Academic Writing for Masters in Applied Social Work Students 2014

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Information about Academic Writing for Masters in Applied Social Work Students 2014
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Published on February 19, 2014

Author: martinmcmorrow

Source: slideshare.net

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A presentation on Academic Writing for new students in the Masters in Applied Social Work at Massey University, New Zealand.

Master’s in Applied Social Work Academic Writing Orientation Centre for Learning and Teaching

CENTRE FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING SERVICES http://tinyurl.com/6xy9hy Academic English podcast http://owll.massey.ac.nz Online Writing and Learning Link http://tinyurl.com/albanyworkshops2014 Workshops ONE-TO-ONE OR SMALL GROUP CONSULTATIONS Book on 09 441-8143 or slc-alb@massey.ac.nz OR in person at the library (LEVEL 3)

ACADEMIC STYLE Ordinary English Ageism happens when someone is treated badly just because they‟re young or old and it‟s a lot more common than people think. What matters most isn‟t whether or not someone‟s treated differently but whether it‟s unfair to treat them differently in the circumstances. You couldn‟t call a bar ageist if they didn‟t take on a 16 year-old for the job because they‟re not allowed to have a teenager working for them. But it‟s obvious that a bar that wouldn‟t give a job to a 50 year old to serve drinks is being ageist if that person was good enough in every way except for the fact that he or she was older. This sort of thing is incredibly common, even in New Zealand.

Academic English Ageism may be defined as “unfair discrimination towards someone on account of their age” (Smith & Davidov, 2003, p. 104). The crucial aspect is not discrimination in itself, but its unfairness. It could not be claimed that a bar was being ageist for refusing to employ a 16 year-old, since they are legally prohibited from doing so. However, a bar which refused to employ a 50 year old to serve drinks could be considered ageist, if that person fulfilled the employment specifications in every other respect. Recent research has found evidence of such practices, where age is used as an unjustified barrier to employment or promotion, in over half of New Zealand employers (Brown, 2012).

Academic English is: precise Ageism happens when …. Ageism may be defined as …. concise when someone is treated badly unfair discrimination impersonal you could hardly say that … It could not be claimed that … evidence-based This sort of thing is incredibly common, even in New Zealand. Recent research has found … (Brown, 2012).

CITATIONS AND REFERENCES Citations are a short way of indicating the source of your theories, models, concepts, examples or facts In APA style, all you need to do is to put the author and date of publication of the book, article or website you used The most common way to do this is to put these in brackets AFTER you‟ve used the information Recent research has found evidence of such practices, where age is used as an unjustified barrier to employment or promotion, in over half of New Zealand employers (Brown, 2012).

As an alternative you can use ‘according to’ and include the author(s) in your sentence According to Brown (2012), older employees provide three main benefits for organisations. The first of these is …. Or make the author(s) the subject of your sentence, choosing an appropriate reporting verb, for example: claim argue explain suggest point out find / found Brown (2012) found that age is used as an unjustified barrier to employment or promotion in over half of New Zealand employers.

Your citations need to match up with complete references to sources in a list at the end References Brooks, R. M. (2010). Financial management: Core concepts. Boston, MA: Pearson Brown, P. (2012). Equal opportunities in New Zealand: Myth or reality? Australasian Journal of Human Resources, 41(3), 46-68. Davidson, C., & Tolich, M. (2001). Social science research in New Zealand. Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson Education. Khan, I., & Chen, T. (2010). Tackling ageism: A cross-institutional approach. In J. Johnson & T. Peterson (Eds.), An equal opportunities handbook (pp. 102-131). San Francisco, CA: Pilot Press. Atkinson, D. (2013, January 24). Too old to work: Too young to die? Retrieved from http://www.nzherald.co.nz/1004532.htm Smith, P., & Davidoff, R. (2003). Equal opportunities: From policy to practice. Central Islip, NY: Progressive Press. Statistics New Zealand. (2008). Demographic Trends – 2001-2006. Retrieved from http://stats.govt.nz/demotrends-2012.pdf

In academic writing, most references are to books and journal articles surname, initial (year) title of book Smith, P., & Davidoff, R. (2003). Equal opportunities: From policy to practice. Central Islip, NY: Progressive Press. city surname, initial (year) publisher title of article page numbers Brown, P. (2012). Equal opportunities in New Zealand: Myth or reality? Australasian Journal of Human Resources, 41(3), 46-68. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225 volume / issue number doi number name of journal

CHAPTER IN EDITED BOOK Author of chapter and year of publication Title of chapter – not in italics Editors‟ names – initial goes before and (Eds.), goes after! Biggins, G. (2009). Why I became a social worker. In P. Te Ara & T. Rogers (Eds.), Social work and social workers in New Zealand/Aotearoa (pp.102-120). Auckland, New Zealand: Insight Press. City & Publisher Title of book – in italics Page numbers of chapter – in brackets with pp. before

CITY OF PUBLICATION UK, NZ etc USA Australia city, country city, state initials Either state OR country Harmondsworth, England: Penguin. Palmerston North, New Zealand: Dunmore Press. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Milton, Qld: McGraw-Hill. Milton, Australia: McGraw-Hill. Check title of book in library catalogue and/or Google if city of publication is not clear from the book itself

WEB PAGE REFERENCE Year author’s name (if it’s missing put (n.d.) (or organisation that owns the web site) Title of page (in italics) Statistics New Zealand. (2009). Mapping trends in the Auckland region. Retrieved from http://www.stats.govt.nz/Publication s/PopulationStatistics/mappingtrends-in-the-auckland-region.aspx. Retrieved from followed by full internet address

REFERENCING SOFTWARE Microsoft Word 2007 + Use the references tab in the toolbar Click ‘insert citation’ + add new source Take care with names (Hamel, Gary) and type of source Endnote ($36 from library – and make sure you go to a tutorial) http://tinyurl.com/endnoteguide Free Programmes to download (but you’ll need to learn how to use them, through online tutorials etc) http://www.zotero.org/ http://www.mendeley.com

USING SOURCES Quotations 1) Only quote definitions: The concept of comparative advantage states that “everyone does best when each concentrates on the activity for which he or she is relatively most productive” (Frank & Bernanke, 2001, p. 23). 2) ..... or really memorable phrases: As Mundell (2002, p. 4) argued, “If it‟s right for Europe to scrap its national currencies, why is it wrong for other countries to do the same thing?” And, as in the above examples, copy as few words as possible and put these inside “ “ after your own introductory phrase.

An example of finding and embedding a quotation into your text original text Such is the realm of corporate governance, an area that deals with how a company conducts its business and implements controls to ensure proper procedures and ethical behaviour. (from page 18 of a book entitled “Financial Management: Core concepts”, written by Raymond Brooks and published in 2010) quotation Corporate governance refers to “how a company conducts its business and implements controls to ensure proper procedures and ethical behaviour” (Brooks, 2010, p. 18).

Your citations need to match up with complete references to sources in a list at the end References Brooks, R. M. (2010). Financial management: Core concepts. Boston, MA: Pearson Brown, P. (2012). Equal opportunities in New Zealand: Myth or reality? Australasian Journal of Human Resources, 41(3), 46-68. Davidson, C., & Tolich, M. (2001). Social science research in New Zealand. Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson Education. Khan, I., & Chen, T. (2010). Tackling ageism: A cross-institutional approach. In J. Johnson & T. Peterson (Eds.), An equal opportunities handbook (pp. 102-131). San Francisco, CA: Pilot Press. Atkinson, D. (2013, January 24). Too old to work: Too young to die? Retrieved from http://www.nzherald.co.nz/1004532.htm Smith, P., & Davidoff, R. (2003). Equal opportunities: From policy to practice. Central Islip, NY: Progressive Press. Statistics New Zealand. (2008). Demographic Trends – 2001-2006. Retrieved from http://stats.govt.nz/demotrends-2012.pdf

Summarising 90% of your use of sources will be in the form of summaries of ideas in your own words. To do this effectively, you need to: a) highlight the relevant information b) turn this into brief notes c) close the original text d) expand your notes into one or more linked sentences How could you summarise in ONE sentence the key ideas from this text (from an article by Chen & Lee, 2008) for a paragraph on Confucian ideas about leadership? “A person who wishes to follow Confucian moral philosophy will have the goal of becoming a junzi. The term junzi literally means the „„son of the ruler‟‟ and has been translated into English as a „„person of virtue,‟‟ a gentleman, a „„superior man‟‟ or a „„princely man.‟‟ The term appears 107 times in the Analects (Wang, 2000). According to Anh (2008, p. 103) a junzi is a „„noble person who attempts to actualize Confucian cardinal virtues in concrete human relationships at any cost.‟‟ The junzi is a person who is an involved agent with others, rather than someone who is a detached intellectual or ivory tower philosopher (Wang, 2000). Business leaders still nominate the ideal of being a junzi as the standard of personal integrity in China today”.

STEP 1: Highlight relevant information “A person who wishes to follow Confucian moral philosophy will have the goal of becoming a junzi. The term junzi literally means the „„son of the ruler‟‟ and has been translated into English as a „„person of virtue,‟‟ a gentleman, a „„superior man‟‟ or a „„princely man.‟‟ The term appears 107 times in the Analects (Wang, 2000). According to Anh (2008, p. 103) a junzi is a „„noble person who attempts to actualize Confucian cardinal virtues in concrete human relationships at any cost.‟‟ The junzi is a person who is an involved agent with others, rather than someone who is a detached intellectual or ivory tower philosopher (Wang, 2000). Business leaders still nominate the ideal of being a junzi as the standard of personal integrity in China today” (Chen and Lee, 2008). STEP 2: Take the information out and put into brief notes Confucian goal is to become a junzi – a person of outstanding practical moral standard Business leaders in China see junzi as an ideal (Chen & Lee , 2008).

STEP 3: Close the original book or screen – so all you have in front of you is your notes Confucian goal is to become a junzi – a person of outstanding moral standards, which they use in social relationships Business leaders in China see junzi as an ideal (Chen & Lee , 2008). STEP 4: Expand your notes into one or more linked sentences Research has shown that modern Chinese business leaders continue to aspire towards the Confucian ideal of the junzi, or someone recognised as having outstanding practical virtues and social skills (Chen & Lee , 2008). If you follow these FOUR steps • • • • You won‟t need to worry about plagiarism You‟ll write more critically Your writing will flow much better You‟ll be more credible

EXAMPLE of a POORLY STRUCTURED PARAGRAPH The political challenge of becoming a republic needs to be considered. Firstly, Australians voted by 55% to 45% against becoming a republic in the national referendum held on November 6th 1999, with only the State of Victoria giving a narrow majority in favour of the change (Campbell, 1999) and New Zealanders are more attached to the Monarchy than Australians (Singh, 2010). Secondly, like New Zealand, Canada etc, Australia continues to be governed according to the authority of the ‘Crown’ as the executive branch of Government, an authority inherited from the colonial power, Britain (Radley & Foreman, 2003). In New Zealand, the current Governor General is Sir Jerry Mataparae (New Zealand Government, n.d.). Thirdly, Brown (2003) points out that Republicanism has traditionally replaced ‘top-down’ authority with a concept of a generalised power of the people and that diversity and biculturalism are ignored. However, in New Zealand, the Treaty Principles uphold partnership, protection and participation (Massey University, 2009). Therefore, it is even harder for New Zealand to abolish the Monarchy than it was for Australia, where indigenous rights and biculturalism have been less prominent. According to the last Australian Premier, Julia Gillard, the issue was no longer even on the agenda (Behan, 2011).

PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVE PARAGRAPHS Unity The paragraph should focus on ONE claim about ONE topic Coherence Each sentence in the paragraph should build logically on the one before Development The paragraph’s claim must be supported with relevant evidence

EXAMPLE of a WELLSTRUCTURED PARAGRAPH Another barrier to elimination of the Monarchy is the lack of an alternative concept of State power. This difficulty is said to explain why Australians, less attached to the Monarchy than New Zealanders (Singh, 2010), voted against change in the referendum a decade ago (Campbell, 1999). According to the last Australian Premier, the issue was no longer even on the agenda (Behan, 2011). In the meantime, like New Zealand, Canada etc, Australia continues to be governed according to the authority of the ‘Crown’ as the executive branch of Government; an authority inherited from the colonial power, Britain (Radley & Foreman, 2003). Republicanism has traditionally replaced this ‘top-down’ authority with a concept of power of the people. However, this ‘people-power’ concept has been criticised for suppressing diversity and bi-culturalism in favour of ‘One Nation’ (Brown, 2003) and would clearly be especially problematic for New Zealand, where the Treaty Principles uphold partnership, protection and participation (Massey University, 2009). If Australia, where indigenous rights and biculturalism have been less prominent, has struggled to develop an alternative to the power of the Crown, how much more difficult would such a process be in New Zealand, where national identity is a complex and central political issue?

UNITY Topic sentence in the Original ‘Republic’ Paragraph The political challenge of becoming a republic needs to be considered. … is weak: it introduces the topic (vaguely) but makes no claim about it. Topic sentence in the Improved ‘Republic’ Paragraph Another barrier to the elimination of the Monarchy is the lack of an alternative concept of State power. … is strong: it introduces the topic more precisely and makes a specific claim about it.

PROBLEMS OF VAGUE TOPIC SENTENCE Because the original topic sentence was so vague, the paragraph includes too much irrelevant detail Australians voted by 55% to 45% against becoming a republic in the national referendum held on November 6th 1999, with only the State of Victoria giving a narrow majority in favour of the change ... ... the current Governor General is Sir Jerry Mataparae Facts are only worth including if they make any difference to the claim made in the topic sentence

TECHNIQUES FOR GREATER COHERENCE Coherence can be achieved by creating language bridges from one sentence to another. This allows the claim to be supported and developed as the paragraph goes on. This can be done by: Repetition and Variation of topic vocabulary: keeps the focus on the same topic Back-reference devices: Using ‘this’ / ‘these’ / ‘such’ etc means that each sentence builds on the one before, helping your argument move forward Sentence adverbials: Words or phrases like ‘Moreover’ or ‘On the other hand’ highlight important steps in the argument – but should not be used too much or too loosely.

3. EVALUATION OF PARAGRAPH COHERENCE Original ‘Republic’ Paragraph The political challenge of becoming a republic needs to be considered. Firstly, Australians voted by 55% to 45% against becoming a republic in the national referendum held on November 6th 1999, with only the State of Victoria giving a narrow majority in favour of the change (Campbell, 1999). On the other hand, Australians are less attached to the Monarchy than New Zealanders (Singh, 2010). Each sentence seems to set off in a new direction, so it’s hard to follow the argument Improved ‘Republic’ Paragraph Another barrier to elimination of the Monarchy is the lack of an alternative concept of State power. This difficulty is said to explain why Australians, less attached to the Monarchy than New Zealanders (Singh, 2010), voted against change in a referendum a decade ago (Campbell, 1999). The clear back-reference and the omission of irrelevant details makes it more coherent and easy to follow.

PARAGRAPH COHERENCE Original ‘Republic’ Paragraph …. uses sentence adverbials – in a desperate attempt to cover up the lack of real coherence Firstly, ........ On the other hand, ....... Secondly, ...... Thirdly, ..... However, ....... Therefore, ...... Improved ‘Republic’ Paragraph …. uses just a couple of sentence adverbials strategically – to highlight important ‘moves’ ... the issue is no longer even on the agenda (Behan, 2011). In the meantime, like New Zealand, Canada etc, Australia continues to be governed according to the authority of the ‘Crown’ .... Republicanism has traditionally replaced this ‘top-down’ authority with a concept of power of the people. However, this ‘people-power’ concept has been criticised ......

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