Published on March 20, 2014
Academic Honesty in the Digital Age Mick Purcell
This paper investigates academic honesty in the digital age, and offers constructive advice, including tips, skills and policy guidelines, for international educators. Schools must focus on the promotion academic honesty rather than the punishment of academic dishonesty. Research shows that the single most important factor in promoting a school culture of academic honesty is the attitude of the students. If students value academic integrity, then their peers are less likely to cheat or plagiarize. Students must be taught explicitly to value academic honesty and how to practice academic honesty in the digital age. Practical tips are given about how to create a culture of academic honesty in the digital age. Students and teachers should discuss and include academic honesty in their Essential Agreements from a young age. Teachers must learn precisely how to cite, write bibliographies, use the internet effectively, give references within presentations, or acknowledge a work of art. Strategies for integrating academic honesty into the curriculum are presented with examples or vignettes of successful methods, including Academic Honesty in the Primary Years. The best online tools are presented. Practical strategies are suggested for students, teachers, parents, teacher-librarians, and administrators. There are tips about how to write a school’s Academic Honesty policy by involving the school community to reflect the school’s mission. There is a brief discussion of the importance of academic honesty as the bedrock of academic institutions in free societies, and the links between academic honesty, Ways of Knowing, the Learner Profile, and international-mindedness.
slides: slideshare.net/Edubridge backchannel: todaysmeet.com/IBSing
Primary Objectives: ● Learn about AH issues facing educators and schools ● Elevate conversation from details about Plagiarism to discussion about Integrity and Core Values ● Identify common mistakes made by students, teachers, and schools ● Familiarize ourselves with IB Position on Academic Honesty
The most important learning: ● Support students, and focus on promoting academic honesty instead of punishing academic dishonesty ● Move from academic honesty to educational integrity and relate AH to LP, school values, being principled, etc. ● Begin young with student involvement ● Train teachers: skills and issues in the Digital Age
Structure of this talk 1. a survey of the academic discourse about educational integrity, and some results from research in the field 2. how this discourse can and should be applied to international schools, and IB schools in particular 3. some practical tips for IB educators about addressing academic integrity at your school
The importance of including sources first ● Get students to think about how their ideas are influenced by the ideas of others ● Referencing requires “thinking, writing, and signaling”: ○ inquirers, reflective, communicators, principled, etc.
"Acadmic Honesty." Online Curriculum Centre. International Baccalaureate Organization, 2012. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. "APFEI | Asia Pacific Forum on Educational Integrity." APFEI, 2013. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. Carroll, Jude. "Academic honesty in the IB." IB position papers. International Baccalaureate Organization, 21 Feb, 2013. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. Crace, John. "Jude Carroll: Original Thinker." The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 26 Apr. 2005. Web. 16 Mar. 2014. Davis, Stephen F., Patrick F. Drinan, and Tricia Bertram Gallant. Cheating in School: What We Know and What We Can Do. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley- Blackwell, 2009. Print. “ICAI | The International Center for Academic Integrity.” ICAI, 2014. Web. 15 Mar 2014. Josephson, Michael. "CHARACTER COUNTS!" Josephson Institute of Ethics, 20 Nov. 2012. Web. 15 Mar. 2014. Nicolson, Malcolm, Personal Interview, 28 Aug, 2013. Rise of the Planet of the Apes. Dir. Rupert Wyatt. Perf. James Franco, Andy Serkis, Freida Pinto. 20th Century Fox, 2011. “SEE | The School for Ethical Education.” SEE, 2014. Wed 09 Mar 2014. Skaar, Havard, and Hugo Hammer. "Why Students Plagiarise from the Internet."International Journal for Educational Integrity. APFEI, Dec. 2013. Web. 31 Jan. 2014. Stephens, Jason M and Nicholson, Heather, Cases of Incongruity: Exploring the Divide between Adolescents' Beliefs and Behavior Related to Academic Dishonesty, Educational Studies, v34 n4 p361-376, Oct 2008. Works Cited
Asia Pacific Forum for Educational Integrity
Cheating in School: What We Know and What We Can Do by Davis, Drinan, and Bertrand Gallant
The School for Ethical Education
The International Center for Academic Integrity
blogs.ibo.org Jude Carroll
occ.ibo.org Academic Honesty Policy
In the past 15 or 20 years, we see an emerging academic discipline: Educational Psychologists and others are studying academic integrity, cheating or dishonesty, educational ethics, etc. Some questions they ask:
Is plagiarism or cheating a significant problem?
The IBO’s position paper states (without evidence): “Almost all learners behave honestly but a few do not.” (Carroll, 2012).
Josephson Institute (2012) interviews more than 20,000 High School students every two years: ○ 32% of students self - report copying and pasting from the internet for a school assignment; ○ 51% of students self-report cheating on a test.
Håvard Skaar and Hugo Hammer from Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway (2013) ● investigate secondary school students' plagiarism of internet sources in essay writing: ○ 75% of students reported plagiarising from online sources; ○ plagiarism accounted for 25% of the total amount of text.
There are many similar studies. There is an overwhelming consensus that: ● cheating or academic dishonesty is a significant problem; ● the issues involving cheating or dishonesty (including the methods) are more complex because of the internet; ● there is currently a disconnect in the attitudes between educators and students.
Håvard Skaar and Hugo Hammer from Oslo and Akershus University College, Norway (2013) ● ask: what factors correlate to incidence of plagiarism? ○ grades (better grades, less plagiarism) ○ explicit education about plagiarism and methods of citation (more education, less plagiarism) ○ bibliography (papers with a proper bibliography are significantly less likely to contain plagiarism) ● no significant correlation for gender
As educators, two of these three factors are within our control: Explicitly teaching students about academic honesty, methods of citation, and ESPECIALLY about how to write a proper bibliography (in timetabled lessons) is likely to reduce the frequency of plagiarism.
What causes students to cheat?
Jason M. Stephens (2008), Associate Professor of Educational Psychology at UConn, has classified the reasons into four categories: ● under-interested ● under pressure ● unable ● unrepentant
How deeply rooted is the problem?
the problem is deep-rooted: From ACADEMIC HONESTY to EDUCATIONAL INTEGRITY
Naughties (00s): Academic Honesty A few students plagiarized Plagiarism was deliberate Using plagiarism-detection systems Focus on text Blame on students Reactive punishments Addressed to the individual Honesty is assumed as the norm Tens (2010s) Educational Integrity Many students are plagiarizing Plagiarism is often unintentional The systems must be scrutinized Art, images, collusion, etc. Blame on teachers and schools Proactive lessons Addressed to the School Community Honesty is consciously developed The past ten years: From Academic Honesty to Educational Integrity
Educational Integrity Does a school honor its contracts and commitments? Do kids cheat or bully on the playground? Are teachers hired with honest promises? Does the school have policies to reduce conflict of interests? Are promotions and interviews conducted ethically? Is the school’s budget transparent? Do teachers cut and paste images from the web into their PPTs?
Gary Pavela (ICAI, 2014) has identified four Stages of Institutional Development Stage One: "Primitive" no policy or procedures (or minimalist) Stage Two: "Radar Screen" early efforts: public debate and concerns Stage Three: "Mature" policies and procedures known and supported Stage Four: "Honor Code" heuristic: awareness as an institution
“We investigate hundreds of cases of academic dishonesty each year, and in the majority of cases the problem is that the student was not intending to cheat, but that they were never taught properly in terms of ATL skills. For example, the student was poorly taught how to cite, how to write a bibliography, how to reference a work of art, etc.” Malcolm Nicolson (2013), Head of Development for the IBDP
Summary of IB Position Paper (Jude Carroll, 2012) ● Support learners ○ most important lesson: students need help in this area ● Policies and procedures need to be especially clear ○ to teachers, too, if plagiarism or collusion is suspected ● Learners need to develop specific skills ○ technology and timetabled lessons ● Schools should provide detailed guidance to learners ○ MLA, useful sites, etc. ● Create a local academic honesty policy ○ involve teachers and parents
In the PYP ● Essential Agreements ○ most important lesson: students need help in this area ● Relate to Learner Profile ● Involve Parents ● Age Appropriate Measures ○ promote understanding, not fear ● Teacher training and Modeling
In the MYP ● Relate to ATLs: ○ Research Skills, Bibliography, Citations, etc. ○ Thinking Skills: is this really your idea? ○ Communication Skills ○ Social Skills ● Early Awareness and Understanding of Consequences, with increasing stakes ● Specific tasks and lessons, including task-specific clarifications that include referencing in the rubric ● Paraphrasing and active discussions of spiraling complexity ● More teacher training and Technology Tools
Twelve Skills for Teachers and Students 1. Writing a Bibliography using the school’s suggested format 2. Writing Citations onto Images 3. Explaining Sources in a Presentation 4. Using Headings in a Word Processor 5. Using the Research Tool in Google Docs or the References Tab in Microsoft Word 6. Paraphrasing and Summarizing 7. Using the Creative Commons Search Engine 8. Using “Reverse Image Search” in Google 9. Distinguishing between Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary sources 10. Publishing a document with an Open Source License, such as cc-by-sa 3.0 11. Parenthetical Citations, including Page number 12. Mastering unusual citations, such as films, interviews, lectures, class discussions, etc.
In the IBDP ● Very clear assignments ● Focus on process ● Very clear procedures and definitions, including technical terms: collusion, malpractice, etc. ● Guarded use of plagiarism detection services ○ teach students to submit ● ToK discussions, e.g.: What is Art? ● Signed pledge ● Clear procedures, including specific roles of teachers, librarian, EE Coordinator, IB Coordinator
Focus on Process Recommendation for Research Papers
IB Category 3 Workshop: Academic Honesty ● Recommended for someone from your school ● Lots of information about: ○ how the IB investigates Academic Misconduct ○ what is considered plagiarism ○ the “Naughty List” ○ etc. ● Selena Garza, Academic Honesty Manager, Cardiff ● increasing transparency from the IB ● how to write your Acadmic Honesty Policy
IB Cases of Academic Misconduct, source: IB Workshop on Academic Honesty
Tips for AH Policy Part I ● community involvement, including teachers ● the IB definitions of plagiarism, collusion and the duplication of work ● appropriate reference to the IB learner profile ● guidance on the distinction between legitimate collaboration and unacceptable collusion ● information on what action will be taken by the IB if a candidate is suspected of malpractice and subsequently found guilty ● an extract from the provisions of the Regulations relating to malpractice. ● a link should lead the reader to the IBO AH policy
Tips for AH Policy Part II ● clearly defined processes: step-by-step: what will happen if academic misconduct is suspected? ● teachers must know what to do if they suspect plagiarism ● up to the school, but be clear: missed deadlines? rewrites? etc. ● clearly defined roles and responsibilities ● e.g. who will check the turnitin report? what to do if there is a problem? ● rights of the student: due process and an appeals process ● which referencing style
Common Mistakes by Students ● copy and paste ● overdependence on the internet ● not citing unusual sources, such as lecture notes ● not understanding “collusion” ● thinking about “not getting caught” ● doing Bibliography last minute ● saying mentally “I will cite that later” ● not using the Bibliography Database and other Word Processor tools ● thinking a URL is a reference ● inflating their Bibliographies, or not proofreading them
Common Mistakes by Teachers and Librarians ● focus on punishing dishonesty instead of promoting honesty ● assuming children understand right and wrong ● oversimplifying the complexity of citing in the digital age ● the same mistakes students make, especially thinking about “not getting caught” ● not using the tools properly ● not enough professional development in this area ● overdependence on turnitin ● misreading turnitin
Final words ● Please support students and be compassionate towards young learners ● Academic Honesty addresses issues of how we construct knowledge ● Understanding referencing, construction of knowledge, intellectual property, copyright law, etc. is complicated
The Sydney Opera House does not allow photographers to use its image. This photo is from a Picasa site which seems to belong to someone named Zakia Karmal. I assume she is the girl in the photograph, but maybe not -- maybe she is the photographer, or the person who owns the camera, or the person who owns the boat, or the person who hired the boat and the photographer. Copyright law is complicated. As long as she is not using the photograph for “commercial purposes,” SOH won’t sue her , but if her photograph gets a million hits, and she becomes famous . . . .
Writer Sheila Skillman and her Family scskillman.com
Basic Principles ● Honesty ● Consistency ● Using the right tools The purpose of referencing is two-fold: Firstly, you should acknowledge your sources because it is the right thing to do – that’s academic honesty. Secondly, you should let your reader know where to go for more information.
HONESTY By far the most important principle in referencing is HONESTY. Do NOT: ● Plagiarize ● Cut and paste from the internet ● Steal other people’s ideas ● Try to deceive the examiner ● An example: bloated bibliographies CREDIT: Chris Pirillo http://blaugh.lockergnome. com/cartoons/061013_internet_citing1.gif retrieved August 26, 2013
Activity 1: In your groups of six: Take the handout, a “term paper” by a student named Orlov. For each of the 15 arrows, determine whether the student is correct, or incorrect, and give a reason. Enter your decision and your reason into the Google Doc: https://docs.google.com/forms/d/1c- TYw9DMv0mBj9Vj0v7GpyjDCIlA_9o4JoX08084Sx8/ viewform
Secondary Objectives: ● Tips about specific skills to promote Academic Honesty for teachers and students ● Distinguish between citations, references, Bibliography, Works Cited, etc. ● Conversation about Wikipedia ● Gain skills in common applications, such as Microsoft Word or Google Docs
Scott Adams: Dilbert www.dilbert.com
Activities 1. Learn how to use Headings, Contents, the Bibliography Database and referencing tools in Microsoft Word 2. Learn how to write a citation directly onto a jpeg using a web-based photo-editor 3. Learn how to correct common errors when using MLA to write in-text citations 4. Learn how to use the CC search engine and similar tools to find resources in the public domain 5. Learn how to embed an image directly into your presentation without downloading or fussing with image files We may also discuss: 1. Setting up a Google Accounts for Education account for your school 2. Setting up a diigo or Pocket account for your school
Adams, Scott. Dilbert and the Way of the Weasel. New York: Harper, 2002. Print.
Referencing, and all that ● Citations ● References ● Footnotes ● Bibliography ● Works cited
This comes from the IB Extended Essay Guide ● Reference: the detailed and exact information about your source, found in the Bibliography ● Citation: a shorthand pointer to the reference, usually in-text, or “parenthetical” ● Footnote: extra information about a point that will be interesting to some readers
Bibliography or Works Cited? Works Cited, unless
Footnotes or Endnotes? a matter of style
There are others: CSE, AMA, Turabian, etc. CONSISTENCY At Edubridge, we use MLA through Grade 10
FAQ from students ● How do I reference a book I read online, such as something from Google Books? ● How do I cite a letter from inside a book? ● Why did you mark me wrong when I wrote “Internet” as my source, or, “American, c.f.”? ● Should my in-text citation be at the end of the sentence or in the middle? ● How do I cite you?
Recommended Online Resources Hacker and Fister Purdue OWL CREDIT: http://www.peanuts.com
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