AC LED Technology

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Published on March 12, 2014

Author: IETSwindon

Source: slideshare.net

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From Filament to Quantum Well – The emergence of LEDs as today’s best light source.

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 Bob Kottritsch Vice President EMEA AC LED Technology Driving Mass Adoption for the Consumer market

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 Brief History of Man Made Light • Combustion Light – Fire, Oil, Candle, Gas – Chemical Oxidation → Heat → Light • Electricity for Lighting – Carbon Arc (incandescent carbon) – Filament Lamp (incandescent wire) – Discharge lamp (plasma orbital decay emission) – Fluorescent Lamp (plasma + Phosphor Quantum Well ) – Light Emitting Diode (Q Well – semi conductor + Phosphor) Feb 2014 2

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 Historic Timeline 70,000 BC Hollow rock filled with moss soaked in animal fat and ignited. Fire Light c. 4500 BC oil lamps c. 3000 BC Candles are invented c. 900 AD Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi invents kerosene lamp c. 1000AD The first street lamps appear in Cordoba 18th century commercial development of the Oil lamp, first Gas lamp 19th century commercialisation of Gas lighting, Carbon Arc lamp - Electric light, Edison & Swan - Incandescent Filament Lamp Feb 2014 3

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 Electric Lighting Timeline Feb 2014 4

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 LED Lighting Timeline Feb 2014 5 First Commercial RED LEDs 7 Segment Displays First Commercial Green LEDs High Brightness BLUE LEDs (Nakamura – Nichia) First Phosphor White LEDs High Brightness WHITE LEDs commercialised – now reaching 150 lm/w

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 Why LED Lighting – 8 Advantages • Long Life • Energy Efficiency • Ecologically Friendly • Durable Quality • Zero UV Emissions • Instant Lighting & Frequent Switching • Light Dispersement • Dimmable (sometimes) Feb 2014 6

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 Initial Cost – The BIG drawback • 3000% more expensive • BUT – 2500% longer life – 700% lower annual energy cost – 400% lower cost of ownership Feb 2014 7

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 • $ cost of ownership by lamp type $ Per Lumen Cost of lamps and energy normalised over 10 year period – 400% lower – Unassailable argument – Works for commercial – Has not yet found the heart of the consumer Cost of Ownership Comparison Feb 2014 8

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 Inside an LED Feb 2014 9

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 Inside an LED Package Feb 2014 10 The Die Packaged Die How it Looks

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 The LED Light SYSTEM Feb 2014 11 Power Supply/ Driver Heat Sink LED Module Optics Heat Spreader Chassis/ Insulator

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 Simple vs. Complex Feb 2014 12

© Lynk Labs 2009 EVOLUTION OF THE LED LIGHTING SECTOR A period of Exponential growth Feb 2014 13

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 LEDs – from Disruptive to Mainstream lighting technology • From niche to core in 5 years • Fuelled by: – GaN cost down – LED TV volumes – Critical sector adoption • • • • Feb 2014 14 The innovator's dilemma Clayton M Christensen New York : HarperCollins, ©2003. LED Technology TraditionalLighting

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 LED Lamps and Luminaires • Accelerating growth – $13bn by 2017 – China & ROW!! – How much is • • – 25x109 light bulbs to replace Feb 2014 15 The Market for High-Brightness LEDs in Lighting Applications Strategies Unlimited January 2014 Annual Revenues

© Lynk Labs 2009 AC POWER INFRASTRUCTURE Where DC meets AC Feb 2014 16

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 Infrastructure – where DC meets AC • Global AC infrastructure – Generation and Transmission efficiency – A fundamental “given” in lighting technology – Massive infrastructure investment • • Feb 2014 17

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 Tesla & Edison Feb 2014 18 Shortly before he died, Edison said that his biggest mistake had been in trying to develop direct current, rather than the vastly superior alternating current system that Tesla had put within his grasp1Nikola Tesla Thomas Edison 1 Margaret Cheney, Robert Uth, and Jim Glenn, "Tesla, Master of Lightning". Barnes & Noble Publishing, 1999.

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 Infrastructure – where DC meets AC • Global AC infrastructure – Generation and Transmission efficiency – A fundamental “given” in lighting technology – Massive infrastructure investment • • • Drivers – Interface AC Power to DC LEDs – BUT – Electronics Rich • • Feb 2014 19

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 Common AC infrastructures • Line voltage AC – 120V, 230V being the most common – many country and industrial variants. • Low voltage AC – typically 12V or 24V AC • • – Applications – • • • • Feb 2014 20

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 AC Infrastructure – the Challenge • “25 Billion light bulbs can’t be wrong …” – Replacement cost has to fall drastically – Driver is very significant cost element • Direct AC LED light engines – a solution? – Direct connection – Reduced cost – Infrastructure dimmable – Accelerated adoption …. – Keep it Simple …….. Feb 2014 21

© Lynk Labs 2009 AC LEDS Direct AC Connect Technology Back towards the SIMPLE Light Bulb Feb 2014 22

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 AC LEDs – Device Level Technology? . • Diodes – are still Diodes • The Laws of Physics – still apply • AC LED Device – Does not exist Feb 2014 23

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 AC LEDs – Circuit Level Technology – Self rectifying LED circuits • • – Externally (bridge ) rectified - hVf LED circuits Feb 2014 24

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 AC LEDs – Circuit Level Technology – Self rectifying LED circuits • • – Externally (bridge ) rectified - hVf LED circuits Feb 2014 25 hVf anti-parallel LED bridge hybrid hVf

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 AC LEDs – Circuit Level Technology – Self rectifying LED circuits • • – Externally (bridge ) rectified - hVf LED circuits Feb 2014 26 Component Level Circuit 1.1 mm

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 AC LED IP Landscape • Very Different between DC and AC – AC fundamental Circuit level patents • – DC Open Architecture at Circuit level • AC LED technology – Based on “Voltage Platforms” – Line voltage regimes match multiples of these – Multi-Voltage IP (Circuit, Component and LED/COB levels) (allowing one circuit to service more than one platform) Feb 2014 27

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 AC LEDs – from Disruptive to Mainstream lighting technology Feb 2014 28 The innovator's dilemma Clayton M Christensen New York : HarperCollins, ©2003. LEDTechnology AC LED Technology • From niche to core in ? years • Fuelled by: – GaN cost down – Consumer Lighting Cost Pressure – Critical segment adoption • • • •

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 The Growth of AC LED Players • Driven by: – Cost (component reduction) – Reliability (reduced components) – Size (PSU real estate) – Performance – Simplicity(= speed of design) • Applications: – Lamps/Light bulbs and Tubes – General lighting fixtures – Downlight, Ceiling Fan – Outdoor – Parking, Garden Lighting Feb 2014 29 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 AC LED Players 1 3 8 20 23 29 33 36 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 AC LED Players Extracted from LEDs Magazine Buyers Guide

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 Direct Connect AC Light Engines – back to the simple light bulb … • Direct Connect AC LED = • • • • • • Warm on Dim • Feb 2014 30 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 10 100 1000 % CCT Shift vs. perceived brightness CCT CCT%Shift Cool Warm Lumens

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 Direct Connect AC LED – Prime Applications • Attributes • • • • • • . Feb 2014 31

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 Applications: 12V AC LED Conversion 32 DC Solution 3 DC LEDs, 4 Caps, 1 Transistor, 1 Inductor & 5 Diodes AC Solution - A 3 AC LED, 3 Resistor (Option for 1 Resistor) AC Solution - B 1 AC LED COB , 1 Resistor 3 Watt Puck Feb 2014

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 33 DC Solution 1 DC LED, 1 Cap, 1 Transistor, 1 Inductor & 2 Diodes AC Solution 1 AC LED, 1 Resistor 1 Watt Accent Light Applications: 12V AC LED Conversion Feb 2014

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 Applications: 12V AC LED Conversion 34 DC Solution 15 Components including Capacitor, transistors, inductors & diodes AC Solution 1 AC COB LED, 1 Resistor 7 Watt MR16 Feb 2014

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 AC Direct Connect – Prime Applications Feb 2014 35 • Attributes • • • • • • • Segments • – Cost, Simplicity, Reliability • – GU10, MR11, MR16, G4/T5 Capsules, festoons … • – Cost, Simplicity, safety (50/60Hz & Class 2/SELV hf Transformers) • (PSU weight, cost, reliability) • (PSU bulk & Cost) • - (PSU Bulk, Cost & Reliability)

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 AC LED Technology Driving Mass Adoption for the Consumer market • Savings & Benefits (cost, space, reliability & infrastructure compatibility) for low & line voltage • Paradigm Shift away from Electronics in Consumer Lighting Products • Accelerating Change resulting from GaN Cost Down substituting Silicon Electronics • AC LED Technology is adding significant value to emerging volume Consumer lighting markets Feb 2014 36

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 AC LED Technology Driving Mass Adoption for the Consumer market • Savings & Benefits (cost, space, reliability & infrastructure compatibility) for low & line voltage • Paradigm Shift away from Electronics in Consumer Lighting Products • Accelerating Change resulting from GaN Cost Down substituting Silicon Electronics • AC LED Technology is adding significant value to emerging volume Consumer lighting markets • Direct Connect AC LED Technology Evolving as a Driving Force – to Mass Adoption of Consumer LED Lighting Feb 2014 37

© Lynk Labs 2009 Lynk Labs 2014 Bob Kottritsch Vice President EMEA AC LED Technology Driving Mass Adoption for the Consumer market Thank You

From Filament to Quantum Well – The emergence of LEDs as today’s best light source. When Edison first invented the electric light bulb, he had a delightfully simple concept; to “burn” electricity just like the gas lamp before it had burnt hydrocarbons - to produce heat and almost incidentally light. We have come a long way in converting electricity to light since then. The latest innovation, the LED, owes it genesis to the high tech semiconductor industry. Perhaps that is a misfortune, since it has inevitably led the industry along a very electronics rich path to high efficiency lighting. As the market for LED based lighting is about to dominate the lighting industry, perhaps this is a good time to question why a simple light bulb should have become so complicated. An LED looks very much like a simple resistive solid state filament – with a voltage offset. Why then is it so difficult to make a simple LED bulb without the complex and high tech drive schemes which prevail today? In this talk we look at the evolution of light sources which has culminated in today’s high tech – high spec LED lighting industry and explore why LED technology is a better solution for many applications than previous forms of lighting. We will then move on to understand the latest trend to “Driver Free” LED lighting and examine some of the advantages and a few of the challenges to dispensing with electronics in the humble light bulb. ooo00OOO00ooo Bob Kottritsch is a Vice President of Lynk Labs Inc. – one of the founding innovators in AC LEDs. He is one of the lead technology innovators in the company and is also responsible for EMEA business. Originally a physicist, Bob has held top management positions in a number of technology companies in several continents. A Chartered Electrical Engineer and Member of the IET, he holds a Master’s Degree in Physics and Electronics (Cambridge University, UK) and an MBA (CASS business school, UK). Bob is also a Fellow of the Institute of Directors and of the Chartered Management Institute.

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