abnormal2

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Published on February 28, 2008

Author: Semprone

Source: authorstream.com

Slide1:  Anxiety and Mood Disorders Anxiety Disorders:  Anxiety Disorders Primary disturbance is distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety Anxiety - diffuse, vague feelings of fear and apprehension everyone experiences it becomes a problem when it is irrational, uncontrollable, and disruptive Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD):  Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) More or less constant worry about many issues The worry seriously interferes with functioning Physical symptoms headaches stomachaches muscle tension irritability Model of Development of GAD:  Model of Development of GAD GAD has some genetic component Related genetically to major depression Childhood trauma also related to GAD Phobias:  Phobias Intense, irrational fear that may focus on: category of objects event or situation social setting Phobias:  Phobias It is not phobic to simply be anxious about something Specific Phobias:  Specific Phobias Specific phobias - fear of specific object animals (e.g., snakes) substances (e.g., blood) situations (e.g., heights) more often in females than males Some Unusual Phobias:  Some Unusual Phobias Ailurophobia - fear of cats Algobphobia - fear of pain Anthropophobia - fear of men Monophobia - fear of being alone Pyrophobia - fear of fire Social Phobias:  Social Phobias Social phobias - fear of failing or being embarrassed in public public speaking (stage fright) fear of crowds, strangers meeting new people eating in public Considered phobic if these fears interfere with normal behavior Equally often in males and females Development of Phobias:  Development of Phobias Classical conditioning model e.g., dog = CS, bite = UCS problems: often no memory of a traumatic experience traumatic experience may not produce phobia Seligman’s preparedness theory Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD):  Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Obsessions - irrational, disturbing thoughts that intrude into consciousness Compulsions - repetitive actions performed to alleviate obsessions Checking and washing most common compulsions Heightened neural activity in caudate nucleus Panic Disorder:  Panic Disorder Panic attacks - helpless terror, high physiological arousal Very frightening - sufferers live in fear of having them Agoraphobia often develops as a result Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD):  Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Follows traumatic event or events such as war, rape, or assault Symptoms include: nightmares flashbacks sleeplessness easily startled depression irritability Mood Disorders:  Mood Disorders Depressive disorders depression of mood Bipolar disorders cycling between depression and mania (extreme euphoria) Depression:  Depression Symptoms include: sadness feelings of worthlessness changes in sleep changes in eating anhedonia suicidal behavior Depression:  Depression Major Depression prolonged, very severe depression lasts without remission for at least 2 weeks Dysthymia less severe, but long-lasting depression lasts for at least 2 years Can have both at the same time Women diagnosed far more often than men Biological Bases for Depression:  Biological Bases for Depression Neurotransmitter theories dopamine norepinephrine serotonin Genetic component more closely related people show similar histories of depression Situational Bases for Depression:  Situational Bases for Depression Positive correlation between stressful life events and onset of depression Is life stress causal of depression? Most depressogenic life events are losses spouse or companion long-term job health income Cognitive Bases for Depression:  Cognitive Bases for Depression A.T. Beck: depressed people hold pessimistic views of themselves the world the future Depressed people distort their experiences in negative ways exaggerate bad experiences minimize good experiences Cognitive Bases for Depression:  Cognitive Bases for Depression Hopelessness theory depression results from a pattern of thinking person loses hope that life will get better negative experiences are due to stable, global reasons e.g., “I didn’t get the job because I’m stupid and inept” vs. “I didn’t get the job because the interview didn’t go well” Seasonal Affective Disorder:  Seasonal Affective Disorder Cyclic severe depression and elevated mood Seasonal regularity Unique cluster of symptoms intense hunger gain weight in winter sleep more than usual depressed more in evening than morning Bipolar Disorders:  Bipolar Disorders Cyclic disorders Mood levels swing from severe depression to extreme euphoria (mania) No regular relationship to time of year (like SAD) Bipolar disorder is severe form Cyclothymia is less severe form Strong heritable component Bipolar disorder often treated with lithium

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