ' ' ' ' ~ I i ~ GeLy . emlcH ! GkFeFVbGktc ! eschtQamra®s† smabra®s† √I I I u ~ M √I ~ U † u ¬ ' tamTengctrbseK . M I i † ' ®beTstctac®tvmhaGNacbn®tt®ta ! GkE®scmareFkarB®Blm U U M ¬ ' Y ~ ˚ √I I w Tl®Blb' KanVnrbsGqaje®kABVyng®bhkmyxbeLy. ‰esc ' µ ' √I © ' I i u Y ~ ' I † mÂnF@ nayTn edk®sNkssTEtmbqaj@ ! manEtsansKrbs' †I M u u uI u Ï Ë˙ © ' ƒ Y · mnsß ? KaneT®BHeGy ! manEtsannrkGBmglEtmybeNaH ! karBt u µ I ƒ √  Y u" ˆ i sgmmnsßcernEtGeBGytFm· GmnsßFm· htQamKa≤tQbQr  u M I M I u †i u u ~ ' esaHtSgBEpndenHekteLg ! I I I I {bgbnrmCateGy ! crPaksarteLg eTbeygkcatBkVrSg …Bk ËÌ Y i I U ∆ ' µ I I I I M ' Y Y GPCn[vnassabsn¥Vn ! i i U ra®senHehyEdldgTkFr:ra®sBt®Vkd kecHEteCOsdeVk®V† I w u ≈ u r † i uM M I srbseKnH mnsmCaBTbrsTeLy ®BHGgykxneygCarBg ykG~ ' ' ±u i u Ï i & I  Á¬ I M w kd´TCaBg mnEmnCavFeTAkanescksxeT˘˘˘ eygngnSxneyg[Fak' w i i I ' †I u I w Á¬ I ¬ cHkgTasPaBeKmnxan . u ¨~ i

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 29 kgvalvdsgßardFeFgenH KanG®besrCagkareFxneygmak@ [ma ¨~ † * M µ √I I √I Á¬ I ~ ' nesrPaBsm∫rsb∫ayenaHeLy cENkxnx¨∆M @erb®mHmnrceTtampv I Ë I M Á¬ I i Y ˬ kayEttampvctvjxQHCnkNacQanJnenHehysmbgbnbnkcç ˬ i † i ¨∆M ~ M ¬ I U ËÌ † i karenHkbrjra[esaH eTbeygVnsx ebeygxac…mn®sH®slKakar uM I u I I u I I ¬ i u Y ~ ®byTrbseygmxCamnQHyagdacxat . CvteygrsKanesrI eteyI u Ï ' I u i ~ " ' I i I ' µ I grsefakTabdcsttrcan ? xeTAenOymn®sNke®kay !» . elakKt ' U √ i œ M u u i mnecHcbmnecHehy ceJHesckTkrbs®bCara®sst®tg' . i ' i I M †I u ≈ ' † ˬ rlgCae®cnExmk eTbeXjlxtrbselakebtSg ®bmxrdaPVl M I I I i i ' " u Ω i VrSgepmkcaghagtlakar GnJat[elakTSgbnak' enA®tmCabKkGs' ∆I √ u u Ô I w ' u myCvt ehyeFkarCaTmnpg . febkarserceTasyagenHkeday ela Y I i I √I © ' √I I M " * kTSgbBsb∫ayctngGeBenHeT . elakmncgrsTTle®KaHfakEbb I uM i † w M I i ' ' Y ~ ' enHteTAeToteLy˘˘˘ elakcgsmabxn[ehyEtmgeTA ! Etelakcg' I ' ¬ ' Á¬ I † eXjvasna®beTsngeTAEbbNa ! I w Exmfna1943 elakVc-Qn, elaknn-Dg ng®BHGacar¥Ehm-eco i u " W Y Y i v ®tvVrSgbJnBKkF´®BnKreTAKkF‰ekaH®tLac . eKdakelakTSg3 U ËÇ I u M u M ' enAKkelx4 EdlCakEngeTaså®kdGsmyCvt . TenHhammn[Gk u ¬ i Ω ' Y I i I i ~ e®kAclsrsxTkeT . GkeTas®tveFkar®KbEbbyag EdlVrSgvat®mv U Y u u ≈ ~ U √I ' " U [eF√I . ekaH®tLac manvsalPaBdFeFg stkgkNalsm®T . manpHra i * M ƒi ¨~ † u Ê bJnxg sgtammatsm®T˘˘˘ ´®B®bkßa®KbelPM~ Kr[segK . dmanCr ' ' ~ ' ' u w I Y √ I I CatlNas' . eK[GkeTasdSdNS®Kbmx . CnEdlmanct®salEtg i Ì ~ M ' u i † ynk®skkeNtesrral´f© . GkeTas®tvbg[eFkarCagstJhn: M w u M I ÊI ' ~ U M≈ √I √ manCnxH rsenAelekaH®tLacVnEtBrb´fkQsabeTA . ¬ ' I I I © * W ¬ ' enArdvrgarmg@ GkeTasmanesckTkevTnasebmNas' edayxn U † ~ †I u ≈ M I Á¬ KanGkarJr[Vt®tCakVneT . µ √I ' ' ®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov ngelak nn-Dg EdlmnsvmansxPaB®sa i Y Y i U u bpg kmanCmCajkjy . elakrsenAkgtbn' dk-yk Vnrvag6Ex ' * W© w ' ¨~ M i u ®sabEtmanCmmlmkrkrankayCaTmn' . CmkanEtdabNaseTAehy ' W© Y u © W© ' ' I elakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov kbnvacaeTAkanGacar¥ nn-Dg Caknssß – * ¬W ' Y Y U i - Gacar¥ Dg ? Y

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 30 - mankarG®BHetC®BHKN !˘˘˘ I u - GakareraKx¨∆M ®bEhlmnCaeTGacar¥eGy xsayNas' sayeday i I ¨∆M † † mnVnvleTACbmx®bCara®seygvj ! xmxCaecalqgenAekaH®tLac i i Y u † I i ¨∆M u wÌ enHCamnxan smGacar¥‰gtSgsart[EmnETn ebxsabeTA ! ktkst[ i U µ I I ¨∆M ¬ ' uM ' ¨¬ esaH eFemcsgarmnsß rEmgsabeTACaFmta . √I " ≈ u ¬ ' µ - ®BHetC®BHKN ! smkTanGssgÙmeBk mxEtngCavjeT˘˘˘ ®KU u U uM ' ' w u w i eBT¥eKkBgB¥aVleygral´f© ! M u I ' - eKB¥aVleygEmn EteKeFesaHngxan eygeXj®sabehyma I √I w I I ' I nfSG[eygpk ! eraKmlenATenHmnEmn®slemldcenA®skeygeT ~ I I w Y I i Y I U u I K90%®tvsab˘˘˘ xral´fedkcSEtsabbeNaH . EteTaHbyagNakeda W U ¬ ' ¨∆M ' © ¬ ' u" ˆ I " * y seFct®BegykektTkGceJHrbxmy˘˘˘. uM √I i † I uM I u ≈ I M U ¨∆M Y - eygBrnakKCvtEtmy˘˘˘ eb®BHetC®BHKNsab' xksabEdr ! . I I ' W I i Y I u ¬ ¨∆M * ¬ ' - vaBtehyGacar¥ Dg eygVnberCatrmKa CabKkkrmKaeTot . i I Y I M I iY ~ ' u *Y ~ ®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov eJlmkdl®tmeNHkGl edrrkharmatn' w * Y I ' i yayteTAeTotBekt kTajkEnßgCtTkEPk EdlkBgremolecjBrnEP~ uM I * U w ~ M u I Ï kdxg kattamfal®Cv®Cj´nrdbrsGPB√ . r‰elak nn-Dg febxn * U ' ı ' I Y Ω u & I Y Y √I I Á¬ elakmanCmEdrkeday elakenAEfTSber®Krbsxn ≤thanedrecaleTA W© * M I U ' Á¬ fl I NaeLy . I - ®BHetC®BHKN kKte®cneBk ! u uM i I sdelak nn-Dg ecjTSgrGakrGldcknekg®tveKvaydM . elak M I Y Y ' Y U U µ U manåTanvacabneTAeTot – † - ebsgareygmnGs' mnsabeT ! eygngrsenA ehyVnvleTA I ≈ I i i ¬ ' I w ' I i ®skEfmeTot . u - eGxsabVnehy ! EtBybmjenHsbnnmt®Vbxfa «sgareco I ¨∆M † ' I I ' i u i † i i † ' ¨∆M ≈ v‰g®tvGseBlenHehy !» Gacar¥Dg ! U ' I Y - mnEmneT®BHKN ! KBtCakar®sem®s´mrbs®BHKN˘˘˘ s[®BH i u W i I ' u uM etC®BHKNsmsrakk[nyaye®cneBk nSEtGskmSg≤t®beyaCn_ u M© M uM i I ' ¬ eT˘˘˘. - Gacar¥ Dg etelakVc-Qn VndgfaxQ…eT ? Y I " W w ¨∆M W - elakfmndg ! BmßlmjelakVnmksrsxTkEdr bEn®BHetC I i w I i i Y u u ≈ u" †

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 31 ®BHKNsnbmndgxn ! . u ¬ ' i w Á¬ - cHbn bNcn-ml ? u ËÌ ufl ˆ Ê u" - bnmlmnTanmkeT ®KanEtepfSmkngeK[eygfamkmnTanrc . ËÌ u" i ' ' ∆I ~ w I i 'Y - xcgeXjmteygTSgGsNas' mnnglaelakenHeTA˘˘˘ ¨∆M ' I i † I ' u w semgenHrgrtEteF[ebHdgGacar¥ nn-Dg jabjr Py®By c¬ w w √I U Y Y ' & & Y M eJHelak®KCaTeKarB EtmykgelakEdlk®mngrkVn . Clen®t U I Y ¨~ w elakhr≤tdgxn . elak®KU Ehm-ecov Taj´delak nn-Dg mkdak' U w Á¬ Y Y eledm®TgdcCankxSgNas' . I I U U w ¬ enA‰elemX prlan®KhmkanEtrenneLg@ hakdcCacgTaj®B I  ' w ' ƒi I ' U ' lgGacar¥ Ehm-ecov [ptBdekaH®tLacmyreBc . emXggtsb x¥ w u I I Y M w ¨¬ lKcdBBkExredrdas . ' Y uM µ bnce®kaymk ®BHvrNkbgrdceKcakTkBkm EdleF[GkCmrgar †i u * ¨Ì U ' w I Ì √I ~ W© esr®TSmnVn . ÊI i reBcenaHelakbNcn-mlkclmkdl' eXjelakGacar¥TSgBr M ufl ˆ Ê u" * U I I jrdcknstdecH elakmanctrePb≤tåbma esrEtrkJk¥nyaymn & U U √ U ~ i †M I ÊI i i rc . TSgbnakmanmxeCakedayTkEPkTSgmndgxn . Y I ' u w ~ i w Á¬ - elak®KU ! Vn®slxnxH…eT ? Y Á¬ ¬ - mnGeTbnml . i I ËÌ u" elakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov ®bgjjmTSgTkEPk EbrmxeTAkanelakbufl w w w ~ u ' Ncn-ml rcbnvafa – ˆ Ê u" Y W¬ - k®ByGbn ! rbxsabcHmnsayeT xsayEtxanVneTAeXjva uM Y I ËÌ U ¨∆M ¬ ' u i † ¨∆M † I sna®beTseygbeNaH . smkePckarbdvtnrbseygNa ! eyg®tv I u" ˆ U uM ¬ i † _ ' I ± I U EteF[VnserckeVHbgecal ! √I M uM ' - VTelak®KU ! dranNaxenArsngeFtambNSelak®KrhtVnsM ¨∆M ' w √I † U U erceTbQb' . I - elakml‰gecHEtVnsxsb∫ayeT…sB´f© ? u" u √ - Vnsxsb∫ayeT ! u - elakml‰glmvleTAvjcH E®kgeKeFeTas eygTSgBre®tkGr u" µ i i u √I I I Nas' EdllbmksrCmxdecH ! Y W© ¨∆M U ~ - VTmnGeT ! xcgmkEfTSNas' EteFeTABekt ! i I ¨∆M ' √I uM I

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 32 - kKtEvgqayeBk enATenHmnEmnpHeygeT eygVnCbmxKabuM i © I i Ê I I Y u ~ u" eNaH KCasNagFehyEmneTDg ? ˆ W M M I Y - ®tvehy ! TenHCasannrk mnEmnCamnreBT¥eT . U I I ƒ i ÊI karsnnaKaepßg@Vn®B®BteTAGsry:Ctmyemag eTbelakbNˆ Ê ~ w † ' Ci Y " I ufl cn-mlvl®tLbeTAkEngvj . Ê u" i ' ¬ i my´fkngmk escmcraCkmkpacsgarelak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov Y © ¬ † ¨ç * † ' ≈ U ecalelak nn-Dg [enAEt‰g®tmg®temackNalekaH®tLac . mha Y Y ' † brsrdenHVnTTlmrN:kgCnay45qS ke®JHEt®sLajCatmatPmi u Ω Y k¨~ µ u ~ * ' i u U mn®BmrsenAe®kamGaNanKmnymVrSgEss . i ' i i Br´fe®kaymk elakbNcn-ml VnmksreTot ®sabEtVtela I © ufl ˆ Ê u" Y ' ' k®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov eXjEtelak nn-Dg kBgsranedayGssgÙm U I Y Y M u M † ' w - bnml ! elak®KGacar¥eygsabeTAehy ! ËÌ u" U I ¬ ' I - elaksabBefrNa ? manpSGxHeT ? ¬ ' I µI † √I ¬ - elaksabBr´fehy ! sabenAelePArbsx¨∆M ! mnngsabelakV ¬ ' I © I ¬ ' I ¬ ' u w ¬ ' nnyayfa «smGacar¥‰g®VbmtTSgLayfa xmnrseT» karksagTk i U ' i † ¨∆M i ' w deFEtmak‰g BVnserceCaKCyCadacxat, ®tvrmKa®KbCanfak[Vn I √I ~ ' uM M & ' U Y ~ ' ' ~ ' e®cn ehyecHEteFteTAeTot ! crGselakxksagCnsrbxteTAeTot I I √I U ' M M Y U ¨∆M cH . xBrEdndmak‰gmnrceT˘˘˘ EpndeygTSgGsKa˘˘˘ xmnxacesck†I u ¨∆M I ~ ' i Y I I ' ~ ¨∆M i ¬ sabeT EtxenAnksay®tgmnVneXj®beTskmCaVn‰kraC¥m¥ag ¬ ' ¨∆M w † ' i I ¨ı " beNaH . smelakenA[Vnsxkbxan˘˘˘ ebcg[®beTseygVnsx u" ˆ U u uM I I ' I u ®tverocCasaFarNrdΩ kePcNa ! xlaehyelak˘˘ ˘» . U M uM ¬ ± ¨∆M I b N S d m a n xm s a r e n H e F[ e l a k bN c n - ml k t ® t a T k kg e b H d g † * w¬ √I ufl ˆ Ê u" ' u ¨~ U rhtdlsB´f© . elakVneTAerobcpr[vrbrseygyagsmrm¥eTot U ' √ M Ë~ I u I " pg . mtGkGanCaTem®tI ! ®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecovVnsabenAekaH®tLack* i † ~ I ¬ ' BtEmnehy Et®BlgrbselakehaHehrmksNtkgxrk∫alknExr i I w ' I iÏ ¨~ Y U µ GkeshaCat®Kb@kal . edaysarvrPaBrbselakenHehy EdljSg ~ ~ i ' I ' I ¨ Exreyg[nSKaeFneyaVy edjVrSgxatecjBmatPmeyg rhtdl' µ I ~ √I Ê I u U i I U VnrbbsaFarNrdΩ . eygTSgGsKa I ' ~ smeKarBvJaNknrbselak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov U i Ô ≈ Ï ' U

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 33 rdbrsExr ngkl¥aNmtelaklHdl´fsab' . Ω u µ i i † u ' © ¬ Gkeroberog ~ Kg'-sm∏ar ❑ ❑ ❑ BFTTlGdFatGacar¥ Ehm-ecov i I Y Ωi u enA´fT4 kkda 1972 KCa´f®bvtsa®sfmy EdlrdaPVlVnnS®BH © I ˚ W © †i † µI Y Ω i GdFat®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov BekaH®tLacmkeFbN¥enA®beTseygvj e®ka Ωi u I √I u I i mGFbtPaB´nsemcsgÙTSgBrKN: ngelak®bFanaFbetln-nl' ®BmTS i I † I i i I ' gCnrmQamCae®cnpg . Y I FatvrbrsenH VntmlTkenAvtåNaelamsB´f© . uI u ˚ ' u † ˆ √

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 34 bEnmBess ƒ i ®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov «ekt» saCafIµ I ‹‹‹ GktsExrmyrb kgceNamGktsCae®cneTot EdlVnbCa ~ Ufl µ Y U ¨~ M ~ Ufl I U Cvt kgkar®byTbrpac®bqSgngkarCHCansgtsgn rbsGaNanKm I i ¨~ u Ï Ë† † ' w i ' ˚ ' i˚ ' i nymVrSg ehyEdl®tv®bvtsa®sCati VnbePcecalksmyraCani i I U †i † M ¬ ¨~ & ym VnTTlktysrseLgvj . KqgrbselakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov Ed Y i †i ' I i W wÌ ' leKVnbbrbgTkecalenAbreTs®skyn bNal[eBlevlasbpa M ' u u Y † uI M ¬ jbVtPstagyaggaybptnvvrPaBmy eTbEtng®tvdknStamynM ' ¨† " M u U I Y I w U w † ehaH vl®tLbmkkanTkdEdlVnplkeNtdlelak ehyelakV i ' ' w I † ' M I ' I nbgrQamedm∫tbsgKNvj . Ë˙ I I ~ u i kalB®Bk´fGgarmßlmj (´fT4kkda1972) BFbN¥tam®b´BNI I w ©  i i © I ˚ i I u sasna VncatEcgeLgyagåLark edm∫plktysdlkartsUfl Edl ' I " i I I † ' i †i ' elakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov VnbCaCvtCnCati . U I i U BFbN¥enHVneF[ct† i I u √I i ExrrePb VnG®gnmnskar[nkeTAdlsErkQcab' EdlExrVnTTl µ M I ' i w ' M W µ Y dlTkEPkngdNkQam EdlGkeshaCatExrVns®mkedaysar®s ' w ~ i M ' ~ ~ i µ ' LajCati xkarJrCatyagmanH [VnKgvgß cejHkarCHCanrbsBkGa ' M i " ' M i ' ' Y NanKmnym EdlBjejt´dngsmabbpajbVt®kmbJvneyg . i i uM I w ¬ ' M ¬ M ' u Ô † I elakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov VnsabecalqgenAkgKk‰ekaH®tLac Ed ¬ ' wÌ ¨~ u lCamNldakTNkmµ eF[TarNkmdlBkbHeVrenA≤NcnEdlha Î ' Î √I u µ ' Y ËÎ i fl nts®bqSgngGNacpackarrbsGaNanKmnymVrSg . e®kABeQaH Ufl w M † ' ' i i I µ elak Ehm-ecov eKGacerobrabrayeQaHGktsExrde®cneTot EdlVn ' µ ~ Ufl µ * I TTlrge®KaHsabVtbgCvtedaysarsa´dVrSgman ®kLaehamKg,' Ga Y ¬ ' ' ' I i ~ car¥sa, eJkeVr Caedm ngkarXbXtk∫tCatrbsExrxH EdlVnlk' √ M I i u i ' i ' µ ¬ xnbrpacpabctecAhaybreTs . Á¬ ˆ † '  ' i † √ kgsmyraCnymskPmi GkkanGNacEtPy®ByVrmceJHKnt ¨~ & i †i U ~ ' M & Y ∏ M M i bdvtn_ . ehtenHCv®bvt´nGktsedm∫Cati mankar®bqSgngBkGaNa i † u I †i ~ Ufl I I w Y

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 35 nKmnymCaedm Vn®tveKbePcecalbpajsa´dbVtPstag ehyxM i i I U M ¬ M ¬ ~ M ' ¨† I bbnTBr®bvtsa®s[elkdekgvN: EdlVnTTlbBsTkgkarCHCa M " M & †i † I M I ˆ Y u √ i Ïi ¨~ i n' ®bvJBCtkqayk†I el®bCara®sEtbeNaH . ehtenHeTot Gkßrsl∫_ & ç I i †I © I † u" ˆ u i Cateyg EdlVnbePcecalsn¥sgnvdNkQam´nGkEdlVnbCa i I M ¬ U u U M ' ~ U CvtCnCati KrEtbpserOgbdvtnrbsGkeshaCati [VnBsareLg I i U Y M u i †i _ ' ~ ~ i † I vj . i kgkal:eTs:dlVk EdlExreyg®tvB®ggmnskarCat[kanEt ¨~ * M µ I U w i i ' VnrgbgCaGtmrma edm∫GayCvtCati ehyEdlExreygkBgelkdekI w uw i I I u I i I µ I M u I M gKntbdvtneshaCatenaH kKrEteygecHrbrmKa …myecHEckpvKa M i i † _ ~ i * Y I Y Y ~ Y ˬ ~ edr tamlT®bCaFbety¥yagc∫aslasmy ( La vraie démocratie est I Ïi i " ' ' Y I uM U ~ M u i ' de savoir se diviser ) . ebBdecaHeT karbpsmnskarCati ®KanEtbeNay[®bvtsa®sfesccGk edm∫begtåNkmdleygEfmeTotbu" † †i † µI I M I I ˚I Î µ ' I eNaHeT . ehyKntrbselakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov EdleTbng «rs» ˆ I M i ' I w ' eLgvjenHk†I kng®tvsabsn¥eTAvjmnxan . I i * w U U i i nKrFM ecj´fT5 kkda 1972 © I ˚ ❑ Gacar¥ Ehm-ecov elakbNcn-ml VneFsmasnkgTrTsßnExr´fT7 ExenH GBI ufl ˆ Ê u" √I ∏ _ ¨~ U _ µ © I M GdFatelakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov EdlelakVneTAKasykmkBekaH®tLa Ωi u ' I c edm∫ykmkeFbN¥CapvkarenA´fmx . elakBn¥l[eygralKaKt I I √I u ˬ © u ' I ' ~ i eXjfa eTaHelaksabeTACag30qSehy KgEtCatmnePcKNelak I ¬ ' ~ I ' i i ¬ u Gacar¥ Ehm-ecov EdlelakVneFceJHCati . tamelakbNcn-ml √I M ufl ˆ Ê u" ehytameygVndgæxH@mk elakGacar¥ Ehm-ecovc∫asCaGkPakrÆ I I w ¬ ' ~ ∆ ' kTmyceJHvasnaCatEmn . eygCaBlrdsaFarNrdExrmanctCaExr I Y M i I Ω Ω µ i † µ TSgGsKa KrcS[c∫asnvJk¥elakbNcn-ml EdlelakVnrlkfa ' ~ Y ' U ufl ˆ Ê u" M w ®skNakeday eKEtgmanmnsßCaKrU u * u M Edl®tvykqayalkNmkTk U & ≈ _ u

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 36 pH Cae®KOgskarbCa . Ê ˚ U enA®skkgeKTk KnÏI CamnsßT1 EdlBlrdeKmanrbTkCavtska u ¬i  u u I Ω U u ¨ƒ ˚ rbCa®Kb@Ka eKyknarmakKnag sandak Edlra®senA®skVrSg eKTTY U ' ~ I ~ ' W † u lsalCa®BHmyrbEdr ( Sainte Jeann D'Arc ) enA®sk‰eTotkmanmn ' Y U u * u sßEdlsabeTAyrehy EdlrdeKmnePcsgKNeLy . ¬ ' U I Ω i ¬ u I EteygKrktsKalfa mnsßEdleKKreKarB Ke®cnEtmnsßsab' I Y ' M ' u Y W I u ¬ yreTAehy@ EdlKannrNaGac ®bEkkVnfamnEmnCaGkeshaCati U I µ i ~ ~ eLy . I escshnVnebkqakmneK[eKeKarBTSgGs' eygVneXjehy † I u I u I I I fa kareKarBenHVneF√eTAkgkarbgtbgM≈ ehyEdlescenHedrxspv I ¨~ i≈ I † I u ˬ yks®tveFCamt† ykmteFCas®tv eygralKamn®tmEtElgeKarB U √I i i † √I U I ' ~ i w e yg V n T S g k a te T a s e sc e n H f a C a e sc k ∫ tC a t i ® tv m a n e T a s ® b h a r I ' † † ' U Cvtpg . I i s≥ s≥ ®sgecjBdarBtmanseÂgaHCati ' I ·  ´fT10 kkda 1972 © I ˚ GtbTTSgBrxagelenHs[eXjfa ®BHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov mnEmnCa ƒ I I I i mnsßFmtaeT KelakBtCaVnbeBjmhaBlkmd®besr CnCati sas u µ W i M i µ * I U na d≤t®bEkkVneLy . eygmankaresaksayNas' edaymnVncH * I I † i u GtbTsxan@´nsarBtmand´TeTot e®JHk[®kaseBk . ƒ M ' · uM '

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 37 ®bkasnyb®t rdbrsCati I & Ω u VneXj escksercrbsKN:rdmÂn†I smy®bCuM I †I M ' Ω & na´fTI 22 mna K˘s˘ 1972 sBkarTTlsal' ngkar © I †I I Y  i eprFatelakGacar¥ Ehm-ecov mkBekaH®tLac, Ê u I VneXj escksercrbsKN:rdmÂn†I smy®bCuM I †I M ' Ω & na´fTI 14 kkda K˘s˘ 1972 © ˚ tmltemgzan:elak ˚ ' ˚I Gacar¥ Ehm-ecov CardbrsCati kgbcamrN:, Ω u ¨~ œ ®bFanaFbtI ´n saFarNrdExr i Ω µ ®bkasfa : VnTTlsalnvGeBlTSgLay rbselak®KGacar¥ Y  ' U M I Ì ' U Ehm-ecov EdlVneFCn®bCaCatExr √I U i µ GgGac kalBrvag K˘s˘ 1942 ' I KskmPaBmHmt W µ u u edm∫dasstknExr[ I I ' i U µ ®bqSg ngerb®mHecjBnmGaNanKmnymbreTs . i I I w i i ®bCaCatExr smtmlelak®KGacar¥ Ehm-ecov TkCa i µ U ˚ ' U u rdbrsCati ngCaKrdåtm srabklbtExrTeTA . Ω u i MU * † M ' u u † µ U eFenAPeBj, ´fTI 20 kkda K˘s˘ 1972 √I M~ © ˚ esna®bmx ln-nl' u '

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 38 ®seNaHGacar¥ Ehm-ecov nBnedayssß eBA-sTÏI i Ï i u « CndlGkeshaCatExr®Kbrb » U ' ~ ~ i µ 'U epm †I semgkVlTn ! Tn !˘˘˘˘˘ ¬ " ' U U 1- sE®mknavalakBgEp M ' eTAmx≤tEbrdknSCnExrGkeshaCati u w µ ~ ~ EsnckQamNas' {racegøt laGsepAjati u Ì ' 2- mxKrsegKe®kamemXbN®Vk' u Y √ · evTna xpgGJl®sdeLgfa M ç ' ç I I I ´dCab®cvakeCg®bgTFakEsn ' " ' I w ' [Catexmra i bnr- { ! sdcge®kaydegayehAExr Ê M I u ˙ µ eFemcrbelakVnCa®CleCg √I † U u I XatTSgsasna . ¬ nSKaPakeLg . ~ ∆ ' I smCyEkE®bCat[efg U Y i ˚I Tk[rbeygesaksay®KbKa . u U I † ' ~ 3- Ehm-ecov kst®JtrbVteTA M ' 'U ' EtekreQaHenArn®keGAeBjelaka _i† µ ÊW rdbrs´nCatexmra Ω u i bCakayaCn®beTsCati . U U ce®mogenHmtsl∫krNakGacykeTAe®cogVnEdr i † i * [EtrkßaeQaHGkEtg µ ~ ❑

Ehm-ecov vrbrsCati I u 39 {! ekaH®tLac bTePg-Tnke®cog ¬ M u e®cogeday yg-Qag " ' senog-ÚTÏI M epm- { ! Tkd´®B®BkßanaekaH®tLac †I w I w xsmep®BHGdFatelak®KGacar¥ ¨∆M U ∆I Ωi u U Ehm-ecov ngExreshaCat‰eTotpg˘˘˘ i µ ~ i 1- { ! ekaH®tLac Gacar¥Ehm-ecov xGJvnav M M ehyrnt' I Ï carkedayQam w ehArkknExr U µ 2- ekaH®tLaceGy I eCaKCy & Kr[xac Y ¬ EdlVnrlt' M elEpndI I vJaNknÏ i Ô ≈ E®skharkeJøv fl ç Gkbdvtn_ . ~ i † xæehy@sca ¨∆M I ç TkctknExrnasmy w i † U µ & karJrsasnabnkarNlH®ta † _ u saFarNrdΩ mnEdlPSgPat' i ¬ ¬ ePcbBbrsåtmGtteLy . ¬ u √ u † I I GeNayBelakyg-Qag GknBnbTePgngTnke®co

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