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Published on February 9, 2009

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ACCOUNTING FOR BUSINESS : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 1 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS ACCOUNTING FOR BUSINESS AFTERSCHO?OL – DEVELOPING CHANGE MAKERS CENTRE FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP PGPSE PROGRAMME – World’ Most Comprehensive programme in social entrepreneurship & spiritual entrepreneurship OPEN FOR ALL FREE FOR ALL ACCOUNTING FOR BUSINESS : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 2 www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS ACCOUNTING FOR BUSINESS Dr. T.K. Jain. AFTERSCHO?OL Centre for social entrepreneurship Bikaner M: 9414430763 tkjainbkn@yahoo.co.in www.afterschool.tk, www.afterschoool.tk Prepare necessary accounts.. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 3 Prepare necessary accounts.. A and B were partners in a firm sharing 3rofit in the ratio of 5:3. C was admitted for1/5th share in the firm. 1 C is unable to bring his share of goodwill in cash Firm’s goodwill was valued at Rs 130000 2 Land and Building was valued at Rs 38000 and Plant and Machine was valued at Rs 30000 3. Provision for bad debts is to be maintained at the rate of 4%. 4. A liability for Rs 1100 included in sundry creditors was not likely to arise. 5. Rs. 10000 of investments were taken over by old partners in their old profit sharing ratio. 6. C will contribute his share of capital on the basis of adjusted capitals of old partners Balance sheet : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 4 Balance sheet Journal entries : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 5 Journal entries A Dr. 3125 B dr. 1875 To Goodwill 5000 (write off goodwill) Land & building Dr. To revaluation 13000 (land and building revalued) Revaluation Ac. Dr. To Plant & mach 5000 prov. For bad debt to Revaluation Ac. Dr. 500 Creditors Ac dr. To Revaluation 1100 Revaluation Dr. 9600 To A : 6000 To B: 3600 A a/c Dr. 6250 B Ac. Dr. 3750 To investment 10000 Journal entries.. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 6 Journal entries.. Now prepare partnership capital account of A and B: transfer reserves to A and B. A gets 10000 and B 6000 Now transfer goodwill of 130000 to A and B. A gets : 81250 B gets : 48750 A : 55000+6000-6250+10000-3125+81250 = 142875 B : 30000+3600-1875-3750+6000+48750 = 82725 New total capital: 225600 The new capital represent 4/5 of the total capital as C is to join with 1/5 of the capital. Thus the capital of C will be : 56400. He will bring this capital by cash. Bank Ac. Dr. To C capital ac 56400. answer. New balance sheet : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 7 New balance sheet Liabilities A : 142875 B: 82725 C: 56400 Creditors : 12900 Outs. Exp. : 8000 Prov. For bad debt 1000 Bills payable : 2400 Total : 306300 Assets\ Land & buliding 38000 Plant & Mach 30000 Stock : 20000 Debtors : 25000 Goodwill : 130000 Investment : 4000 Cash : 59300 Total : 306300 PREFERENCE SHARE ? : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 8 PREFERENCE SHARE ? These are similar to debentures as there is fixed rate of dividend. These share holders are issued for a fixed number of years - say for 7 years. These shares are paid first (before ordinary equity shares) at the time of wind up of the company. Preference share holders are distributed profits before ordinary equity shares. Redemption of preference share… : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 9 Redemption of preference share… Such sheres can be redeemed either out of the profits of the company which would otherwise available for dividend or out of the proceeds of a fresh issue of shares made for the purpose of redemption. Unless the shares are fully paid they cannot be redeemed. Redemption of preference share… : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 10 Redemption of preference share… if any premium is to be payable on redemption, such premium has to be provided out of the profits of the company or out of the securities premium account No company limited by shares, shall after the commencement of the Companies (Amendment) Act, 1996 issue any preference shares which is irredeemable or is redeemable after the expiry of a period of twenty years from the date of issue Redemption : CRRA : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 11 Redemption : CRRA Where any such shares are redeemed out of profits, a sum equal to the nominal amount of the shares so redeemed must be transferred out of the profits of the company which would otherwise to be available for dividend to a reserve fund called ‘Capital Redemption Reserve Account’. Otherwise, the provisions relating to the reduction of share capital of a company will apply, as if the Capital Redemption Reserve Account were paid-up share capital of the company. CRRA : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 12 CRRA The capital redemption reserve account may be applied by the company in paying up unissued shares of the company to be issued to the members of the company s fully paid bonus shares. Otherwise Capital Redemption Account must be maintained intact unless otherwise sanctioned by the Court. Redemption …. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 13 Redemption …. If new shares are issued for the purpose of redemption of preference shares, it will not be treated as increase of capital if a company fails to comply with the legal provisions of this section, the company and every officer of the company who is in default shall be punishable with fine which may extend to ten thousand rupees. Redemption of preference shares… : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 14 Redemption of preference shares… Where in pursuance of this section, a company has redeemed or is about to redeem any preference shares, it shall have power to issue upto the nominal amount of the shares redeemed or to be redeemed as if those shares had never been issued. Redemption : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 15 Redemption If the redeemable preference shares are redeemed out of the profits of the company which would otherwise be available for dividend, the Capital Redemption Reserve Account will take the place of the Redeemable Preference Share Capital Account after the redemption. Prepare journal entries.. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 16 Prepare journal entries.. 11% preference shares were due for payment on 1st April, 2008 at a premium of 10%. The company sent the reminders for the final call on the remaining 300-11% preference shares and could collect money from shareholders holding 200 shares © Rs.20 per share and forfeited the defaulting 100 shares. The company sold all investments at 90% of the cost of such investments. The Company issued adequate number of new equity shares at par, to the extent that available profits were insufficient to back-up the redemption Balance sheet…. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 17 Balance sheet…. Solution…. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 18 Solution…. 700 * 100= 70000 + 200 * 100 = 20000 Total amount to be paid : 90000 Premium = 9000 Available fund : 60000 Security premium : 5000 + 4000 from capital reserve account Thus we will issue equity for Rs. 30000. ans Prepare trading and P & L a/c : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 19 Prepare trading and P & L a/c The following are the details relating to transactions during the year ended 31M March 2007 extracted from the books of Goti who does not maintain proper books of account: Cash and discount credited to debtors 6, 40,000 Sales return• 14,500 Bad debts 4,200 Sales (cash and credit) 7,18,100 Discount allowed by trade creditors 7,000 Purchases returns 4,000 Continued… : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 20 Continued… Additional capital-paid into bank 85.000 Realisations from debtors-paid into bank 6, 25,000 Cash purchases 10,300 Cash expenses 95,700 Paid by cheque for furniture purchased 4,300 Household expenses drawn from bank 31,800 Cash paid into bank 50,000 Cash drawn from bank 92,400 Cheques issued to trade creditors 6, 02,700 marks) Continued… : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 21 Continued… The following additional information are also available: Ist April 31 March 2006 2007 Creditors 1, 57,700 1, 24,000 Sundry expenses outstanding 6,000 3,300 Sundryassets 1,16,100 1,20,400 Stock-in-trade 80,400 1, 11,200 Cash in hand and at bank 69,600 80,800 Trade debtors ? 1,78,700 You are required to prepare the Trading and Profit and• Loss Account for the year ended 31st March, 2007 and a balance sheet as on that date Debtors A/c : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 22 Debtors A/c To opening stock 337400 To Sales 500000 (837400) By sales return 14500 By discount 15000 By bank 625000 By Bad debt 4200 By balance 178700 Trading ac : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 23 Trading ac Opening stock 80400 To purchase 580000 Cash purchase 10300 To gross profit 148100 Total 818100 B sales 718100 Less : sales (cash) 14500 By purchase return 4000 Closing stock 111200 Total : 818100 Creditors a/c : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 24 Creditors a/c To bank 602700 To purchase return 4000 To discount 7000 To balance 124000 By purchase =580000 By balance b.d. = 157700 P & L ac/ : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 25 P & L ac/ To exp. 95700 To bad debt 4200 Discount allowed 15000 To N.P. 40200 By G P 148100 By discount 7000 Balance sheet : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 26 Balance sheet Net profit : 40200 Creditors 124000 Outstanding exp. 3300 Additional capital 85000 Capital : 243200 Total 495700 Cash & bank 80800 Debtors 178700 Assets 120700 Furniture 4300 Closing stock 111200 Total 495700 Cash received from X and discount allowed to him. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 27 Cash received from X and discount allowed to him. Cash A/c Dr. Discount Dr. To X a/c Credit Cash account : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 28 Cash account To balance 69600 By Cash sales 220800 To credors 602700 To bank 92500 Total : by outstanding exp. 2700 By bank 85000 By bank 625000 By purchase 10300 By expsnes 95700 By furniture 4300 By household exp. 31800 By bank 50000 By closing blance 80800 Total : 985600 Cash paid to V and discount received from him. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 29 Cash paid to V and discount received from him. V a/c Dr. To Discount Ac. To Cash Ac Credit Sales to Z. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 30 Credit Sales to Z. Z a/c dr. To sales a/c Cash Sales to A. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 31 Cash Sales to A. Cash Ac. To Sales Ac Purchases from B on credit. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 32 Purchases from B on credit. Purchase Ac dr. To B account Salary.paid to clerk by means of cheque. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 33 Salary.paid to clerk by means of cheque. Salary a.c. dr. To bank ac. Payment of cash to Landlord for rent. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 34 Payment of cash to Landlord for rent. Rent A.c dr. To cash a.c Depreciation on furniture. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 35 Depreciation on furniture. Depreciation a/c. dr To furniture a/c Interest on debenture due but not yet paid. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 36 Interest on debenture due but not yet paid. Interest Ac/ dr. To outstanding interest a/c Outstanding interest ac/ dr. To the debenture holders a/c P & L a/c dr. To Outstanding interest Ac. Interest provided on capital. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 37 Interest provided on capital. Interest .a/c dr. To Capital Ac/ Slide 38: 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 38 A firm purchases a lease of 3 years for Rs. 60,000 on 1.4.2004. it decides to provide for its replacement by means of an insurance policy for Rs. 60,000. The annual premium is Rs. 19,000. On 1.4.2006, the lease is renewed for a further period of 3 years for Rs. 60,000. You are required to show necessary ledger accounts. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 39 A firm purchases a lease of 3 years for Rs. 60,000 on 1.4.2004. it decides to provide for its replacement by means of an insurance policy for Rs. 60,000. The annual premium is Rs. 19,000. On 1.4.2006, the lease is renewed for a further period of 3 years for Rs. 60,000. You are required to show necessary ledger accounts. Solution… Ist year.. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 40 Solution… Ist year.. Lease A/c Dr. 60000 To Bank Account 60000 -------- Insurance policy a/c dr. 19000 To bank a/c 19000 ---- P & L a/c dr. 19000 To depreciation 19000 IInd year … : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 41 IInd year … Insurance policy a/c dr. 19000 To bank 19000 (closing balance becomes 38000) ------ P & L a/c dr. 19000 To depreciation 19000 (closing balance beomes 38000) IIIrd year … : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 42 IIIrd year … Insurance policy dr. 19000 To bank ac/ 19000 ---- P & L a/c dr. 19000 To depreciation 19000 --- Bank a/c dr. 60000 To insurance policy : 60000 --- Insurance policy a/c dr. 3000 To depreciation a/c (reserve) 3000 (profit received on insurance policy transferred to dep ac IIIrd year continued… : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 43 IIIrd year continued… Depreciation a/c dr. 60000 To Lease a/c 60000 Which of these is not a preliminary expenditure ? : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 44 Which of these is not a preliminary expenditure ? Cost of project report Stamp duty on authorised capital Cost of acquisition of a running business Cost of vetting of MOA and AOA and Prospectus Answer : No. 1. and 3. Which of these is a preliminary expenditure ? : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 45 Which of these is a preliminary expenditure ? Consultancy fees of Goti, who is a business consultant Charges paid to Jitu for conducting market survey of the product before its start. Printing charges of letters of allotment. Payment paid to Sudha, who is approved valuer and has prepared valuation report and accounts along with drafting necessary documents required at start up. Answer : 3rd and 4th Difference between financial accounting & management accounting .. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 46 Difference between financial accounting & management accounting .. Financial accounting records day to day decisions and prepares annual accounts as per the prescribed formats for external reporting. Management accounting is presentation of accounting information so that management may take appropriate decisions and policies. ACCOMMODATION BILL : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 47 ACCOMMODATION BILL When one party tries to help others, they use accommodation bill to help each other. Suppose Kapsa needs Rs. 1 billion, he approaches Jitu for help, Jitu accepts a bill of Rs. 1 billion thus Kapsa can get this amount by bill discounting from bank. On due date Kapsa will give the money back to Jitu so that that Jitu may make the payment to Bank. Holder in due course : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 48 Holder in due course A person who gets a bill in due course is called holder in due course. He gets all the authority on bill. Even if the holder get the bill from someone who has defective title, the holder in due course will get full authority. QUORUM : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 49 QUORUM For any meeting, we need a quorum. It is the minimum number of members, who must be present for the meeting to start. For example : if quorum is 1/10, and there are 100 members, then the meeting can start only if at least 10 members are present. Goti had entered Rs 75 in petty cash book, but did not post it in repairs account. What should he do now? : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 50 Goti had entered Rs 75 in petty cash book, but did not post it in repairs account. What should he do now? Solution : Repairs A/c debit Rs. 75 To suspense a/c credit : 75 Define a cheque? : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 51 Define a cheque? Sec. 6 : a cheque is a bill of exchange drawn on a specified bankder and not expressed to be pyable otherwise thn on demand and it includes electronic image of a truncated cheque and a cheque in electronic form. Protection of a paying bak : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 52 Protection of a paying bak Suppose a cheque is drawn by A on B and is endorsed by D (by making forged signature of B) to C. The bank makes the payment. The bank is discharged here as the bank does not have signature of every one. However, bank will not be discharged if the signatue of A are forged. Slide 53: 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 53 Goti maintains single entry system of accounting. He had Rs. 3 Lakh on 1 January 2006 following is the details of accounts that he had : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 54 Goti maintains single entry system of accounting. He had Rs. 3 Lakh on 1 January 2006 following is the details of accounts that he had Other details : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 55 Other details On 1/4/6 h began drawing Rs. 700 per month for personal expenses. His bank details are as under : Deposited : Rs. 3 lakh on 1/1/6 Withdrew Rs. 2,23,000 from 1/1/6 to 31/3/6 Deposited Rs. 230000 from 1/4/6 to 31/3/7 Withdrew Rs. 2,70000 from 1/4/6 to 31/3/7 The above withdrawals included payments by cheques of Ps. 2,00,000 and Ps. 60,000 respectively during the period from 1st January, 2006 to 31st March, 2006 and on 1st March, 2007 for the purchase of machinery for the business. The deposits after 1st January, 2007 consisted wholly of sale price received from customers by cheques. Draw up Ramesh’s Statement of Affairs as at 31st March, 2006 and 31st March, 2007 respectively and work out his profit or loss for the year ended 31st March, 2007. Solution….. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 56 Solution….. Profit = closing capital – opening capital Therefore calculate opening and closing capitals. Prepare a bank statement and ascertain bank balances on 31/3/6 and 31/3/7. Bank balance on 31/3/6 (3 – 2.23) = 77000 Bank balance on 31/3/7 = (77-40) = 37000 Opening capital = : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 57 Opening capital = Assets : Bank : 77000 Stock = 19000 Debtors = 1000 Cash = 2000 Machinary = 200000 Total= 299000 Less : creditors : 5000 Capital = 294000 (as on 31 march 2006) Closing capital : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 58 Closing capital Assets : Cash : 3000 Stock : 29000 Debtors : 2000 Machinary : 260000 Bank balance = 37000 Total assets = 331000 Less creditors = 3000 Capital = 328000 (as on 31 march 2007) Profit : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 59 Profit Closing capital = 328000 Add = drawings ( 700 * 12) 8400 Less : Opening capital : 294000 Profit during the year = 42400 answer. Solve it … : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 60 Solve it … Prabhakar commenced business on 1 April, 2006 with a capital of Rs. 90,000. He immediately purchased furniture of As. 48,000. During the year he received from his uncle a gift of As. 6,000 and he borrowed from his father a sum of Rs. 10,000. He had withdrawn As. 1,200 per month for his household expenses. He had no bank account and all dealings were in cash. He did not maintain any books but following information is given: Sales (including cash sales ot As. 60,000) = 200000 Purchases (including cash purchases of As. 20,000) = 150000 Carriage inwards = 1400 Wages = 600 Discount allowed to debtors= 2400 Salaries = 12400 Bad debts written off : 2200 Trade exp. : 2400; advertisement = 4400 Other details … : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 61 Other details … He spent Rs. 1000 for his personal expenses, he used goods of Rs. 2600 for personal use On 31/3/7, his debtors were Rs. 42000, creditors : Rs. 30000, his stocks were Rs. 20000. Dep. on furniture : 10%. Prepare trading & p & l account Trading account : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 62 Trading account Opening stock =nil Purchase 150000 Less drawings : 2600 Net purchase : 147400 Carriage inward 1400 Wages 600 Gross profit : 70600 Sales 200000 Closing stock 20000 P & L account : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 63 P & L account Discount 2400 Bad debts 2200 Salaries : 12400 Trade exp. 2400 Depreciation: 4800 Net profit : 46400 Total : 70600 Gross profit 70600 Promissory note : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 64 Promissory note It is an unconditional undertaking to make payment of certain amount to the bearer of the instrument / or the person so named in the instrument or to the order of such person after sight. Crossing of cheque.. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 65 Crossing of cheque.. When a cheque is crossed at its top left corner, it cannot be paid cash, its payment can only be through bank account. We can also add ‘NOT NEGOTIABLE’ on the crossing – making it a non-negotiable instrument. Accounting numericals : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 66 Accounting numericals Goti returned to India from London after retirement and purchased a small retail business. He took over the business on 1st April 2006 acquiring the existing stock at a valuation of Rs. 22,840 and the rest of the purchase consideration was apportioned as to Rs. 30,000 for fixtures and fittings and the balance for goodwill. He used his existing bank account and, other than bank statements and vouchers, the only record available was a bill book recording cash payments from the bill. Surplus cash was banked periodically during the year. Prepare a/c BANK ACCOUNT : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 67 BANK ACCOUNT Balance 1 April, 2006 72,920 Pension from employment 19,500 Bankings from shop 3,28,540 Purchases of business 63,840 Rent 15 months to 30th June, 2007 10,000 Rates 9 months to 31st Dec., 2006 1,680 Electricity 1,840 Hire of frozen food cabinet 1,600 Purchases for resale 2,94,000 Private cheques 22,440 Balance 31 March, 2007 25,560 TOTAL = 4,20,960 Continued…. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 68 Continued…. Cash purchases for resale 32,120 Staff salaries 14,840 Sundry shop expenses 3,120 Cash drawings 10,400 On 31st March, 2007 stock valued at cost amounted to As. 30,840, amounts duo from customers Rs, 1,480, and cash in hand amounted to Rs. 1,080. Depreciation is to be provided on fixtures and fittings at a rate of 10%. Accounts outstanding on 31st March, 2007 were: purchases Rs 9,400 For the year ending 31st December, 2007= 2,400. Solution – trading a/c : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 69 Solution – trading a/c Opening stock 22840 Credit Purchase 303400 Cash purchase 32120 Gross profit 64060 Total : 422420 Credit Sales : 330020 Cash sales 61560 Closing stock 30840 Total : 422420 P & L a/c : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 70 P & L a/c To salaries 14840 To rates 2280 To rent 8000 To electricity 1840 To hire charges 1600 To sundary exp. 3120 To dep. 3000 To net profit 29380 Total : 64060 By G.P. 64060 Balance sheet : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 71 Balance sheet LIABILITIES Capital 72920 Less drawings: 32840 Add Net profit : 29380 Pension (outstanding) 19500 Net capital : 88960 Creditors : 9400 Outstanding rates 600 Total : 98960 ASSETS Furniture : 27000 Stock 30840 Debtors 1480 Bank 25560 Cash 1080 Prepaid rent 2000 Goodwill 11000 Total : 98960 Debtors a/c : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 72 Debtors a/c To sales : 330020 By bank 328540 By closing balance 1480 Fictitious person : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 73 Fictitious person Articificial persons like company, firm etc. are called fictitious persons. They have legal entity and can contract in their own name. SOLVE IT …. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 74 SOLVE IT …. A company purchased 3 years lease on 1st April, 2004 for Rs. 50,000. It is decided to provide for the replacement of the lease at the end of 3 years by setting- up a depreciation fund. It is expected that investment will fetch at 12%. Sinking fund Tables shows that Rs. 0.296349 invested each year will produce Re. 1 at the end of 3 years at 12% per annum. The investments are sold for rs. 28,500. SOLUTION…lease account : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 75 SOLUTION…lease account To bank 50000 (at the end of thrd year) Dep fund ac 45645 P & L ac/ 4355 Total : 50000 Dep. Fund account : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 76 Dep. Fund account To balance 14817.45 To investment 3412 To lease a/c 45645 By dep. A/c 14817.45 IInd Year By balance 14817.45 By dep. Ac/ 14817.45 By interest 1778 III rd year By balance : 31412.9 By interest 3769 By dep. Ac. 14817.45 Investment account : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 77 Investment account To bank 14817.45 IInd year To balance 14817 To bank 16595 IIIrd year : To balance 31412 By balance 14817 By balance 16595 By bank 28000 By dep. Fund 3412 Declaration of dividend out of reserves… : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 78 Declaration of dividend out of reserves… The rate of dividend will not exceed 10% or average rate of last 5 years. First set off any previous loss – before dividend is declared The balance of reserve after declaration of dividend should be at least 15% of the paid up share capital The amount drawn from reserves should not be more than 1/10 of the (paid up capital + reserves). (read section 205A of companies act). Due to inadequacy of profit during the year, the company proposes to declare dividend out of the general reserves. From the following particulars, find the amount that can be drawn applying the Companies (Declaration of dividend out of Reserves) Rules, 1975: : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 79 Due to inadequacy of profit during the year, the company proposes to declare dividend out of the general reserves. From the following particulars, find the amount that can be drawn applying the Companies (Declaration of dividend out of Reserves) Rules, 1975: (a) 17,500 9% preference shares of Rs. 100 each fully paid (b) 7,00,000 equity shares of Rs. 10 each fully paid (c) General reserves 21 lakhs (d) Capital reserves on revaluation of assets 3.5 lakhs (e) Share premium 3.5 lakhs (f) Profit and loss account-credit balance 63000 (g) Net profit for the year 357000 Average rate of dividend during the last five years: 15%. Solution … : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 80 Solution … Maximum dividend that can be paid is 10% Dividend on equity : 7,00,000 Dividend on prefernece (9%) 157500 Total : 8,57,500 Total paid up capital + reserves 10% of (7000000+2100000+1750000) 1085000 Total amount available: 420000+ 21 lakhs Solution… : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 81 Solution… 15% of equity + preference = 1312500 (7000000+ 1750000) Total amount payable : 857500 Less profit 420000 =437500 to be drawn from reserves. (ans.) Goti purchases Ito Ltd. For Rs. 250000 and pays in 20000 shares of Rs. 10 + cash. Show the entries? : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 82 Goti purchases Ito Ltd. For Rs. 250000 and pays in 20000 shares of Rs. 10 + cash. Show the entries? Solution .. (entries in Goti ltd) : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 83 Solution .. (entries in Goti ltd) Business purchase A/c Dr. 250000 To Ito Ltd. 250000 Slide 84: 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 84 Freehold Premises Dr. 100000 Plant and Machinery Dr. 80000 Stock 20000 Debtors 27500 Cash at Bank 75000 Goodwill A/c dr. 30000 To credtors 50000 To B.P. 30000To Provision for bad debt : 2500 To Purchase consideration 250000 For payment … : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 85 For payment … Ito Ltd 250000 To equity shares 200000 To cash 50000 (PAYMENT OF CONSIDERATION). VALUATION OF INTANGIBLES : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 86 VALUATION OF INTANGIBLES Intangibles means non-physical benefits from which the organisation can expect to receive profits / benefits in the future. This asset is intangible – therefore it has to be identified - and amortised periodically. Examples inclue softwares, knowledge base, trademark, patents, etc. There are two types : internally generated (for example goodwill) 2: externally generated intangible assets (for example goodwill is generally written only when we purchase it. Amortisation … : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 87 Amortisation … Intangible assets include cost of development, training, research and development and other costs. Its useful life is identified and then amortisation is done over that life. Applying the principles of impairment of assets, impairment is provided on intangible assets. A company purchased 3 years lease on ist April, 2004 for Rs. 50,000. it is decided to provide for the replacement of the lease at the end of 3 years by setting- up a depreciation fund. It is expected that investment will fetch at 12%. Sinking fund tables shows that As. 0.296349 invested each year will produce Re. 1 at the end of 3 years at 12% per annum. The investments are sold for Rs. 28,500. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 88 A company purchased 3 years lease on ist April, 2004 for Rs. 50,000. it is decided to provide for the replacement of the lease at the end of 3 years by setting- up a depreciation fund. It is expected that investment will fetch at 12%. Sinking fund tables shows that As. 0.296349 invested each year will produce Re. 1 at the end of 3 years at 12% per annum. The investments are sold for Rs. 28,500. Taking approx. value…. 50000*.29 = 14500 Solution.. : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 89 Solution.. Lease A/c Dr. 50000 To Bank 50000 ---- P & L a/c dr. 14500 To Dep. 14500 ----- Dep. A/c dr. 14500 To dep fund investment a/c 14500 ------ Dep. Fund Investment a/c dr. 14500 To bank 14500 Solution… IInd year : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 90 Solution… IInd year P & L a/c dr. 14500 To Dep. 14500 ----- Dep. A/c dr. 14500 Interest on Dep. Fund Investment 1740 To dep fund investment a/c 16240 ------ Dep. Fund Investment a/c dr. 16240 To bank 16240 Solution …IIIrd year : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 91 Solution …IIIrd year P & L a/c dr. 14500 To Dep. 14500 ----- Dep. A/c dr. 14500 Interest on Dep. Fund Investment 3480 To dep fund investment a/c 17980 ------ Bank a/c dr. 28500 To dep. Fund investment 28500 Dep fund ac. Dr. 1740 To dep fund investment ac. 2240 Dep. Fund investment a/c : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 92 Dep. Fund investment a/c Ist year 14500 ---- IInd year To balance 14500 To bank 16240 -=== Balance 30740 Balance cd. 14500 ------ Balance c .d. 30740 ---- III rd year By bank : 28500 DeP. Fund a/c 2240 Dep fund a/c : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 93 Dep fund a/c To balance 14500 ---- IInd year To balance 30740 ---- IIIrd year To dep fund investment 2240 To lease a/c 45980 Total : 48220 By dep ac 14500 ----- IInd year By balance cd 14500 By interest 1740 By dep. Ac. 14500 -- IIIrd year By balance 30740 By intrst 3480 By dep. 14500 Lease ac/ : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 94 Lease ac/ To bank 50000 --- IInd year To balance bd 50000 …. IIIrd year To balance bd 50000 By balance 50000 --- IInd year By balanc ----IIIrd year By dep. 45980 By P & L 4020 About AFTERSCHO?OL : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 95 About AFTERSCHO?OL PGPSE - World’s most comprehensive programme on social entrepreneurship – after class 12th Flexible – fast changing to meet the requirements Admission open throughout the year Complete support from beginning to the end – from idea generation to making the project viable. Branches of AFTERSCHO?OL : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 96 Branches of AFTERSCHO?OL PGPSE programme is open all over the world as free online programme. Those who complete PSPSE have the freedom to start branches of AFTERSCHO?OL A few branches have already started - one such branch is at KOTA (Rajasthan). Workshop on social entrepreneurship : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 97 Workshop on social entrepreneurship We conduct workshop on social entrepreneurship – all over India and out of India also - in school, college, club, association or any such place - just send us a call and we will come to conduct the workshop on social entrepreeurship. These workshops are great moments of learning, sharing, and commitments. FREE ONLINE PROGRAMME : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 98 FREE ONLINE PROGRAMME AFTERSCHO?OL is absolutely free programme available online – any person can join it. The programme has four components : 1. case studies – writing and analysing – using latest tools of management 2. articles / reports writing & presentation of them in conferences / seminars 3. Study material / books / ebooks / audio / audio visual material to support the study 4. business plan preparation and presentations of those plans in conferences / seminars 100% placement / entrepreneurship : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 99 100% placement / entrepreneurship AFTERSCHO?OL has the record of 100% placement / entrepreneurship till date Be assured of a bright career – if you join AFTERSCHO?OL Pursue professional courses along with PGPSE : 2/9/2009www.afterschoool.tk AFTERSCHO?OL's MATERIAL FOR PGPSE PARTICIPANTS 100 Pursue professional courses along with PGPSE AFTERSCHO?OL permits you to pursue distance education based professional / vocational courses and gives you support for that also. Many students are doing CA / CS/ ICWA / CMA / FRM / CFP / CFA and other courses along with PGPSE. Come and join AFTERSCHO?OL

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