A370SocOrg

57 %
43 %
Information about A370SocOrg
Education

Published on February 24, 2008

Author: Rosalie

Source: authorstream.com

Peasant Social Organization:  Peasant Social Organization Dr. Jane Granskog CSU Bakersfield TYPES OF FAMILY:  TYPES OF FAMILY The type of family that is prevalent within a society depends on: the socio-historically derived norms, preferred forms, that are desired. the ecological force along with the institutional demands of the Larger Society. Two Factors Affecting Family Type: :  Two Factors Affecting Family Type: The nature of the food supply The need and benefits deriving from the presence of permanent workers versus wage laborers Extended Families:  Extended Families extended families and larger domestic groups are more frequent among cultivators with a paleotechnic ecotype where the task of cultivation and pursuit of part-time specialization permit and require a larger labor force and where the domestic unit controls most or all of the resources and skills to maintain itself. Extended Families:  Extended Families The techniques of production must benefit from the addition of permanent workers within the domestic unit. The need and benefits deriving from permanent workers must be sufficient to offset the increased tensions between dyads w/in the domestic unit (between generations, siblings, men and women, etc). Nuclear families are predominant:  Nuclear families are predominant where there is a neotechnic ecotype, under frontier conditions (prevalence of land), where there is land scarcity (can't support an extended family), Nuclear Families are predominant:  Nuclear Families are predominant where there is a prevalence of wage labor, and under conditions of intensified cultivation where a nuclear family can produce a sufficient amount on limited land. SUMMARY:  SUMMARY In general, when the division of labor is accentuated within society but not the family, the nuclear family will be predominant. When the division of labor is accentuated within the family but not the society, the extended family will be predominant. Male Dominance And The Structure Of The Peasant Family :  Male Dominance And The Structure Of The Peasant Family peasants are assumed to be one of the clearest instances of male dominance but, in reality, this varies considerably depends in part on the number of alternatives present for women to acquire status and prestige. Prevalence of Male Dominance Based on 4 Features of Peasantry:  Prevalence of Male Dominance Based on 4 Features of Peasantry Clearcut ideology of male dominance. This is more "myth" than real & does not reflect the reality of the peasant situation particularly with respect to the role women play. Male Dominance and Peasant Society:  Male Dominance and Peasant Society Predominance of males in prestigeful productive activities, namely agriculture, which does NOT necessarily indicate who controls or makes the most decisions regarding the allocation of products. Male Dominance and Peasant Society:  Male Dominance and Peasant Society Social segregation of the sexes with an emphasis on male authority within the household. A preference toward males in inheritance rules and residence patterns. Complementarity of the Sexes in Peasant Society:  Complementarity of the Sexes in Peasant Society Women are primarily associated with the domestic domain, which is of central importance in peasant society (source of female power). Complementarity in Peasant Society:  Complementarity in Peasant Society Peasants are relatively powerless in their relationship to the larger society of which they are a part, and face-to-face interaction is significantly important within the community. Ergo, informal relationships and forms of power are as significant as formal authorized relations and forms of power (this serves as a second basis of female power). Complementarity in Peasant Society:  Complementarity in Peasant Society Males have greater access to jural and other formal rights and are occupied with activities overtly considered to be important. (This is the basis of the ideology of male dominance.) Men and women are equally dependent on each other in important ways. (This is the source of the balance of power between the sexes.). Summary :  Summary The first two components above, provide the basis for feminine power; the third insures the presence of an ideology of male dominance; and the fourth, maintenance of a balance of power between the sexes (complementarity) which is achieved by acting out the "myth" of male dominance. These features make male dominance in peasant society questionable. Keys to Understanding the Status of Women in Peasant Society:  Keys to Understanding the Status of Women in Peasant Society the realization of the difference between the "real" and the "ideal," between what people say they do and what they really do, and its implications for behavior of women and men; noting the significance of the role women play in the domestic domain and the importance of the domestic domain within society (their economic activities especially); Keys to Understanding the Status of Women in Peasant Society :  Keys to Understanding the Status of Women in Peasant Society noting the significance of the type of family structure that is actually prevalent and its implications for role relationships established within the family mother-son relationships in patrilocal extended families versus husband-wife relationships are often a focus for conflict. Keys to Understanding the Status of Women in Peasant Society:  Keys to Understanding the Status of Women in Peasant Society In patrilineal (or male dominated, generally) societies, it is the head male who represents the family to the outside world which in turn means acting out the myth of male dominance even though, in terms of actual decision making within the family context, the woman may play a critical role. CRITERIA FOR PEASANT COALITIONS:  CRITERIA FOR PEASANT COALITIONS the number of interests (strands) that tie people together -- manystranded bonds vs singlestranded bonds; the number of people involved -- dyadic bonds (two individuals or groups) vs polyadic bonds (more than two people or groups); and CRITERIA FOR PEASANT COALITIONS:  CRITERIA FOR PEASANT COALITIONS the relative status of participants -- horizontal bonds (more or less equal status, peasant to peasant) vs vertical bonds (unequal status, peasants w/ superior outsiders). What kinds of coalitions are predominant? :  What kinds of coalitions are predominant? Depends primarily on whether they are singlestranded (single predominant interest, more flexible, less stable) or manystranded (multiple interests - kinship, territory, friendship, multiplex ties, are stable, more enduring) What kinds of coalitions are predominant? :  What kinds of coalitions are predominant? Singlestranded coalitions - Found where "peasant household is 'individualized' in its relationship to outside demands" (p.82), neotechnic ecotypes w/ network markets. Manystranded coalitions - found under a variety of conditions including both paleotechnic and neotechnic ecotypes. Four Types of Singlestranded Coalitions :  Four Types of Singlestranded Coalitions dyadic & horizontal (SS-D-H) - market relations between peasants (includes pratik); dyadic & vertical (SS-D-V) - peasant and moneylender relations; polyadic & vertical (SS-P-V) - peasants in factory or plantation; polyadic & horizontal (SS-P-H) - sodalities or associations, e.g., mutual aid/ irrigation societies Four Types of Manystranded Coalitions:  Four Types of Manystranded Coalitions dyadic & horizontal (MS-D-H) - ties of friendship, compadrazgo polyadic & horizontal (MS-P-H) - eg., corporate communities w/ paleotechnic ecotypes dyadic & vertical (MS-D-V) - asymmetrical ties between patron and client, caciquismo polyadic & vertical (MS-P-V) - e.g., descent group such as the tsu or clan in China. Closed Corporate Communities (Wolf):  Closed Corporate Communities (Wolf) community rights and jurisdiction over the use of resources, strict restrictions on transfer to outsiders, communal land tenure; restrictions on membership in community to those who are born and raised in the community, is endogamous and territorially based Closed Corporate Communities:  Closed Corporate Communities forced participation in community religio-political activities, support of community Saints (L. Am.) and work projects for maintaining community facilities which help to redistribute wealth among members is homogeneous in make-up w/ a strong emphasis on egalitarianism -- "we are all poor, equal and humble” Closed Corporate Communities:  Closed Corporate Communities are closed to outsiders and outside influence -- fight off change and innovation as potential threats to internal order that it needs to maintain; is characterized by a stable "traditional" technology using predominantly marginal lands. Closed Corporate Communities :  Closed Corporate Communities Historically, are the offspring of the dualization of society into a dominant entrepreneurial sector and a dominated sector of peasants; land available for peasants was often limited so as to be able to use the community as a labor reserve; corporate community organization became an effective defensive strategy against the demands of the L.S. Open Peasant Communities:  Open Peasant Communities no communal jurisdiction over resource base; membership in the community is unrestricted; wealth is not redistributed among members (heterogeneous make-up, internal differentiation in socio-economic statuses present). most of such communities are engaged in capitalist markets (with cash crops and wage labor) and the neotechnic order. Problems with Wolf’s Analysis of Closed Corporate Communities:  Problems with Wolf’s Analysis of Closed Corporate Communities Wolf emphasizes external factors (interaction with outside elites) in both the development & demise of corporate communities Does not focus on the economic basis of corporate communities - corporate control of scarce resources Problems with Wolf’s Analysis:  Problems with Wolf’s Analysis Zapotec peasants of Santo Tomas : 1) Do NOT actively reject outside influence; 2) Are not homogeneous with little socio-economic stratification, conflict is present; 3) Do not utilize predominantly marginal lands 4) the corporate community organization is not broken down. Problems with Wolf’s Analysis :  Problems with Wolf’s Analysis there are open corporate communities that actively moderate the influence of the outside world and may serve as "cultural brokers" moderating the changes that take place. corporate features are less oriented to resisting external domination and more closely related to environmental conditions and subsistence requirements (Sheridan) Conditions for Corporate Tenure:  Conditions for Corporate Tenure need for access to resources that are not evenly distributed, whose dependability and frequency of use are low, and that cannot be intensively exploited by individual households Conditions for Corporate Tenure:  Conditions for Corporate Tenure focus of analysis should be on household and not on presumed uniformity of community may be extensive involvement with both non-capitalist and capitalist, agroindustrial modes of production RECONCEPTUALIZING PEASANTRY:  RECONCEPTUALIZING PEASANTRY Wolf’s analysis of coalitions focuses on the articulation of relations between various categorical types of 'peasants' and 'nonpeasants'. Kearney argues that given the significance of transnational migration today, this analysis no longer describes the reality of most 'peasants' lives. Redefining Peasants (Kearney):  Redefining Peasants (Kearney) Need to go beyond the limitations imposed by an analysis that focuses on externally differentiated categorical types and consider the spaces within types. need to look in the margins and focus on networks of internally differentiated identities. Internal vs External Differentiation:  Internal vs External Differentiation In external differentiation, subject /'peasant' is the node in a network of relationships. In the internally differentiated subject, the nodes of networks are internal to the subject; If nodes result from informal networking by subject, such networking constitutes subjects' identities distinct from those that are officially constructed (p. 121). Change in Definition of Peasants:  Change in Definition of Peasants 'Peasant' and 'peasant community' have to be reevaluated to include the construction of "transnational" "subaltern" identities separate from "official categories of the nation-state" This has been the focus of migration studies concerned with the "cultural dimensions of migration and .. the identity of migrants" Change in Definition of Peasants:  Change in Definition of Peasants 'Peasants' migrate across national boundaries in search of work to support households maintained in their traditionally defined home base 'peasant community', thus Defy the "official" concept of being both 'peasants' and members of a 'peasant community' as designated by both the nation-state and in ethnographies of 'peasant' communities carried out through the 1980's. Reconceptualizing Peasantry :  Reconceptualizing Peasantry has led to the concepts of "transmigrants", the "transnational/subaltern" community, "transnational networks" (i.e., "migrant circuits") and a "transnational sociocultural system" wherein equal weight is given to patterns of cultural consumption (e.g., electronic information) and more complex modes of production Reconceptualizing Peasantry:  Reconceptualizing Peasantry Of key importance is the notion of networks because these are unbounded spacially, extending themselves in all directions. "the social morphology of networks is like an amoeba, a creature with complex internal differentiation but without distinct cells and organs that correspond to the social components of corporate communities" Networks, Reticula and Rhizomes:  Networks, Reticula and Rhizomes the notion of "network" is limited in that it does not usually incorporate notions of class that are central to reconceptualizing peasantry thus introduces the concept of reticulum (reticula) - a biological term the describes "'cells that form an intricate interstitial network ramifying through other tissues and organs'" Networks, Reticula and Rhizomes:  Networks, Reticula and Rhizomes connotes more complex identities and relationships as in "the form of globalizing reticula that ramify into nations, communities, and many other social bodies and spaces". The term rhizome which "connects any point to any other point“ with traits “not necessarily linked to traits of the same nature” is used in similar fashion Redefining Peasants and Modernity (Kearney):  Redefining Peasants and Modernity (Kearney) Reevaluate attributes of modernity associated with literateness, given the penetration of electronic mass media into the countryside. The modernist perspective presumes that consumption of mass culture in rural areas leads to the erosion of 'traditional culture' and a simultaneous increase in literacy marking incorporation into the modern world. Redefining Peasants and Modernity :  Redefining Peasants and Modernity Cultural processes in subaltern communities appear to be leading NOT to greater literateness but to access to electronically mediated information located in global spaces Implodes into rural communities, don’t require the ability to be literate, allow them to segue between a literate modernity and an oral-based tradition into a third sociocultural space not envisioned before Summary:  Summary Reconceptualizing peasantry means focusing on an analysis of internally differentiated identities rather than externally differentiated typological categories. In a collective sense, these identities are defined as "reticula" and "transnational unbounded communities". A third form are "new social movements" Reconceptualization of the Individual :  Reconceptualization of the Individual Is necessary to reconceptualize the notion of the anthropological Self and correspondently, the peasant individual, as an object of study (the ethnographic Other). requires changing its status from object of study defined officially by the state, to an analytical category of personhood that is internally differentiated. Reconceptualization of the Individual :  Reconceptualization of the Individual "The internally differentiated subject defies categorization and therefore documentation" and thus erodes the power of the state; it is a "transforming entity whose fluid identity is suspect and illegitimate". Redefining Peasants as Polybians:  Redefining Peasants as Polybians Migrants who "move in and out of multiple niches from 'peasant' to 'proletarian' life spaces" and back again are referred to as polybians They "defy classificatory and regulatory laws by working in the so-called informal economy" Redefining Peasants as Polybians:  Redefining Peasants as Polybians Official identity as citizens contradicts their lived identity as transnationals it is the networking activities of polybians that "constitutes the informal economy (p. 147) Redefining 'peasants' as internally differentiated subjects, polybians, is not sufficient in itself. Going Beyond the Individual :  Going Beyond the Individual The social fields within which polybians operate and which constitute them also have to be examined. Transnational migration & agroindustrialization are powerful forces dissolving spatial, social, and conceptual distinctions--rural-urban, peasant-proletarian, autonomy-dependence, traditional-modern--upon which the peasant as a social identity and anthropological category depends. Social Fields of Polybians - Issues:  Social Fields of Polybians - Issues Two important issues: class consciousness and autonomy of decisionmaking Class consciousness, important as a means of informing subject identity, as a means of differentiating between polybians as well as a force for forming new social movements Social Fields of Polybians - Issues:  Social Fields of Polybians - Issues Autonomous, rational decisionmaking needs to be more broadly defined in terms of all of the social fields in which polybians engage As they are incorporated into agroindustrial relations, they may lose control over agricultural production decisions but still employ multiple adaptive strategies within the informal economy

Add a comment

Related presentations