A (Short) History of the Human Brain

50 %
50 %
Information about A (Short) History of the Human Brain
Education

Published on March 7, 2014

Author: JohnBorghi

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Slides from brief lecture on the history of neuroscience given at the Brooklyn Brainery on 3/5/14.

A (Brief) History of the Human Brain John Borghi, PhD Science Informationist Rockefeller University @JohnBorghi

• Ancient Brains • Broken Brains: • Electric Brains • Stained Brains • More Broken Brains • Connected Brains

Top (Superior) Back (Posterior) Front (Anterior) Bottom (Inferior)

Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe Temporal Lobe Occipital Lobe

The Edwin Smith Papyrus ca. 1500 BCE

Case 6: Instructions concerning a gaping wound in his head, penetrating to the bone, smashing his skull, and rending open the brain of his skull. Examination: If thou examinest a man having a gaping wound in his head, penetrating to the bone, smashing his skull, and rending open the brain of his skull, thou shouldst palpate his wound. Shouldst thou find that smash which is in his skull like those corrugations which form in molten copper, and something therein throbbing and fluttering under thy fingers, like the weak place of an infant's crown before it becomes whole-when it has happened there is no throbbing and fluttering under thy fingers until the brain of his (the patient's) skull is rent open- and he discharges blood from both his nostrils, and he suffers with stiffness in his neck... Diagnosis: Thou shouldst say concerning him: "An ailment not to be treated." Treatment: Thou shouldst anoint that wound with grease. Thou shalt not bind it; thou shalt not apply two strips upon it: until thou knowest that he has reached a decisive point. Gloss: As for: "Smashing his skull, (and) rending open the brain of his skull," it means the smash is large, opening to the interior of his skull, to the membrane enveloping his brain, so that it breaks open his fluid in the interior of his head.... The Edwin Smith Papyrus (Translation)

Plato: Based on the teaching of Socrates, the soul has three distinct parts. Each part affects our behavior in different ways. Fourth Century BCE

Aristotle: The heart is the center of intelligence. Hippocrates: Based on observations made by Alcmaeon and others, the brain is the center of intelligence. Fourth Century BCE

Galen: Different parts of the soul can be localized to different parts of the body. The rational aspect of the soul is located in the brain. Second Century CE

Plato Galen Head The Immortal Soul · Animal Spirit Heart The Irascible Soul · Vital Spirit Liver The Appetitive Soul · Natural Spirit Second Century CE

Nemesius: Different functions can be localized to the different ventricles of the brain. Fourth Century CE

Fourth Century CE

Hunayn ibn Ishaq 809–873 Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi 854–925 Neuroscience in the Dark Ages

Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519 Andreas Vesalius 1514-1564 Neuroscience in the Renaissance René Descartes 1596-1650

Cartesian Dualism / Substance Dualism The mental does not have extension in space, and the material cannot think. Neuroscience in the Renaissance

Thomas Willis 1621-1675 Neuroscience in the Renaissance

Johann Spurzheim 1776-1832 Franz Joseph Gall 1758-1828 Phrenology- 1810 ~ 1840

Napoleon Bonaparte 1769-1821 Jean Pierre Flourens 1794-1867 Phrenology- 1810 ~ 1840

Paul Broca 1824-1880 Examining Brain Injuries

The brain of Victor Leborgne Paul Broca 1824-1880 Examining Brain Injuries

Carl Wernicke 1848-1905 Examining Brain Injuries

Phineas Gage 1823-1860 Examining Brain Injuries

Phineas Gage 1823-1860 Examining Brain Injuries

Digression: Moniz, Freeman, and the prefrontal lobotomy Egas Moniz 1874-1955 Rosemary Kennedy 1918-2008

Luigi Galvani 1737-1798 Electrical Brains

Gustav Fritsch 1838-1927 Eduard Hitzig 1838-1907 Electrical Brains

The Motor Strip Electrical Brains

David Ferrier 1848-1928 Electrical Brains

Wilder Penfield 1891-1976 Electrical Brains

Wilder Penfield 1891-1976 Electrical Brains

Hans Berger 1874-1941 Electrical Brains

The Giant Squid Axon Electrical Brains

Golgi Stain A method for visualizing brain cells using silver nitrate and potassium dichromate Stained Brains

Santiago Ramón y Cajal Camillo Golgi

The 1906 Nobel Lecture: Golgi vs. Cajal Camillo Golgi It may seem strange that, since I have always been opposed to the neuron theory – although acknowledging that its starting-point is to be found in my own work – I have chosen this question of the neuron as the subject of my lecture, and that it comes at a time when this doctrine is generally recognized to be going out of favour. Santiago Ramón y Cajal In accordance with the tradition followed by the illustrious orators honoured before me with the Nobel Prize, I am going to talk to you about the principal results of my scientific work in the realm of the histology and physiology of the nervous system.

Stained Brains

Karl Lashley 1890-1958

Roger Sperry 1913-1994 More Broken Brains

Henry Molaison aka Subject H.M. 1926-2008 More Broken Brains

Paul Lauterbur (1929-2007) -Develped first MRI in Stony Brook NY. Peter Mansfield (1933-Present) -Conducted first MRI on human tissue. Seigi Ogawa (1934-Present) -Developed methods for measuring BOLD signal to study brain activity. Magnetic Brains

Magnetic Brains

Magnetic Brains

Faces > Scenes 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -2 4 8 12 16 +4 +8 +12 +4 +8 +12 Time (s) 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 -0.5 -2 -21 -11 9 14 p < 0.001 Magnetic Brains 4 8 12 16 Time (s) Faces Scenes

Anatomical Connections Connectogram Magnetic Brains

Functional Connectivity

Add a comment

Related presentations

Related pages

The Secret Life of the Brain : History of the Brain

The history of our quest to understand the brain is certainly as long as human history itself. Use this extensive timeline to meander through some of the ...
Read more

A (Short) History of the Human Brain - Brooklyn Brainery

From mislaid railroad spikes and dueling Nobel laureates to patients with "split" brains and immensely powerful electromagnets, the history of neuroscience ...
Read more

A short history of brain research – 1st Century to 1872

A short history of brain research. Despite the fact that the understanding of the human brain is still in its infancy, it appears that brain surgery is one ...
Read more

The Ascent: A Brief History of the Brain - YouTube

A brief history of the brain, ... the human side of neuroscience through quotations from ... and there's no way to pack it into a short ...
Read more

History of neuroscience - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

History of neuroscience ... The early civilizations lacked adequate means to obtain knowledge about the human brain. ... History of neuraxial ...
Read more

Brains | The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins Program

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. The Smithsonian Institution's Human Origins ... Human brains grow rapidly before birth through the first ...
Read more

Human brain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The human brain is the main organ of the human central nervous system. ... The human brain has many properties that are common to all ... (brain) History ...
Read more

A short history :: Cambridge Neuroscience

A Short History of Neuroscience at Cambridge. ... Human brain imaging studies also impinge on the law and are likely to generate a new area of enquiry that ...
Read more

Human Brain: Facts, Anatomy & Mapping Project

The human brain is the command center for the human ... HISTORY; HUMAN NATURE; SHOP; TECH; HEALTH; ... short for Brain Research through Advancing ...
Read more