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Education

Published on April 7, 2008

Author: Tarzen

Source: authorstream.com

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Atlas of Science Literacy, Volume 2:  Atlas of Science Literacy, Volume 2 Ted Willard About AAAS:  About AAAS The American Association for the Advancement of Science was founded in Philadelphia in 1848 and it is the world's largest general science organization. 138,000 members and 262 affiliated societies Bridges gaps among scientists, policy-makers, and the public to advance science and science education. Authoritative source for information on the latest developments in science and publisher of the peer-reviewed journal Science About Project 2061:  About Project 2061 In 1985, the AAAS launched a long-term effort to reform science, mathematics, and technology education for the 21st century. That same year, Halley’s Comet was approaching the sun, prompting the project’s originators to consider all of the scientific and technological changes that a child entering school in 1985 would witness before the return of the comet in 2061—hence the name, Project 2061. Project 2061 believes ...:  Project 2061 believes ... Science literacy is important for all students, not only those electing science careers. “Science” includes natural science, social science, mathematics, and technology. There are no quick fixes. Curriculum should cover less material but at greater depth. Reform must be structured around powerful, meaningful goals. Science for All Americans:  Science for All Americans Presents the knowledge and skills that make up science literacy goals What is Science Literacy?:  What is Science Literacy? Familiarity with the natural world and respect for its unity Awareness of important ways in which mathematics, technology, and the sciences depend upon one another Key concepts and principles of science Capacity for scientific ways of thinking Knowing that science, mathematics, and technology are human enterprises and what that implies about their strengths and limitations Ability to use scientific knowledge and ways of thinking for personal and social purposes Criteria for Inclusion in SFAA:  Criteria for Inclusion in SFAA Utility Will the proposed content—knowledge or skills—significantly enhance the graduate's long-term employment prospects? Will it be useful in making personal decisions? Social Responsibility Is the proposed content likely to help citizens participate intelligently in making social and political decisions on matters involving science and technology? The Intrinsic Value of Knowledge Does the proposed content present aspects of science, mathematics, and technology that are so important in human history or so pervasive in our culture that a general education would be incomplete without them? Philosophical Value Does the proposed content contribute to the ability of people to ponder the enduring questions of human meaning such as life and death, perception and reality, the individual good versus the collective welfare, certainty and doubt? Childhood Enrichment Will the proposed content enhance childhood (a time of life that is important in its own right) and not solely for what it may lead to in later life? Criteria for Inclusion in SFAA:  Criteria for Inclusion in SFAA Utility Social Responsibility Intrinsic Value of Knowledge Philosophical Value Childhood Enrichment What do you currently teach that would not pass these criteria? Table of Contents:  Table of Contents 1. The Nature of Science 2. The Nature of Mathematics 3. The Nature of Technology 4. The Physical Setting 5. The Living Environment 6. The Human Organism 7. Human Society 8. The Designed World 9. The Mathematical World 10. Historical Perspectives 11. Common Themes 12. Habits of Mind Paragraph from SFAA (page 43):  Paragraph from SFAA (page 43) Chapter 4—The Physical Setting Section B—The Earth The cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere plays an important part in determining climatic patterns—evaporating from the surface, rising and cooling, condensing into clouds and then into snow or rain, and falling again to the surface, where it collects in rivers, lakes, and porous layers of rock. There are also large areas on the earth's surface covered by thick ice (such as Antarctica), which interacts with the atmosphere and oceans in affecting worldwide variations in climate. “Steps Along the Way”:  “Steps Along the Way” Defining the final objectives of science literacy is not enough Students will work towards achieving scientific literacy incrementally Therefore, incremental objectives are necessary Benchmarks for Science Literacy:  Benchmarks for Science Literacy Provides a set of learning goals for the ends of grades 2, 5, 8, and 12 Benchmark Teams:  Benchmark Teams Slide14:  Benchmarks are based on SFAA Student’s Growth of Understanding:  Student’s Growth of Understanding The Project 2061 staff prepared this message to convey to the teams its concern with students’ growth of understanding: If we invest our energies in selecting or inventing activities and pacing them intuitively at different grade levels, we will fall short of the quality of innovation that Project 2061 intends. The job is rather to think through the entire flow of learning, including major connections among ideas, so as to identify the kinds of learning experiences that would optimally contribute to students growing along those lines. Atlas of Science Literacy, p. 137 Benchmarks from BSL (pages 67-70):  Benchmarks from BSL (pages 67-70) K-2 Water left in an open container disappears, but water in a closed container does not disappear. 3-5 When liquid water disappears, it turns into a gas (vapor) in the air and can reappear as a liquid when cooled, or as a solid if cooled below the freezing point of water. Clouds and fog are made of tiny droplets of water. 6-8 The cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere plays an important role in determining climatic patterns. Water evaporates from the surface of the earth, rises and cools, condenses into rain or snow, and falls again to the surface. The water falling on land collects in rivers and lakes, soil, and porous layers of rock, and much of it flows back into the ocean. 9-12 Life is adapted to conditions on the earth, including the force of gravity that enables the planet to retain an adequate atmosphere, and an intensity of radiation from the sun that allows water to cycle between liquid and vapor. Table of Contents:  Table of Contents 1. The Nature of Science 2. The Nature of Mathematics 3. The Nature of Technology 4. The Physical Setting 5. The Living Environment 6. The Human Organism 7. Human Society 8. The Designed World 9. The Mathematical World 10. Historical Perspectives 11. Common Themes 12. Habits of Mind Table of Contents:  Table of Contents 1 The Nature Of Science 3 A The Scientific World View 5 B Scientific Inquiry 9 C The Science Enterprise 14 2 The Nature Of Mathematics 23 A Patterns and Relationships 25 B Mathematics, Science and Technology 30 C Mathematical Inquiry 34 3 The Nature Of Technology 41 A Technology and Science 43 B Design and Systems 48 C Issues in Technology 53 4 The Physical Setting 59 A The Universe 61 B The Earth 66 C Processes That Shape the Earth 71 D Structure of Matter 75 E Energy Transformations 81 F Motion 87 G Forces of Nature 93 5 The Living Environment 99 A Diversity of Life 101 B Heredity 106 C Cells 110 D Interdependence of Life 115 E Flow of Matter and Energy 118 F Evolution of Life 122 10 Historical Perspectives 237 A Displacing the Earth from the Center of the Universe 239 B Uniting the Heavens and Earth 242 C Relating Matter & Energy and Time & Space 244 D Extending Time 246 E Moving the Continents 247 F Understanding Fire 249 G Splitting the Atom 252 H Explaining the Diversity of Life 254 I Discovering Germs 256 J Harnessing Power 258 11 Common Themes 261 A Systems 262 B Models 267 C Constancy and Change 271 D Scale 276 12 Habits Of Mind 281 A Values and Attitudes 284 B Computation and Estimation 288 C Manipulation and Observation 292 D Communication Skills 295 E Critical-Response Skills 298 6 The Human Organism 127 A Human Identity 128 B Human Development 131 C Basic Functions 135 D Learning 139 E Physical Health 143 F Mental Health 147 7 Human Society 151 A Cultural Effects on Behavior 153 B Group Behavior 157 C Social Change 161 D Social Trade-Offs 164 E Political And Economic Systems 167 F Social Conflict 171 G Global Interdependence 175 8 The Designed World 181 A Agriculture 183 B Materials and Manufacturing 187 C Energy Sources and Use 192 D Communication 196 E Information Processing 200 F Health Technology 204 9 The Mathematical World 209 A Numbers 210 B Symbolic Relationships 215 C Shapes 222 D Uncertainty 226 E Reasoning 231 No linear presentation of topics can satisfactorily represent the connectedness of ideas and experiences that would be essential in an actual curriculum or textbook.:  No linear presentation of topics can satisfactorily represent the connectedness of ideas and experiences that would be essential in an actual curriculum or textbook. Science for All Americans, page xxi The Need for Maps Atlas of Science Literacy:  Atlas of Science Literacy Illustrates the relationships between individual learning goals and shows the growth-of-understanding of ideas Dedication:  Dedication This publication is dedicated to Andrew (Chick) Ahlgren (1936-2006) who brought map making and cartoons— like his own cartoon here—to Project 2061 and changed forever how we think about science learning and teaching. Most Boxes are Based on Benchmarks:  Most Boxes are Based on Benchmarks Distribution of Benchmarks:  Distribution of Benchmarks 1 The Nature of Science:  1 The Nature of Science Scientific World View (1A) The Scientific Community (1C) Science and Society (1C) Evidence and Reasoning in Inquiry (1B) Scientific Investigations (1B) Scientific Theories (1B) Avoiding Bias in Science (1B) Revised Benchmarks:  Revised Benchmarks Old Version Science can sometimes be used to inform ethical decisions by identifying the likely consequences of particular actions but cannot be used to establish that some action is either moral or immoral. 1A/M4c New Version Science can sometimes be used to inform ethical decisions by identifying the likely consequences of particular actions, but science cannot be used by itself to establish that an action is moral or immoral. 1A/M4c* Revised Benchmarks:  Revised Benchmarks Old Version Two types of organisms may interact with one another in several ways: They may be in a producer/consumer, predator/prey, or parasite/host relationship. Or one organism may scavenge or decompose another. Relationships may be competitive or mutually beneficial. Some species have become so adapted to each other that neither could survive without the other. 5D/M2 New Version Interactions between organisms may be for nourishment, reproduction, or protection and may benefit one of the organisms or both of them. Some species have become so dependent on each other that neither could survive without the other. 5D/M2** Revised Benchmarks:  Revised Benchmarks Old Version Middle School Because the earth turns daily on an axis that is tilted relative to the plane of the earth's yearly orbit around the sun, sunlight falls more intensely on different parts of the earth during the year. The difference in heating of the earth's surface produces the planet's seasons and weather patterns. 4B/M4 New Version High School Because the earth turns daily on an axis that is tilted relative to the plane of the earth's yearly orbit around the sun, sunlight falls more intensely on different parts of the earth during the year. The difference in intensity of sunlight and the resulting warming of the earth's surface produces the seasonal variations in temperature. 4B/H3** (BSL) Revised Benchmarks:  Revised Benchmarks Old Version High School There are two kinds of charges--positive and negative. Like charges repel one another, opposite charges attract. 4G/H3ab New Version Middle School A charged object can be charged in one of two ways, which we call either positively charged or negatively charged. Two objects that are charged in the same manner exert a force of repulsion on each other, while oppositely charged objects exert a force of attraction on each other. 4G/M5** (BSL) But some come from SFAA:  But some come from SFAA And some some from NSES:  And some some from NSES NSES The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases that include water vapor. The atmosphere has different properties at different elevations. Atlas 2 The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, and trace amounts of water vapor, carbon dioxide, and other gases. 4B/M15** (NSES) Comparing BSL and NSES:  Comparing BSL and NSES Nature of Science Natural Science Social Science Mathematics Technology Science Education System Science Education Program Science Assessment Professional Development Science Teaching Content 90% OVERLAP From the National Science Education Standards:  From the National Science Education Standards The National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences gratefully acknowledges its indebtedness to the seminal work by the American Association for the Advancement of Science's Project 2061 and believes that use of Benchmarks for Science Literacy by state framework committees, school and school-district curriculum committees, and developers of instructional and assessment materials complies fully with the spirit of the content standards. National Academy of Sciences, p. 15 Supporting the Goals:  Curriculum Teacher Preparation Instruction Materials Development Assessment Literacy Goals Learning Goals Connections Supporting the Goals Map Key:  Map Key Map Key:  Map Key BENCHMARKS are specific learning goals derived mostly from Benchmarks for Science Literacy but also from Science for All Americans and National Science Education Standards. Colored boxes indicate knowledge goals; bordered boxes indicate skill goals. Some benchmarks have been split into two or more ideas which appear in separate boxes. Map Key:  Map Key BENCHMARK CODES indicate chapter, section, grade range, and number of the corresponding goal statements in Benchmarks for Science Literacy. Letters, asterisks, and acronyms following the code provide additional information about the benchmark. What’s in a Benchmark Code?:  What’s in a Benchmark Code? Map Key:  Map Key CONNECTING ARROWS indicate that achieving one benchmark contributes to achieving the other. The exact meaning of a connection is not indicated explicitly, but connections can be based on the logic of the subject matter or on cognitive research about how students learn. What does an Arrow mean?:  What does an Arrow mean? One idea “contributes to the understanding of the other” Knowing one idea can be “helpful in learning” the other idea. The idea may be an essential prerequisite, but does not have to be. Map Key:  Map Key GRADE RANGES suggest when most students could achieve these benchmarks. A benchmark’s position within a grade range does not indicate the grade in which it should be taught, nor does its position indicate that it should be taught before or after another benchmark unless there is an arrow connecting them. Map Key:  Map Key STRAND LABELS help the reader find things in the map and get a sense of the map’s content. Strands loosely suggest ideas or skills that develop over time. Strands often interweave and share benchmarks. Map Key:  Map Key CROSS-REFERENCES TO OTHER MAPS indicate that the benchmark also appears on the maps that are listed. Map Key:  Map Key OFF-MAP CONNECTIONS show links to the codes of closely related benchmarks when it is not possible to include the full text of the benchmark on a map. Arrows in off-map connections imply the same relationship between benchmarks as they do when they connect boxes to boxes. Use the Index of Mapped Benchmarks to search for maps on which a benchmark appears in its full text. Index of Mapped Benchmarks:  Index of Mapped Benchmarks The index entries are not terms or topics. Each index entry is for a unique benchmark statement identified by its benchmark code. The index is organized according to the structure of the chapters and sections in Benchmarks for Science Literacy. Each index entry provides the names of the maps, along with the volume and page numbers, on which the benchmark can be found. Map Key:  Map Key Curriculum Topic Study:  Curriculum Topic Study The Curriculum Topic Study (CTS) project is developing a set of tools and professional development processes for science and mathematics teachers and professional development CTS involves a methodical process of using national standards and research on student learning to study, analyze, and apply the content and instructional implications of the science and mathematics topics they teach. CTS builds a bridge between state and national standards, research on students' ideas in science, and opportunities for students to learn science and mathematics through improved teacher practice. Research References:  Research References Children's Ideas in Science Editors: Rosiland Driver, Edith Guesney, Andree Tiberghien Publisher: Taylor & Francis ISBN: 0335150403 (September 1985) Making Sense of Secondary Science: Research into Children’s Ideas Editors: Rosiland Driver, Ann Squires, Peter Rushworth, valer Wood-Robinson Publisher: Routledge ISBN: 0415097657 (March 1994)

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