AALSdiscrimsys5

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Published on January 7, 2008

Author: Beverly_Hunk

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The Discrimination System::  The Discrimination System: Race and Public Policy Barbara Reskin Department of Sociology University of Washington, Seattle January 3, 2004 Heuristic Model of System Analysis:  Heuristic Model of System Analysis Subsystem A Subsystem D Subsystem C Subsystem B Slide3:  Neighborhood Segregation School Segregation Disparities in Access to Higher Education Racial Stigma Labor Market Disparities Disparities in Economic Status Disparities in Test Performance Disparities in Criminal Justice Slide4:  Detroit 85 New York 82 Milwaukee 82 Chicago 81 Newark 80 Cleveland 77 Miami 74 Indianapolis 71 Kansas City 69 Los Angeles 66 Atlanta 65 South Africa under apartheid: 92.5 Indices of Black-White Segregation, 2000 Neighborhood Segregation Subsystem:  Mortgage-Market Discrimination Neighborhood Segregation Disparate Economic Resources Housing Market Discrimination Neighborhood Segregation Subsystem Opposition to Black Neighbors Location of Public Housing Zoning Decisions Housing Market Discrimination:  Housing Market Discrimination 13% of black testers posing as house buyers were offered assistance in mortgage lending, compared with 24% of white testers. Hispanics who asked about unadvertised units were 8 percentage points more likely to be steered toward relatively low-income neighborhoods than their Anglo counterparts Blacks were quoted higher rents than whites for the same unit. The Economist, June 1998 Effects of Neighborhood Segregation:  Neighborhood Segregation School Segregation Racial stigma Job segregation Property values; community power Achievement test scores Effects of Neighborhood Segregation Exposure to crime; arrest Transportation and other public services Slide8:  Neighborhood Segregation School Segregation Disparities in Access to Higher Education Racial Stigma Labor Market Disparities Disparities in Economic Status Disparities in Test Performance Disparities in Criminal Justice Trends in School Segregation: Percentage of Students of Color in Predominantly-Minority Elementary and Secondary Schools :  Trends in School Segregation: Percentage of Students of Color in Predominantly-Minority Elementary and Secondary Schools AP Classes by Race:  In predominantly-white suburban schools, advanced placement courses are universal. In poor and minority neighborhoods, only 43 percent of high schools offer AP classes AP Classes by Race Number of Students per 1000 Who Took AP Exams, by Race, 1984-1997:  National Center for Educational Statistics 2000 Number of Students per 1000 Who Took AP Exams, by Race, 1984-1997 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1997 0 40 20 60 80 100 120 140 Unequal Treatment in the Classroom:  In an experiment in which teachers gave performance feedback to students whom they could not see, the teachers gave less positive feedback after correct responses, briefer feedback for mistakes, and less coaching to students whom they believed to be black than they did for student whom they thought were white. R. Ferguson 1998:294. Unequal Treatment in the Classroom Slide13:  Neighborhood Segregation School Segregation Disparities in Access to Higher Education Racial Stigma Labor Market Disparities Disparities in Economic Status Disparities in Test Performance Disparities in Criminal Justice The Likelihood of Encountering Discrimination When You’re Outnumbered:  If just one white in seven treats African Americans unfairly because of their race, there would be one actively discriminating white for every black person in America. Fischer et al. 1996:183. The Likelihood of Encountering Discrimination When You’re Outnumbered Stereotype Threat:  According to an experiment on the performance of white and black varsity athletes, when the experimenters told the athletes that miniature golf tested athletic ability, the black athletes outscored the whites; when they told the athletes that miniature golf tested athletic intelligence, the white athletes outscored the blacks. Stone et al. 1999 Stereotype Threat College Attendance by Race (1990s):  College Attendance by Race (1990s) White 45 36 36 Black 36 43 30 Hispanic 35 57 22 % HS grads in college % college students @ community colleges % students @ colleges with mean SATs > 1000 Percentage of Students Earning BAs at Schools with at Least Half Minority Students (1993):  Jacobs 1996 Percentage of Students Earning BAs at Schools with at Least Half Minority Students (1993) Black Asian Hispanic 32 7 34 Race Percentage Slide18:  Neighborhood Segregation School Segregation Disparities in Access to Higher Education Racial Stigma Labor Market Disparities Disparities in Economic Status Disparities in Test Performance Disparities in Criminal Justice Family Economics and College Admission:  Family Economics and College Admission Academic Criteria What Money Can Buy Class rank, GPA Tutoring Standardized test scores Prep class up to $1K $60 per shot Personal essay Professional editor Recommendations Professional editor Family social ties Family Economics and College Admission:  Family Economics and College Admission Nonacademic Criteria What Money Can Buy Musical, athletic “talent” Private lessons, equipment “Character” (volunteers) No part-time job Extracurricular activities No part-time job Interesting experiences Unpaid internships Travel abroad Campus interview Travel expenses In-state tuition $3000-$10,000 Donations to institution 6-figure donations Legacy status Family members alumni Slide21:  Neighborhood Segregation School Segregation Disparities in Access to Higher Education Racial Stigma Labor Market Disparities Disparities in Economic Status Disparities in Test Performance Disparities in Criminal Justice Hiring Discrimination:  Hiring Discrimination In more than 2,000 audits, employers discriminated against minorities between 20 and 25 percent of the time Employers favored whites in invitations to interview, job offers, compensation, job assignments, and information about unadvertised opportunities Fix, Galster, & Struyk; Kenney & Wissoker, 1994. Hiring Discrimination :  Hiring Discrimination Faxed applications from “applicants” with names like Kristin, Meredith, Brad and Jay to employers that had advertised for entry-level jobs were 50 percent more likely to be called by employers than applications signed by people with names like Lakisha, Tamika, Rasheed, and Darnell. Bertrand and Mullainathan 2002 Unemployment by Race and Sex, 2002:  Unemployment by Race and Sex, 2002 Adult Adult Teens Men Women White 14.1 5.0 4.2 Black 28.2 10.0 8.9 Current Population Survey, 2003 Labor Force Participation by Sex and Race (in percent):  Labor Force Participation by Sex and Race (in percent) Teens Men Women White 47 60 77 Black 29 64 72 Current Population Survey, 2003 Occupational Segregation:  Indices of Occupational Segregation with Same-Sex European-Ancestry Whites African Americans 30-35 Mexican Americans 32-40 Southeast Asians 44-45 Occupational Segregation 2002 Median Earnings by Race and Sex for Full-Time Year-Round Workers:  Non-Hispanic white 41,400 30,890 African American 32,257 27,351 Hispanic 26,493 22,192 U.S. Bureau of the Census 2003 2002 Median Earnings by Race and Sex for Full-Time Year-Round Workers Men Women Numbers (in 1000s) of Black and White Males Incarcerated in Federal and State Prisons and Jails:  Numbers (in 1000s) of Black and White Males Incarcerated in Federal and State Prisons and Jails Slide29:  Neighborhood Segregation School Segregation Disparities in Access to Higher Education Racial Stigma Labor Market Disparities Disparities in Economic Status Disparities in Test Performance Disparities in Criminal Justice Hiring Discrimination :  Hiring Discrimination Milwaukee employers preferred white applicants to matched black applicants, and applicants without prison records to applicants with records. But they preferred white applicants with a prison record to matched black applicants who had no prison record. Pager, American Journal of Sociology 2003 Slide31:  Neighborhood Segregation School Segregation Disparities in Access to Higher Education Racial Stigma Labor Market Disparities Disparities in Economic Status Disparities in Test Performance Disparities in Criminal Justice Disparities in Wealth:  Middle-class blacks . . . earn seventy cents for every dollar earned by middle-class whites, but they possess only fifteen cents for every dollar of wealth held by middle-class whites. Black Wealth/White Wealth , Melvin Oliver and Thomas M. Shapiro Disparities in Wealth Black-White School Segregation in the South: Percentage of Black Students in Majority-White Schools, 1958-1998:  Black-White School Segregation in the South: Percentage of Black Students in Majority-White Schools, 1958-1998 0 10 20 30 40 1954 1960 1964 1967 1968 1970 1972 1976 1980 1986 1988 1991 1994 1996 1999 2002 Source: Orfield, 2003. Slide34:  77,444 cases filed EEOC dropped 68,000 charges 8248 cases resolved through conciliation 431 filed in court EEOC: no cause 8,248 2040 resolved for complainant < 100 settled for complainant ca. 338 dismissed < 100 go to trial < 50 win at trial EEOC CHARGE HANDLING PROCESS Remedies for Discrimination Subsystems:  Neighborhood Segregation School Segregation Higher Education Racial Stigma Labor Markets Economic Standing and Social Status Discrimination laws, affirmative action Fair Housing Acts Minimum wage laws, pay discrimination Busing Affirmative action Brown v. Bd. of Educ. Remedies for Discrimination Subsystems Public assistance CETA, JTPA Section 8 Housing Criminal Justice Automatic Sentencing

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