A study of sports competitive anxiety, self concept and self confidence between female players of All India University Team and Individual games

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Published on November 25, 2016

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1. International Journal of Physical Education and Sports www.phyedusports.in Volume: 1, Issue: 2, Pages: 43-48 A study of sports competitive anxiety, self concept and self confidence between all India Dr. Sanjit Sardar 1 , Ajay Kumar Pandey 1 Associate Professor, Department of Physical 2 Research Scholar, Department of Physical Received August 10, 201 The purpose of the present study was to determine the between female players of All India University Team and Individual games. To obtain data for this study, the investigator had selected One hundred Twenty (N=120) subjects, out of which sixty (N=60) from Team Game sixty (n=60) from Individual Game, who were playing in All India University level tournament in session 2015 The age of the subjects ranged from 18 to 28 years. To collect the required data for the present study, and to measure the Sports Competitive Anxiety, Marten’s (1990) Sports Competitive Anxiety test (SCAT) was used, to assess the Self-concept level of the subject, self used and Self Confidence of the subjects measured by applying Rekha Agnihotry (1987). Scoring was done for the respective questionnaire according to their manuals. “T” test was applied to determine the significant difference and direction of difference in mean scores between Team and Individual games players. The level of significance was set at 0.05 level. The results revealed a significant difference found between All India University female players of Team games and Individual Games on the variables of sports competitive anxiety, Self Team Games are statistically higher in sports competitive anxiety and self counterpart Individual Games players. However, the statistically higher in self-concept as compared to their counterpart female players of Team Games. Key words: Self-concept, Anxiety, Self Players. 1. Introduction Psychology is the science of mind and behavior (Gray, 2010). Its immediate aim is to understand behavior and mental processes by researching and establishing both general principles and specific cases. The self is an internal model which comprises self physiological state characterized by somatic, e of the word anxiety is 'to vex or trouble'; in either the absence or presence of psychological stress, anxiety can create feelings of fear, worry, uneasiness and dread (Bouras, and Holt, 2007 judgments and values of an individual relating to his behavior abilities and qualities. Games is littered with broken dreams of those whose performance collapsed when they are most needed to be in control of themselves and focus on the task at hand. It is not uncommon to see players “freeze” in big games or moments or commit unexplainable error in the course of their performance. When athletes do not achieve well in relation to their abilities, nervousness in antic cause of anxiety. In the games and sports, psychological and physiological issues play an important role in determining the performance level (Grange & Kerr, 2010; Schilling & Hyashi, 2001). It has been psychological issues, in particular anxiety, play a vital role in competition. (Lizuka, 2005) observed as a result of his International Journal of Physical Education and Sports 48, Year: 2016 A study of sports competitive anxiety, self concept and self confidence between all India Inter university female players of team and individual game Ajay Kumar Pandey2 Department of Physical Education, GGV Bilaspur (C.G), India Research Scholar, Department of Physical Education, GGV Bilaspur (C.G), India , 2016; Accepted September 14, 2016; Published September 30, 2016 Abstract The purpose of the present study was to determine the Anxiety, Self-concept and Self between female players of All India University Team and Individual games. To obtain data for this study, the investigator had selected One hundred Twenty (N=120) subjects, out of which sixty (N=60) from Team Game sixty (n=60) from Individual Game, who were playing in All India University level tournament in session 2015 The age of the subjects ranged from 18 to 28 years. To collect the required data for the present study, and to ve Anxiety, Marten’s (1990) Sports Competitive Anxiety test (SCAT) was used, to concept level of the subject, self-concept rating scale developed by Dr. R.K. Saraswat (2005) was used and Self Confidence of the subjects measured by applying the Self- Confidence Inventory (SCI) developed by Rekha Agnihotry (1987). Scoring was done for the respective questionnaire according to their manuals. “T” test was applied to determine the significant difference and direction of difference in mean scores between Team and Individual games players. The level of significance was set at 0.05 level. The results revealed a significant difference found between All India University female players of Team games and Individual Games on sports competitive anxiety, Self-concept and Self-confidence. It concluded that, female players of Team Games are statistically higher in sports competitive anxiety and self-confidence as compared to their counterpart Individual Games players. However, the result shows that the female players of Individual Games are concept as compared to their counterpart female players of Team Games. concept, Anxiety, Self-confidence, Team Game, Individual Game, Female, All India Psychology is the science of mind and behavior (Gray, 2010). Its immediate aim is to understand behavior s by researching and establishing both general principles and specific cases. The self is an internal model which comprises self-assessments (Gerrig and Zimbardo, 2002). Anxiety is a psychological and physiological state characterized by somatic, emotional, cognitive, and behavioral components. The root meaning of the word anxiety is 'to vex or trouble'; in either the absence or presence of psychological stress, anxiety can create feelings of fear, worry, uneasiness and dread (Bouras, and Holt, 2007). It indicates the totality of attitudes, judgments and values of an individual relating to his behavior abilities and qualities. Games is littered with broken dreams of those whose performance collapsed when they are most needed elves and focus on the task at hand. It is not uncommon to see players “freeze” in big games or moments or commit unexplainable error in the course of their performance. When athletes do not achieve well in relation to their abilities, nervousness in anticipation of the sporting challenges could be the root In the games and sports, psychological and physiological issues play an important role in determining the performance level (Grange & Kerr, 2010; Schilling & Hyashi, 2001). It has been recognized for many years that psychological issues, in particular anxiety, play a vital role in competition. (Lizuka, 2005) observed as a result of his ISSN- 2456-2963 A study of sports competitive anxiety, self concept and self confidence university female players of team and September 30, 2016 concept and Self-confidence between female players of All India University Team and Individual games. To obtain data for this study, the investigator had selected One hundred Twenty (N=120) subjects, out of which sixty (N=60) from Team Game and sixty (n=60) from Individual Game, who were playing in All India University level tournament in session 2015-16. The age of the subjects ranged from 18 to 28 years. To collect the required data for the present study, and to ve Anxiety, Marten’s (1990) Sports Competitive Anxiety test (SCAT) was used, to concept rating scale developed by Dr. R.K. Saraswat (2005) was Confidence Inventory (SCI) developed by Rekha Agnihotry (1987). Scoring was done for the respective questionnaire according to their manuals. “T” test was applied to determine the significant difference and direction of difference in mean scores of variables between Team and Individual games players. The level of significance was set at 0.05 level. The results revealed a significant difference found between All India University female players of Team games and Individual Games on confidence. It concluded that, female players of confidence as compared to their result shows that the female players of Individual Games are concept as compared to their counterpart female players of Team Games. confidence, Team Game, Individual Game, Female, All India Inter University, Psychology is the science of mind and behavior (Gray, 2010). Its immediate aim is to understand behavior s by researching and establishing both general principles and specific cases. The self-concept assessments (Gerrig and Zimbardo, 2002). Anxiety is a psychological and motional, cognitive, and behavioral components. The root meaning of the word anxiety is 'to vex or trouble'; in either the absence or presence of psychological stress, anxiety can ). It indicates the totality of attitudes, Games is littered with broken dreams of those whose performance collapsed when they are most needed elves and focus on the task at hand. It is not uncommon to see players “freeze” in big games or moments or commit unexplainable error in the course of their performance. When athletes do not ipation of the sporting challenges could be the root In the games and sports, psychological and physiological issues play an important role in determining the recognized for many years that psychological issues, in particular anxiety, play a vital role in competition. (Lizuka, 2005) observed as a result of his

2. Sardar & Pandey, 2016 Int. J. Phy. Edu. Spo., 1(2): 43-48. ISSN- 2456-2963 [44] © International Journal of Physical Education and Sports (IJPES) study that many reasons, such as expectations, perfectionism, fear of failure, lack of confidence include feelings of anxiety in athletes. Those athletes, who experience high levels of anxiety, may fall sick, muscle tension, show aggressive behaviours face sleeping problems, low self- confidence and drop out of sport (Cox, 2010; Weinberg & Gould, 2010; Abel & Larkin, 1990). The player skills and his self-confidence as a negative motivator anxiety may interfere with productive as well as constructive thinking. Athletes may effort to handle anxiety by denying the need to work hard. This can lead to development of poor work habits or athletic technique. These often lead to stoppage and, in turn, lack of confidence and increased anxiety. In the modern sports, psychological preparation of a team / individual is as important as teaching as the different skills of a game with scientific methods. Most of the coaches agree that the physical characteristics, skills and training of the players are extremely important, but they also feel that good mental and Psychological preparation for competition is a necessary component for success. Sport psychology helps the athletes for obtained optimal level of performance. Anxiety, Self confidence and self concept are very important mental skills and it has important role in the success of athlete’s performance. The aimed of the present study was to determine the sports competitive anxiety, self-concept and Self- confidence level between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games. 1.1 Objective of the study • To find out the significant difference between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games on the variable of sports competitive anxiety. • To find out the significant difference between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games on the variable of self-concept. • To find out the significant difference between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games on the variable of self-confidence. 1.2 Hypothesis of the study • There may be significant difference between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games on the variable of sports competitive anxiety. • There may be significant difference between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games on the variable of self-concept. • There may be significant difference between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games on the variable of self-confidence. 2. Materials and methods To obtain data for this study, the investigator had selected one hundred twenty (Ns=120) subjects, out of which sixty (N=60) from Team Games and sixty (n=60) from Individual Games, who were participated in All India University tournament in session 2015-16. The age of all subjects ranged from 18 to 28 years. To measure the sports competitive anxiety used Marten’s (1990) Sports Competitive Anxiety test (SCAT), to assess the self-concept level of the subjects self-concept rating scale questionnaire developed by Dr. R.K. Saraswat (2005) was used and self-confidence of the subjects measure by applied the test developed by by Rekha Agnihotry (1987) Self- Confidence Inventory (SCI) . The scoring was done for the respective questionnaire according to their manuals. “T” test was applied to determine the significance of difference and direction of difference in mean scores of variables between All India University Players of Team and Individual Games. The level of significance was set at 0.05.

3. Sardar & Pandey, 2016 Int. J. Phy. Edu. Spo., 1(2): 43-48. ISSN- 2456-2963 [44] © International Journal of Physical Education and Sports (IJPES) study that many reasons, such as expectations, perfectionism, fear of failure, lack of confidence include feelings of anxiety in athletes. Those athletes, who experience high levels of anxiety, may fall sick, muscle tension, show aggressive behaviours face sleeping problems, low self- confidence and drop out of sport (Cox, 2010; Weinberg & Gould, 2010; Abel & Larkin, 1990). The player skills and his self-confidence as a negative motivator anxiety may interfere with productive as well as constructive thinking. Athletes may effort to handle anxiety by denying the need to work hard. This can lead to development of poor work habits or athletic technique. These often lead to stoppage and, in turn, lack of confidence and increased anxiety. In the modern sports, psychological preparation of a team / individual is as important as teaching as the different skills of a game with scientific methods. Most of the coaches agree that the physical characteristics, skills and training of the players are extremely important, but they also feel that good mental and Psychological preparation for competition is a necessary component for success. Sport psychology helps the athletes for obtained optimal level of performance. Anxiety, Self confidence and self concept are very important mental skills and it has important role in the success of athlete’s performance. The aimed of the present study was to determine the sports competitive anxiety, self-concept and Self- confidence level between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games. 1.1 Objective of the study • To find out the significant difference between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games on the variable of sports competitive anxiety. • To find out the significant difference between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games on the variable of self-concept. • To find out the significant difference between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games on the variable of self-confidence. 1.2 Hypothesis of the study • There may be significant difference between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games on the variable of sports competitive anxiety. • There may be significant difference between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games on the variable of self-concept. • There may be significant difference between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games on the variable of self-confidence. 2. Materials and methods To obtain data for this study, the investigator had selected one hundred twenty (Ns=120) subjects, out of which sixty (N=60) from Team Games and sixty (n=60) from Individual Games, who were participated in All India University tournament in session 2015-16. The age of all subjects ranged from 18 to 28 years. To measure the sports competitive anxiety used Marten’s (1990) Sports Competitive Anxiety test (SCAT), to assess the self-concept level of the subjects self-concept rating scale questionnaire developed by Dr. R.K. Saraswat (2005) was used and self-confidence of the subjects measure by applied the test developed by by Rekha Agnihotry (1987) Self- Confidence Inventory (SCI) . The scoring was done for the respective questionnaire according to their manuals. “T” test was applied to determine the significance of difference and direction of difference in mean scores of variables between All India University Players of Team and Individual Games. The level of significance was set at 0.05.

4. Sardar & Pandey, 2016 Int. J. Phy. Edu. Spo., 1(2): 43-48. ISSN- 2456-2963 [44] © International Journal of Physical Education and Sports (IJPES) study that many reasons, such as expectations, perfectionism, fear of failure, lack of confidence include feelings of anxiety in athletes. Those athletes, who experience high levels of anxiety, may fall sick, muscle tension, show aggressive behaviours face sleeping problems, low self- confidence and drop out of sport (Cox, 2010; Weinberg & Gould, 2010; Abel & Larkin, 1990). The player skills and his self-confidence as a negative motivator anxiety may interfere with productive as well as constructive thinking. Athletes may effort to handle anxiety by denying the need to work hard. This can lead to development of poor work habits or athletic technique. These often lead to stoppage and, in turn, lack of confidence and increased anxiety. In the modern sports, psychological preparation of a team / individual is as important as teaching as the different skills of a game with scientific methods. Most of the coaches agree that the physical characteristics, skills and training of the players are extremely important, but they also feel that good mental and Psychological preparation for competition is a necessary component for success. Sport psychology helps the athletes for obtained optimal level of performance. Anxiety, Self confidence and self concept are very important mental skills and it has important role in the success of athlete’s performance. The aimed of the present study was to determine the sports competitive anxiety, self-concept and Self- confidence level between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games. 1.1 Objective of the study • To find out the significant difference between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games on the variable of sports competitive anxiety. • To find out the significant difference between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games on the variable of self-concept. • To find out the significant difference between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games on the variable of self-confidence. 1.2 Hypothesis of the study • There may be significant difference between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games on the variable of sports competitive anxiety. • There may be significant difference between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games on the variable of self-concept. • There may be significant difference between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Games on the variable of self-confidence. 2. Materials and methods To obtain data for this study, the investigator had selected one hundred twenty (Ns=120) subjects, out of which sixty (N=60) from Team Games and sixty (n=60) from Individual Games, who were participated in All India University tournament in session 2015-16. The age of all subjects ranged from 18 to 28 years. To measure the sports competitive anxiety used Marten’s (1990) Sports Competitive Anxiety test (SCAT), to assess the self-concept level of the subjects self-concept rating scale questionnaire developed by Dr. R.K. Saraswat (2005) was used and self-confidence of the subjects measure by applied the test developed by by Rekha Agnihotry (1987) Self- Confidence Inventory (SCI) . The scoring was done for the respective questionnaire according to their manuals. “T” test was applied to determine the significance of difference and direction of difference in mean scores of variables between All India University Players of Team and Individual Games. The level of significance was set at 0.05.

5. Sardar & Pandey, 2016 Int. J. Phy. Edu. Spo., 1(2): 43-48. © International Journal of Physical Education and Sports (IJPES) Graphical presentation mean Individual Game on the variable of self 4. Discussion of Findings From the evident of the above findings, it was observed that on the variable of sports competitive anxiety were found significant difference between Team and Individual Games Female Players of All India University level tournament. Team Game Female Players counterpart Individual Game All India University female players. Female Players of Individual Game had significantly higher scores in self-concept as compared to their counterpart University level tournament. It may be due to that Team Game female players have less facilities, coordination, less exposure for participating in high level of tournaments and less incentive for outstanding players a to Individual Game Female Players of All India University level tournament. But in the study of Shrikrishan (2016), was found that there is no difference of self actual motor performance was influenced by how the subjects perceived themselves as a self with a body that moves. In further study, Parker (1962) concluded that, Self concept differed significantly only between the low non-physical education major group and the physical edu In case of Self- confidence, it was found significant difference between Team Games and Individual Games Female Players of All India University. This study result shows that Team Game Female Players are statistically higher in self-confidence as compared to their counterpart Individual Game All India University female player. So we can imagine that high self-confidence leads to an over guess of the physical condition leading t self-confidence with anxiety, we can simply explain the observed effect on the psychological well feeling of progress on the physical side. For this reason, it seems that confidence, causing the individual to experience positive or negative self improve, maintain or protect the self anxiety and stress (S. Berjot, et.al. 2008). This is what Crocker & Park (2004) calls the pursuit of self 4. Conclusion It is concluded that significant difference found between All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Game on the variables of sports competitive anxiety, self 5. References [1]. Abel, J. L., & Larkin, K. T. (1990). “Anticipation of performance among musicians: Psychology arousal confidence and state anxiety”. 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 © International Journal of Physical Education and Sports (IJPES) Figure 3 Graphical presentation mean score of All India University Female Players of Team and Individual Game on the variable of self-confidence From the evident of the above findings, it was observed that on the variable of sports competitive anxiety were found significant difference between Team and Individual Games Female Players of All India University level tournament. Team Game Female Players are statistically higher in sports competitive anxiety counterpart Individual Game All India University female players. Female Players of Individual Game had concept as compared to their counterpart Team Game Female Players of All India University level tournament. It may be due to that Team Game female players have less facilities, coordination, less exposure for participating in high level of tournaments and less incentive for outstanding players a to Individual Game Female Players of All India University level tournament. But in the study of was found that there is no difference of self-concept in the group of players indicated that mance was influenced by how the subjects perceived themselves as a self with a body that moves. In further study, Parker (1962) concluded that, Self concept differed significantly only between the low physical education major group and the physical education major group. confidence, it was found significant difference between Team Games and Individual Games Female Players of All India University. This study result shows that Team Game Female Players are statistically higher in as compared to their counterpart Individual Game All India University female player. So we can confidence leads to an over-estimation of the physical situation and in return a positive guess of the physical condition leading to enhanced self-confidence. Given the close relationship that maintains confidence with anxiety, we can simply explain the observed effect on the psychological well feeling of progress on the physical side. For this reason, it seems that anxiety can have a short term impact on self confidence, causing the individual to experience positive or negative self-esteem states. Indeed, it is also to improve, maintain or protect the self-esteem that the individual needs to deal effectively with cer anxiety and stress (S. Berjot, et.al. 2008). This is what Crocker & Park (2004) calls the pursuit of self It is concluded that significant difference found between All India University Female Players of Team and idual Game on the variables of sports competitive anxiety, self-concept and self-confidence. Abel, J. L., & Larkin, K. T. (1990). “Anticipation of performance among musicians: Psychology arousal confidence and state anxiety”. Psychology of Music, 18, 171-182. 29.81 24.96 Team Game Individual Game SELF-CONFIDENCE ISSN- 2456-2963 [47] © International Journal of Physical Education and Sports (IJPES) score of All India University Female Players of Team and From the evident of the above findings, it was observed that on the variable of sports competitive anxiety were found significant difference between Team and Individual Games Female Players of All India University level sports competitive anxiety as compared to their counterpart Individual Game All India University female players. Female Players of Individual Game had Team Game Female Players of All India University level tournament. It may be due to that Team Game female players have less facilities, coordination, less exposure for participating in high level of tournaments and less incentive for outstanding players as compared to Individual Game Female Players of All India University level tournament. But in the study of Tarakh Sudarshan concept in the group of players indicated that mance was influenced by how the subjects perceived themselves as a self with a body that moves. In further study, Parker (1962) concluded that, Self concept differed significantly only between the low confidence, it was found significant difference between Team Games and Individual Games Female Players of All India University. This study result shows that Team Game Female Players are statistically higher in as compared to their counterpart Individual Game All India University female player. So we can estimation of the physical situation and in return a positive confidence. Given the close relationship that maintains confidence with anxiety, we can simply explain the observed effect on the psychological well-being of the anxiety can have a short term impact on self- esteem states. Indeed, it is also to esteem that the individual needs to deal effectively with certain episodes of anxiety and stress (S. Berjot, et.al. 2008). This is what Crocker & Park (2004) calls the pursuit of self-esteem. It is concluded that significant difference found between All India University Female Players of Team and confidence. Abel, J. L., & Larkin, K. T. (1990). “Anticipation of performance among musicians: Psychology arousal

6. Sardar & Pandey, 2016 Int. J. Phy. Edu. Spo., 1(2): 43-48. ISSN- 2456-2963 [48] © International Journal of Physical Education and Sports (IJPES) [2]. Ahmad, H., Singh, H., & Khan, A. N. (2012). A Study of Self Concept, Anxiety and Intelligence between Physical Education Students of Punjab and Jammu Kashmir States. International Journal of Sports Sciences and Fitness, 2(1), 184-191. [3]. Berjot, S., Girault-Lidvan, N., & Battaglia, N. (2008). Stress et faire face à la stigmatisation et à la discrimination : vers un modèle du faire face aux menaces du l'identité. In S. Berjot & B. Paty (Eds.), Stress et faire face aux menaces du soi et de l'identité (pp. 235-276). Reims: Editions et Presses Universitaire de Reims. [4]. Bouras, N., and Holt, G. (2007). Psychiatric and Behavioral Disorders in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities 2nd Ed. Cambridge University Press: UK. [5]. Cox, R. H. (2010), Sport Psychology, concepts and applications. New York: McGraw- Hill. [6]. Crocker, J., & Park, L. E. (2004). The costly pursuit of self-esteem. Psychological Bulletin, 130 (3), 392-414. [7]. Gerrig, R. J., and Zimbardo, P. G. (2002). "Glossary of Psychological Terms". Psychology and Life. Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA. [8]. Grange, P., and Kerr, J. H. (2010). “Physical aggression in Australian football: A qualitative study of elite athletes”. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 36-43. [9]. Gray, P.O. (2010). Foundations for the Study of Psychology. Psychology (6th Ed.). New [10]. Hatzigeorgiadis, A. & Chroni, S. (2007). Pre-competition anxiety and incompetition coping in experienced male swimmers. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 2 (2), 181-189. [11]. Kamlesh, M. L. (1998) “Psychology in Physical Education and Sports” 3 rd Ed. New Delhi: Metropolitan Book Co. Pvt. Ltd., P.237. [12]. Lizuka (2005), “Anxiety and Performance in Young Tennis Players”. Sports Sciences Research, 26 (3), 73- 75. [13]. Martens, R. (1977) Sports Competition Anxiety Test Champaign III: Human Kinetics. [14]. Panda, Y., Kaul, R. & Mittal, M. (2004) “Gender differences in task and ego orientations, sport self- confidence, trait anxiety, and goal setting stylesin elite Indian athletes” . Journal of Sports and Sports Sciences, 27(2), 27-39. [15]. Parker, N. K. (1962). “The Relationship between Motor Ability and Self concept of Women Non-Physical Education Major Students.” Completed Research in Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 4, 84. [16]. Schilling, T. A. and Hayashi, C. T. (2001). “Achievement motivation among high school basketball and cross-country athletes: a personal investment perspective”. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13 (2001), 103–128. [17]. Shrikrishan, T. S. (2016). A Psychological Study of Aggression & Adjustment among Sportsman. Online International Interdisciplinary Research Journal, {Bi-Monthly}, 6(1), 204-210. [18]. Weinberg, R. S. & Gould, D. (2010), Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. York, New York: Worth Publishers. Corresponding Author: Ajay Kumar Pandey, Research Scholar, Department of Physical Education, G.G.V Bilaspur (C.G), India Email - ajay040286@gmail.com

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