AC Grad Presentation

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Published on January 18, 2008

Author: Reginaldo


Ceiling-related Fatalities:  Ceiling-related Fatalities By Travis Murphy St. Patrick’s Cathedral in Manhattan Common Activities:  Common Activities Ceiling tasks vary based on the type of ceiling being installed, but most work is done overhead and the worker is usually above ground level. A standard drywall ceiling installation involves attaching furring strips, applying adhesive to ceiling joists, setting the drywall in position, and then securing it with screws or nails to the ceiling joists. Openings are then cut in the drywall for vents or light fixtures with either a rotary drill or keyhole saw. Joint compound and tape is applied along the seams to keep them from being noticeable. Fatalities:  Fatalities Most of the fatalities that occur when working on or near the ceiling of a building are from electrocution during lighting fixture or other wiring work. The other common cause of fatalities is from falling either off a ladder/lift or from the ceiling members the worker is supported on. Typical Accident:  Typical Accident An employee, a drywall finisher, was sanding the ceiling in a second floor hallway. He was standing on an open-sided floor above the concrete first floor when he slipped off the edge and fell 10 feet to the first floor, sustaining fatal injuries. Guardrails had been in place previously but had been removed to move supplies such as doors, drywall, and windows to the second floor. At the time the employee fell, those guardrails had not been replaced. Avoiding Fatalities:  Avoiding Fatalities Electrocutions would be greatly reduced if all OSHA lockout/tagout protocols were followed on the jobsite. Electricians should also check for accidental live wires before they begin working. Deaths from falling are tougher to avoid, but requiring employees to use fall protection whenever they are near an unprotected edge or working over the ceiling would help. Other Comments :  Other Comments As long as the OSHA regulations are followed and the contractor keeps an eye on the workers to avoid dangerous situations, ceiling work is relatively safe. Slide8:  Sealant Application By: Brent Thurn Sealant Application RELATED FATALITIES Over the fourteen year span between 1991-2004, there have been nine related fatalities with the profession 3 have been due to fires 4 have been due to falls 2 have been due to traffic incidents Fire Related Deaths Workers working in unventilated areas would allow the sealant vapor to build in the room that would ignite and cause flash fires Fire Related Deaths (cont) Workers need to help aid the increasing of ventilation in confined areas Where there is a confined area in question workers should be equipped with fire protective equipment as a precaution. This could include chemical-type splash goggles or full face shield, or impermeable apron and gloves constructed of nitrile rubber, neoprene rubber or polyvinyl alcohol Fall Related Deaths There have been four separate fall related deaths due to workers that were applying sealants over the fourteen year span Fall Deaths- Skylights Two of these deaths occurred when workers were applying onto the roof of a building, would accidentally stepped through sky lights. They would fall around 19 feet and sustain heavy cranial trauma. In these instances the sky lights had been covered, or the workers just were not aware of their surroundings Fall Deaths- Floor Openings The other two fall related deaths dealt with workers unknowing stepping back in the floor openings. At the current moment in time there was not a temporary barricade or hand rail system to help protect against the workers falling. Fall Deaths- Floor Openings In one such case a worker apparently removed the plywood sheet that was covering an elevator shaft opening to spray sealant around the edges of the hole and fell through the opening head first onto the concrete basement floor. Fall Related Deaths (cont) There are a number of measures that can be taken to help prevent fall related deaths. First workers have to be more aware of their own surroundings, and must not tamper with current safety measures that have already been taken - Secondly workers must be completely aware of floor openings and skylights, as well as there being a temporary hand rail system put in place. Traffic Related Deaths One of the accidents was due to a worker that was applying micro-sealant to the outer edge of the control zone. When he was hit by a car going 55 mph. The worker died while being transported to the hospital. The accident was said to have been located right near the protective cone line. Traffic Related Deaths (cont) To help prevent traffic related deaths, there must be increased efforts to establishing buffer zones between allowable working areas and the roads. In these instances the accidents would occur near the cone areas. The workers might have been to close to the oncoming traffic, not the other way around. Conclusion Workers that apply sealants usually are working with their heads down without noticing their surroundings. This leads to a majority of their accidents. Measures should be taken to help barricade employees from unknowingly backing into openings as well as guard employees against flammable areas, and potential motor vehicle accidents. Hypoxic Asphyxiation Dangers in Construction:  Hypoxic Asphyxiation Dangers in Construction By Ian Miller Common Activities:  Common Activities Confined spaces Sewers Swimming pools Houses Pipelines Tanks Manholes Trenches Elevator shafts Meter Vaults *Any space without adequate Air Movement and Replenishment. Fatalities:  Fatalities 21 Fatalities found in this study. Most “Asphyxiation” accidents are more correctly described as Mechanical Asphyxiation via Cave-In or Caught-in-Between Hypoxic Asphyxiation is caused simply by breathing the atmosphere in a space. Typical Examples:  Typical Examples Welder was Tungsten Inert Gas Welding in a confined space at a refinery and suffered Argon asphyxiation. employee #1 started a propane-powered 25 kv generator, fumes filled the area. Employee #1 was wearing an air line pressure demand respirator. which was operating inside the building. Air intake compressor was picking up the exhaust from the generator and supplying it directly to employee #1. Typical Examples:  Typical Examples employee #1 connected a supplied air breathing hood line to a plant nitrogen line and then donned the hood to start sandblasting. Operational sewer lines. #2 fell into the manhole as he opened it-#1 and #3 attempted to rescue him. All died of asphyxia. Testing equipment was present, but unused. No forced ventilation, no rescue equipment, no air supply, and no competent person on site. Avoiding Fatalities:  Avoiding Fatalities Confined-Space rules must be set and followed “to-the-T” every time. Any “supplied” gas must be checked. TEST! Testing equipment is inexpensive and almost instantaneous. If a space has walls of any sort or height, caution is advised. Other Comments :  Other Comments There are regulations on the gas take-off ports, but some connectors are interchangeable-This needs remedy. If someone has collapsed in an enclosed space, it is for a reason. Test then rescue. Driving Vehicles To the worksite and within:  Driving Vehicles To the worksite and within By Kristen Hlad Common Activities:  Common Activities The moving, transporting, or lifting of materials and/or employees to and from a jobsite and within the jobsite. Fatalities:  Struck (Run-Over) – 35 8 by Mechanical Failure 9 by Employee Error Electrocution – 6 Crushed (Roll-over) – 50 7 by Mechanical Failure 15 by Employee Error Pinned – 26 1 by Mechanical Failure 8 by Employee Error Crashed – 14 1 by Mechanical Failure 6 by Employee Error Misc – 29 2 by Mechanical Error 15 by Employee Error Fatalities Typical Example:  Typical Example Employee was placing traffic warning signs on a road. Employee parked the backhoe in the middle turn lane of a 3-lane road and dismounted his backhoe leaving the engine running Employee proceeded to move to the rear of the backhoe and place himself in between the swing arm and raised outrigger on the left side of the backhoe relative to driving position of the backhoe. Employee apparently attempted to remove traffic warning sign(s) and associated flagging material from the floorboard on the left side of the backhoe relative to the drivers seat in the driving position. It appears that as Employee pulled the sign(s) and associated flagging material from the rear of the backhoe he depressed the pedal that moves the backhoe's swing arm right. The swing arm moved to the right and pinned Employee between the arm and raised right outrigger. Employee sustained internal injuries, never regain consciousness, and died. The amount of weight from placing the flagging on the operating petal of the boom was found to be enough force to activate the right swing boom of the backhoe Factors involved in the accident included the following: 1. Employee leaving engine on when leaving the backhoe; 2. Employee placing material on the floor board of the backhoe; 3. No guard covering foot petal to prevent accidental activation. Typical Example:  Typical Example Employee, on his second day on the job, was sent to direct trucks and take tickets from truck drivers who had delivered their loads. The early part of June had had an unusual amount of rain and the roads were very damp and muddy. Several trucks had gotten stuck that day and limerock had been laid down to help stabilize the road. Employee was standing on a 12 to 24 inch pile of lime rock that had not been crushed into the road when it apparently gave way as one of the hauling trucks made a wide turn. Employee slipped and fell under the rear tandem wheels, which crushed him to death. Because of soft spots in the road, truck drivers would have to accelerate a few miles per hour more than would be expected under normal driving conditions. Employee was not wearing any colored garments and had not received any training addressing unsafe or hazardous conditions. Avoiding Fatalities:  Avoiding Fatalities Improving working areas by: signage lighting road surfaces staff training traffic management vehicle maintenance installation of safety apparatus Avoiding Fatalities:  Avoiding Fatalities Example of a safety checklist for workplace transportation Avoiding Fatalities:  Avoiding Fatalities Other Comments :  Other Comments The most common vehicle accidents at work are caused by: people being hit by vehicles people falling from vehicles objects falling from vehicles on to people vehicles toppling over CONFINED SPACES:  CONFINED SPACES Causes of Deaths in Confined Spaces:  Causes of Deaths in Confined Spaces CAUSE No. of Deaths Asphyxiation 13 Drowning 8 Falling 3 Heart Attack 2 Electrocution 1 Burns 1 Head Trauma 1 Suffocation 1 Natural Causes 1 Leading Causes of Death in Confined Spaces:  Leading Causes of Death in Confined Spaces Asphyxiation: to cause to die or lose consciousness by impairing normal breathing, as by gas or other noxious agents; choke; suffocate; smother. :  Asphyxiation: to cause to die or lose consciousness by impairing normal breathing, as by gas or other noxious agents; choke; suffocate; smother. Leading Cause of Deaths 2nd Leading Cause of Deaths:  2nd Leading Cause of Deaths Drowning: Becoming momentarily unconscious from asphyxia then collapsing and drowning, in usually small amounts of water at bottom of space. 3rd Leading Cause of Deaths :  3rd Leading Cause of Deaths Falling: Becoming momentarily unconscious from asphyxia then loosing balance and falling, resulting in critical bodily injury. Prevention of Confined Space Deaths:  Prevention of Confined Space Deaths Majority of deaths caused from not taking precautionary methods. Improper Ventilation in Spaces No Testing of Oxygen Levels or other Atmospheric Gases present. Work Task or Trade Fatalities:  Work Task or Trade Fatalities By Tahir Edwards Scaffolding Common Activities:  Common Activities Scaffolding utilized to accomplished work performed above the ground. Usually accessed by ladders. Fatalities:  Fatalities 1% of fatalities related to scaffolding, approximately 80% of such injuries were fall related Case 1:  Case 1 An employee was working from a single plank approximately 13 feet above the ground receiving planks and frame from another employee at the ground to set up the scaffolding. The victim tried to position himself and stepped on the installed middle frame of the scaffolding with his left foot but missed it and subseqeuntly fell to the ground head first. The victim died on the way to the hospital. Case 2:  Case 2 An employee was working on a scaffolding. The employee was working at a level of approximately 42 feet. The employee was kneeled down working from the work platform. The employee attempted to raise from the kneeled position. The employee used the guardrail to assist him in rising from the kneeled position and the guardrail gave way, leading to the fall. Avoiding Fatalities:  Avoiding Fatalities Make provisions for mandatory tie-off and guardrail protection Work Task Fatalities: Caulking:  Work Task Fatalities: Caulking By William Ryan Parrish Common Activities:  Common Activities How the work is commonly done: Heights Dangerous Environments Loading a tube of caulking into a caulking gun Whenever possible, push–don't pull–the caulking gun to drive caulk into the joint. Then tool the bead smooth Fatalities:  Fatalities 20 Fatalities 1 Struck by a Vehicle 1 Electrocution 1 Falling Gable Crushed Worker 17 Falls 2 through skylights 14 fell due to inadequate safety equipment 1 accidentally walked off the edge of a roof Typical Example:  Typical Example At or about 11:00 a.m. on April 26, 1995, employee #1, a masonry/general contractor, went to the chestnut hill township recycling plant located outside of Effort, PA. The steel building is 110 ft long by 50 ft wide, with a roof pitch of 4:12 and an eave height of 17 ft above the ground. Employee #1 told the manager at the recycling center that he was going to caulk holes in the roof. He put a ladder up against the right side of the building and climbed the ladder onto the metal roof. Typical Example:  Typical Example Approximately 5 to 15 minutes later, a resident, who was driving onto the property, saw a man lying on the ground. He immediately informed the manager and she proceeded to the area. Employee #1 was found lying face down with a pocket knife and caulking gun lying beside him. The knife had caulking and dirt stuck to the blade. She assumed he fell from the roof and immediately called 911. Employee #1 was never revived on site and was pronounced dead at the scene at 12:36 p.m. by the Monroe county deputy coroner. Typical Example:  Typical Example The investigation revealed that the employee was not using any fall protection while on the roof and he was wearing sneakers with smoothly worn soles. There were no witnesses to the accident. There were no marks visible to indicate that employee #1 may have slid for a distance before leaving the roof, nor is there any evidence of any structural failure. In reconstructing the accident CSI (csho) believes that the employee was walking across the roof near the eaves while cutting the end off a tube of caulking with a pocket knife. He apparently misjudged his distance and walked off the edge. The condition of his sneakers may have contributed to the fall. Avoiding Fatalities:  Avoiding Fatalities Fatality Awareness for Caulking Situational awareness Warning Labels on Caulking Tubes Fall Protection Nonconductive Ladders Skid Loader Fatalities:  Skid Loader Fatalities Presented by Amanda Manthorne Common Activities:  Common Activities A skid loader can sometimes be used in place of a large excavator (digging a hole while inside the hole) Used for digging under a structure where overhead clearance does not allow for the boom of a large excavator The conventional bucket can be replaced with a variety of specialized buckets (backhoe, pallet forks, angle broom, snow blower, trencher, auger……) Fatalities:  Fatalities 20 cases noted Most common (12 cases) involve operator’s head being crushed by arms of machine 2 cases- worker struck by bucket 2 cases- worker pinned under machine 4 cases- other, ex. improper use, objects falling out of bucket, thrown from machine, etc. Typical Example:  Typical Example the employee was operating a john deere skid-steer loader with the guard missing on the right side of the operator position. A seat belt was installed but was not in use. The operator picked up a large load of snow in the bucket and was moving the machine to the dumping area with the bucket in the up position. As the machine passed diagonally over a bump the operator was thrown against the right side of the cab where the guard was missing. His head was between the pinch points of the loader arms when the foot control was depressed, causing the bucket to rapidly fall, crushing the employees skull between the loader arms Avoiding Fatalities:  Avoiding Fatalities Operate machine on near level ground Do not exit machine while it is running Wear seatbelt Be sure that machine has working guard, complete cage, and rollover protective cab structure Work Task or Trade Fatalities while Paving Construction:  Work Task or Trade Fatalities while Paving Construction By Chirag Upadhyaya. Work Task or Trade Fatalities while Paving Construction:  Work Task or Trade Fatalities while Paving Construction By Chirag Upadhyaya. Common Activities:  Common Activities Generally Paving work is done with several safety considerations but sometime few things are skipped that can be very dangerous to employees. Sometime toolbox meetings or and training sessions are skipped. Common Activities:  Common Activities Few employees are unaware of the danger. Common Activities:  Common Activities Safety/protective devices are sometimes ignored by the employees. Common Activities:  Common Activities Not all safety signs are taken care of. Employees do not talk to the supervisor if some incident happens. Fatalities:  Fatalities There are more than 1% fatalities related to paving construction. (As from the data given in the excel sheet) Examples of fatalities: Most of them fell from roof or other high surface on to the paving and died. There are some fatalities where the employee strikes against the equipment or the vehicle hits and crushes him to death. Fatalities:  Fatalities Examples of fatalities: Fatalities also resulted due to non behavior of traffic rules and vehicle collide with the employee leading to death. Fatalities:  Fatalities Examples of fatalities: There are also cases where fatalities have recorded due to improper or damaged equipment. Fatality also recorded when the incoming vehicle could not slow at the construction site and hit the employee. An employee without proper safety training was also a victim of paving construction. Typical Example:  Typical Example An employee was cutting asphalt pavement with an air supplied jack hammer on a road under construction. An employee (truck driver) parked a 22 wheel tractor trailer (low boy) approximately 25 yards in front of the employee who was cutting the pavement. The truck was parked on a 3.5grade and the engine was not running. The driver had left the vehicle and it remained parked for one and one half hours. The truck then rolled down the road and struck the employee who was cutting pavement. The truck continued down the grade traveling approximately 200 yards where it struck a soft dirt mound. The employee was killed instantly. Typical Example:  Typical Example This accident might have occurred due to the vibrations caused by the paving being cut with the help of jack hammer. This fatality could have been avoided if some curb – some stone or concrete blocks were placed at the end of the wheels. Stone or Concrete Block Avoiding Fatalities:  Avoiding Fatalities While paving is to be done there are certain things to be kept in mind before starting the work. All workers are given training to work in proper manner and follow the right procedures for a particular work. Employees must be aware of any danger. Employees must put on their protective devices before starting the work. If work is done near a heavy traffic location, then the traffic needs to be routed to a different route. Prior to start, make sure that all safety signs are properly up and readable. Also reflective, fluorescent cones should be placed at an appropriate distance from construction site, that incoming traffic have time to slow. While using the equipment or machinery, check if there are any problems with it. It must be equipped with the backup alarm and flash lights. Inform the employer of any health and safety concerns. Other Comments :  Other Comments Paving Construction Driving Safety. Lowboy:  Lowboy By Kenneth Collins Lowboy Usage:  Lowboy Usage Transportation of extremely large equipment Dozer Backhoes Cranes Compactors Transportation of materials Logs Steel pipe Precast concrete Fatalities:  Fatalities 34 cases were reviewed 29 people were killed during incident 45% unloading/loading 14% backed over or ran over 10% struck by ramp 14% repositioning equipment 7% improper loading of material 10 % faulty equip., park on highway, & exposed tires 3 electrocutions 1 head and neck trauma 1 Just a good crushing Typical Example:  Typical Example employee #1 was unloading an earthmoving dozer from a lowboy trailer. He backed the dozer partially off the lowboy's rear ramps, causing the dozer to slide and overturn onto its left side. Employee #1 was pinned between the rops and the ground. He died from chest injuries. Typical Example:  Typical Example Forman was assisting a driver in the unloading of heavy equipment from a lowboy. The driver released the safety bar holding the ramp and the ramp fell striking the foreman in the head. The foreman was standing approximately three (3) feet from the end of the transport trailer. The ramp weighed approximately one and one-half tons. Avoiding Fatalities:  Avoiding Fatalities Loading and Unloading Be sure lowboy is on a level surface If coming in on a angle, back up and try again Wear a safety belt Don’t try to jump off equipment if its falling Repositioning Equipment Unload equipment, don’t try to reposition Wear safety belt Avoiding Fatalities:  Avoiding Fatalities Back over / run over / Ramp Be aware of your surroundings Don’t rely on someone else Be aware of what others are doing around you Don’t take unnecessary risk Electrocution Take note of power lines Don’t take risk, move away from Power lines if to close STEPP LADDER FATALITIES:  STEPP LADDER FATALITIES BY PETER DONKOR Common Activities:  Common Activities The fatalities involved the use of step ladders in the following ways; Installing electrical fittings above ground. Working on roofs . Demolishing works. Working on HVAC equipment. Common Activities (CONTD):  Common Activities (CONTD) 5. Dry wall installation Fatalities:  Fatalities There were a total of 55 fatalities associated with step ladders in the data provided. Most of the fatalities were a result of head injuries sustained after falling off step ladders. Some of the fatalities were as a result of electric shocks that lead to workers falling off ladders. There were about three instances in which workers actually died from electrocution after making contact with power lines whiles on step ladders. Fatalities (CONTD):  Fatalities (CONTD) The actual causes of death were head injuries, neck injuries, chest injuries and electrocutions. Typical Example:  Typical Example The victim was straddling the top of an eight-foot step ladder when the step ladder became unstable and tipped. The victim fell backwards off the step ladder and struck the back of his head on a rock slab. The victim suffered a closed head injury which resulted in his death. Avoiding Fatalities:  Avoiding Fatalities Workers should be properly trained in the use of step ladders. Workers should never over reach from a ladder. Fall protection should be provided when working on ladders . Workers should always stay as low on the ladder as practical. Never climb beyond where you have a good handhold. Avoiding Fatalities (CONTD):  Avoiding Fatalities (CONTD) Workers working on step ladders should wear protective equipment against electrical shocks. Head protection should be provided for workers on step ladders since most fatalities are head injury related. Avoiding Fatalities (CONTD):  Avoiding Fatalities (CONTD) Open the ladders as far as it will go and make sure the spreader arms are locked in place. Other Comments :  Other Comments In all the cases that I closely looked at, the OSHA inspectors did not relate the fatalities to defective step ladders. There was however a case in which a step ladder was reported as having a bent step and a skid pad missing from one leg but this was not cited as the cause of the accident. In a number of the cases, the cause of death was not know because workers were on step ladders with no one around. It would therefore be helpful to always have another worker on the ground when there is a worker on a step ladder. Tilt-up Walls:  Tilt-up Walls By Paul Wrobleski CONCRETE FORMING:  CONCRETE FORMING PROCEDURES PLACING SUPPORT RODS AND BRACKETS:  PLACING SUPPORT RODS AND BRACKETS “TILT-UP”:  “TILT-UP” PUT IN PLACE:  PUT IN PLACE BRACE WALLS :  BRACE WALLS Typical Example:  Typical Example On August 5, 2002 three workers were killed and two others slightly injured when a 20' wide x 23' high 40,000 lb. reinforced concrete tilt-up wall panel fell over on top of them while they were eating their lunch. The wall panel fell approximately 2 hours after the temporary braces were removed from the wall panel by the tilt-up wall contractors. The braces were removed before permanent connections at the roof and base were made. None of these connections were made. Slide101:  As a result, the wall panel was free standing on a set of shims after the braces were removed until it fell on top of the victims. Additionally, an independent testing company was supposed to inspect all welds and issue a report. The report was incorrect in that it had indicated that all the welds were complete, when in fact, two wall panels were not welded at all, one of which fell. Avoiding Fatalities:  Avoiding Fatalities ALL PERMANENT CONNECTIONS CHECKED BEFORE REMOVAL OF BRACING. TIE-OFF WHEN WORKING AT HIGH ELEVATIONS. DON’T EAT LUNCH WITHIN 40’ OF TILT-UP WALLS. Other Comments :  Other Comments FOLLOW PROCEDURES FOR TILT-UP WALLS. THE TILT-UP PANELS CAN BE 40,000 LBS. AND HAVE GREAT LEVERAGE. Extension Ladders:  Extension Ladders Supriya Ghule Spring 2007 Introduction:  Introduction A ladder is one of the simplest most easy-to-use tools in the construction industry. Most common types of accidents are: Electrocution due to overhead power-lines Tipping off or slipping off the ladder while climbing up or down. Attempting to move the ladder while standing on it or trying to reach away from the ladders. Causes of Accidents:  Causes of Accidents Fatalities:  Fatalities During the years 1980 through 1985, the contact of metal ladders with overhead power lines accounted for approximately 4% of all work-related electrocutions in the United States (e.g., 17 out of 382 deaths for 1985) [NIOSH] An analysis of Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics for the years 1992-1999 showed that the major causes of deaths from falls were falls from roofs (33%), ladders (14%); One finding was that at least 16% of what were classified as falls were actually collapses or tip-overs of the surfaces the workers were standing on. The average fatality rate as a result of falls from working surfaces is 0.49 per 100000 workers. (2000) Example 1:  Example 1 Three employees were installing rain gutter on the east side of a two-story farm house. The eaves on the house were 18 feet above the ground. After the employees returned from lunch, two of them were putting tools into their van. They had their backs to the house. The other employee was carrying an extension ladder to the van without first retracting it. The ladder contacted an overhead power line that was 14 feet from the east eaves and was 18 to 20 feet above the ground. The employee was pronounced dead of electrocution on arrival at a local hospital. Example 2:  Example 2 An employee climbed a 32-foot wooden extension ladder to cut down three conductors from a utility pole. His employer told him that the conductors were de-energized. Unfortunately, the conductors were energized; and, when the employee cut into the first one with a pair of bolt cutters, he was electrocuted. Example 3:  Example 3 The victim was climbing down a 12' aluminum extension ladder when the ladder slipped on the concrete floor. This ladder did not have rubber safety feet and was not tied in. The ladder was leaning against a platform 9'5" above the floor, and was located near the center of this 25' wide platform inside a warehouse. Example 4:  Example 4 On march 23, 1993, employees #1 and #2, of Washing Unlimited, were cleaning the exterior of a two story brick veneer single family residence using manual tools and a power washer. The employees were attempting to clean the chimney, which was approximately 33 ft high on the north side of the house. The employees were using two vertical sections of mobile scaffolding that allowed them to reach only a height of approximately 16 ft. The employees placed a 32 ft extension ladder on top of the scaffold to reach the upper chimney. When one employee climbed the ladder, the scaffold tipped over and both employees fell to the ground. Employee #1 died and employee #2 was hospitalized. Avoiding Fatalities:  Avoiding Fatalities Ladder Inspection Always check a ladder before using it. Inspect wood ladders for cracks and splits in the wood. Check all ladders to see that steps or rungs are tight and secure. Be sure that all hardware and fittings are properly and securely attached. Test movable parts to see that they operate without binding or without too much free play. Inspect metal and fiberglass ladders for bends and breaks. Never use a damaged ladder. Tag it "Defective" and report it to the boss so that it may be removed from the job. Proper use and setup :  Proper use and setup Keep the steps and rungs of ladders free of grease, oil, wet paint, mud, snow, ice, paper and other slippery materials. Also clean such debris off your shoes before climbing a ladder. Always face a ladder when climbing up or down. Use both hands and maintain a secure grip on the rails or rungs. Never carry heavy or bulky loads up a ladder. Climb up yourself first, and then pull up the material with a rope. Climb and stand on a ladder with your feet in the center of the steps or rungs. Do not overreach from a ladder, or lean too far to one side. A good rule is to always keep your belt buckle inside the rails of a ladder. Never climb onto a ladder from the side, from above the top or from one ladder to another. Never slide down a ladder. Never set up or use a ladder in a high wind, especially a lightweight metal or fiberglass type. Ladder Selection and Inspection:  Ladder Selection and Inspection Never splice or tie two short ladders together to make a long section. Top support for a ladder is as important as good footing. The top should rest evenly against a flat, firm surface. When a ladder is used for access to an upper landing surface, it must extend three rungs, or at least three feet above the landing surface. A ladder used for access to an upper landing surface should be secured against sideways movement at the top or held by another worker whenever it is being used. Required Overlaps :  Required Overlaps Proper angles for Use:  Proper angles for Use Extension Ladder Do’s :  Extension Ladder Do’s When using a ladder to climb onto a roof or platform, extend the ladder at least 3 ft past the edge it is resting against. Set up the ladder at a safe angle. Put your toes against the bottom of the rails and stretch your arms out at shoulder height. You should be able to grasp the rung with your hands (see front). Use an extension ladder no longer than 44 ft. On two-section extension ladders, the sections must overlap at least 3 ft. Overlap must be at least 4 ft for ladders over 33 ft. Locate or create a level and firm surface for the base of the ladder. Secure the top and, when feasible, the bottom of the extension ladder. wear a safety harness and tie off to a well-anchored lifeline or other support (not to the ladder) when working higher than 10 ft. When climbing up or down, always face the extension ladder and maintain three-point contact with two hands and a foot or two feet and a hand. Extension Ladder Don’ts:  Extension Ladder Don’ts Do not move ladder by rocking, jogging or pushing it away from a supporting wall. Do not leave tools or materials on top of ladders. Never push or pull anything sideways while on a ladder. Allow only one person at a time on a ladder. Never use a ladder as a horizontal platform, plank, scaffold or material hoist. Never use a ladder on a scaffold platform. Continued:  Continued Conclusion:  Conclusion The fact is, a ladder is one of the simplest most easy-to-use tools in the construction industry. But, statistics suggest that the working men and women in America abuse and misuse ladders in the workplace as a rule rather than an exception. So, making a well-designed and well-taught ladder safety program and routine inspections are well worth the effort. References:  References,_extension.pdf Shotcrete Deaths:  Shotcrete Deaths Shotcrete appears to be a fairly safe occupation because of the lack of deaths From 1991 to 2004 there have only been 4 fatalities Cases:  Cases 'The site is the construction of 767 feet of underground tunnel. When completed it will be a passenger walk back tunnel. The tunnel is approximately 40 feet wide and 16 feet high on the first phase. The height of the tunnel when the second phase is completed will be approximately 26 feet high. The tunnel is approximately 27 feet underground. The tunnel runs from one terminal to the other terminal. Approximately 700 feet of tunnel had been excavated when the accident occurred at the face where work was progressing. The victim was working at the earthen face operating a shotcrete hose spraying the sidewalls when the top and side collapse. Three other employees were working in the same location and were able to exit before being trapped. Fire and rescue were called and attempted to rescue the trapped employee. However rescue attempts were ceased after 24 hours and a retrieval operation was implemented. The victim was located on 11/6/00. Cases Cont’d:  Cases Cont’d on march 24, 1995, employee #1 and a coworker, both of batterton waterproofing inc., were working on the interior of a multi-bin concrete grain silo at gowrie, ia. The bin was triangular, measuring 11 ft by 11 ft by 14 ft, with an effective depth of 126.3 ft. The employees were driving steel pins with a powder actuated driver and drilling 3/4 in. diameter holes with an electric hammer drill into the concrete sidewalls in preparation for gunite application. The employees entered the bin at approximately 7:30 a.m. and rode the powered scaffold close to the top of the bin. The scaffold was supported by three 5/16 in. wire ropes and consisted of three hilo d-800 units with a triangular platform constructed from six 2 in. by 12 in. by 8 ft planks and 1/2 in. plywood, without a guardrail on the side where work was performed. They performed the drilling and driving operations. At approximately 8:00 a.m. they were ready to descend to the next work level. While descending, a wire cable came out of a pulley, causing one corner of the platform to drop about 3 ft. Employee #1 was operating one power unit from outside the perimeter of the guardrail. The coworker was operating two of the power units with his back toward employee #1. Neither employee was wearing fall protection. The coworker grabbed onto the hilo scaffold unit to his right to prevent his falling. Employee #1 fell approximately 100 ft to the sloping concrete bin floor and then another 10 feet through the access hole. He died. RECAP:  RECAP For over 13 yrs data has been collected and there have only been 5 deaths that shotcrete and gunite have been involved in, however, there are only 2 deaths that can be directly linked to these materials. Demolition Fatalities:  Demolition Fatalities By Nick Taylor Common Features:  Common Features Unstable Structure Common Features:  Common Features Multi-Story Common Features:  Common Features Heavy Equipment Fatalities:  Fatalities 122 Fatalities Total 73 Crushed 28 Falling 21 Others (Electrocution, Equipment Failure, Confined Spaces, etc.) Typical Example:  Typical Example On April 6, 2002 at 10:00 A.M., two employees were engaged in the demolition of a masonry wall on a remodeling project. At the time of the accident, the free standing masonry wall had been removed block by block up to a remaining left side column of thirteen 8 inch masonry blocks and the remaining bonded header, and the right side masonry exterior wall. The victim was using a short hand held 2-pound sledgehammer and employee #1 was using a long handle 10- pound sledgehammer. Employee #1 was on the ground working to the left of the free standing wall breaking loose the hollow masonry blocks with the sledgehammer. The victim had placed a 24’ aluminum extension ladder up against the bonded header and was using the 2-pound sledge hammer to break loose the concrete masonry blocks. The victim had removed the top coarse of blocks when the bonded header broke loose and collapsed the right side hollow masonry blocks of the exterior wall that was serving as the header support. The victim was knocked off the ladder and fell approximately 8’ to the ground onto his back… The End…:  The End… Simultaneously, the bonded header broke loose from the left side of hollow masonry blocks. The right side pivoted on its end and the bonded header fell across the body and face of the victim. The bonded header of concrete filled masonry block with rebar was estimated to weight over 1,100 pounds. Avoiding Fatalities:  Avoiding Fatalities Carefully inspect for hazards and make a plan of action prior to beginning work. Coordinate efforts when multiple workers/crews are involved Insure that workers have the most appropriate personal protective equipment for the job. Use machinery instead of labor when possible Skylight Fatalities:  Skylight Fatalities Lucas West Common Activities:  Common Activities Work at various heights Cut holes in the roof to accommodate skylights Walk with different size and shaped materials on rooftops Remodels Demo Fatalities:  Fatalities 165 total cases involving death by falls involving skylights Majority involved roofers walking right into an unobstructed hole during installation of skylight or remodeling of the roof About 1/3 of the cases involved workers resting on existing skylights and falling Typical Example:  Typical Example An employee and a coworker were installing a rolls of insulation, which were then going to be covered with metal roofing panels. A 3’ wide by 10’ long hole for a skylight had been covered with insulation then a temporary roof panel was placed over the insulation for safety. As work progressed, the workers needed that metal for another area of the roof. The workers removed the metal sheet and left a 30 sf insulation covered hole in the roof. As they were unrolling more insulation near that site, one employee stepped backward through the opening and fell 31 ½’ to his death. Avoiding Fatalities:  Avoiding Fatalities The majority of these fatalities could be avoided by using common sense Have a fall protection plan Don’t rest on existing skylights Drug test

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