A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality: Scholar’s Terms

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Information about A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality: Scholar’s Terms

Published on November 19, 2009

Author: osarbatoare

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This dictionary is specialised and unique in its construct. Unfolds an array of classifications that allows the development of multiple concepts just by following the
trails of bold words.

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Scholar’s Terms First Edition Octavian Sarbatoare

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Scholar’s Terms

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality First published in Australia in Dec. 2009 by Sarbatoare Publications, Sydney, NSW For other publications SEARCH ‘Octavian Sarbatoare’ at National Library of Australia: http://www.nla.gov.au/ sarbatoare@hotmail.com Copyright © Octavian Sarbatoare 2009 All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of private study, research, criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright Act, no part may be reproduced by any process without written permission. Inquiries should be addressed to the author or legal representative. Australian National Library Cataloguing-in-Publication data: A Sanskrit dictionary of spirituality: scholar’s terms ISBN 978 0 9807337 0 9. 1. Sanskrit language - Dictionaries. 2. Spiritual direction. I. Title. 294.2 Typeset by Sarbatoare Publications 2

Octavian Sarbatoare A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Scholar’s Terms Sarbatoare Publications Sydney

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Preface to first edition and introduction This dictionary is specialised and unique in its construct. Unfolds an array of classifications that allows the development of multiple concepts just by following the trails of bold words. In order to avoid repeating explanations, under various entries, a certain spiritual word is described in one place only. This makes the dictionary very compact. The main text is arranged in roman alphabetical order. This method does not take into account having a certain order of letters with diacritical signs (i.e. bars above vowels or the dots under consonants), although it keeps correct the international transliteration of Devanāgari, the Sanskrit alphabet. Those readers having knowledge of Devanāgari, can easily write any word from its transliterated form. Many Sanskrit composed words are split in order to make it easy for the reader, but they can be written in composed or separated forms equally. For this reason the arrangement in roman alphabetical order does not take into account the space between two words. The dictionary does not provide lengthy description of words, but emphasises on the key spiritual meanings and connections with other entries. The explanation of various yogic or other techniques is beyond the purpose of this work; they have to be learned from specialized written material or a qualified teacher, etc. Sometimes there is more than one significance behind an entry. The alternatives are mentioned without going in much detail, but as guidance for further studies only. The few roots or literal information mentioned herein are to emphasize the significance of an entry. For more details about the origination of words should be consulted specialised Sanskrit dictionaries. This work contains many useful classifications in Hindu spirituality. A number of classical works names are mentioned, thus allowing the reader to pursue further studies on the subject. There is of course a larger Sanskrit spiritual terminology, however a limit has to be set up in regards to the details herein presented. The basic text was finalised during one of my trips to India at Deoghar in the year 2001. But, its publication waited until 2009, when the conditions were proper for an easy presentation to the public, considering the multiple possibilities that are now available on the Net. This dictionary is made for the serious spiritual seeker only, the one who is ready to undertake research into the deep field of Indian consciousness thought. For many years to come this free electronic book will be present on the Internet for the purpose of serving the keen seeker of spiritual liberation. Octavian Sarbatoare Sydney, 2009, Australia 4

A A Abhaya Daiv2sampat-s Fearlessness as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Abhaya Mudr1 Bhaya) Bhaya The gesture of dispelling fear (Bhaya Abhigamana vide Up1sana Abhim1na The ego awareness, a synonym for Asmit1 Abhimata A pleasant object for meditation vide also Dhy1na Abhinive0a Kle0a-s, Will to live, as one of the five Kle0a known also as !0i= vide V1san1 Abhi=eka A ceremonial purification either of a deity or an individual by bathing or sprinkling water Abhivyakti Manifestation Abhivyaktik1ra9a, vide also Abhivyaktik1ra9a Vyakta Abhivyaktik1ra9a Vyakta) Vyakta The cause of manifestation (Vyakta Abhy1sa Practical application of spiritual teachings as a way to obtain perfection and liberation Abhy1sin Abhy1sa; A practitioner of any form of Abhy1sa a S1dhaka or Yog2 !camana A ceremonial rite of sipping water from the palm of the hand and sprinkling it on the body on various parts for the purpose of purification It is used also for purification before meals or religious ceremonies. Ac1pala Daiv2sampat-s Absence of fickleness as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat !c1ra Lit. 'manner of action, conduct, practice; rule' 5

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Way of spiritual life Ved1c1ra, Vai=9av1c1ra, In Tantra are distinguished seven ways of spiritual life namely Ved1c1ra Vai=9av1c1ra )aiv1c1ra, Dak=i91c1ra, V1m1c1ra, )aiv1c1ra Dak=i91c1ra V1m1c1ra Siddh1nt1c1ra and Kul1c1ra. !c1ra Tantra The practice of Tantra !c1rya Teacher !cch1v1ka !cch1v1ka Lit. 'the one who invites' Veda-s In the Veda a helper priest assisting the Hot4 priest !d1na The action of taking or receiving vide also Ana^gamadan1^ku01 !dar0a The sense of super-ordinary seeing vide also Pr1tibha Adbhuta Rasa-s Wonder as one of the Rasa Adha501kha Lit. 'lower branch' A representation of the world as having branches below and upper roots as #rdhvam3la of Brahman Adha50akti )akti-s The lower, one of the Ku98alin2 )akti !dh1ra Support; foundation !dh1ra Padma Centre in the body for Dh1ra9a practicing, known also as De0a Adharma Bh1va-s; Sin as one of the eight Bh1va unrighteousness vide also Dharma Adhideva vide Adhidevat1 Adhidevat1 Presiding (tutelary) deity, same as Adhideva Adhik1ra Lit. 'right, privilege' 6

A One's competency for spiritual S1dhan1 as assessed by the Guru before initiation Adhik1rabheda Lit. 'right of separation' The coexistence of various doctrines and believes in the history of India, all as forms of one Reality Sat) Sat (Sat Adhik1rin Lit. 'fit for; entitled to' A name of a qualified aspirant for spiritual life, a competent S1dhaka Adhim1tra T2vrasa%vega T2vrasa%vega-s High intensity of eagerness as one of the three T2vrasa%vega Adhi=7h1na Lit. 'abode, residence, site; standing by' A locus or medium to experience with Adhvabheda At2ta, Dharma-s The process of time difference between At2ta Vartam1na and An1gata Dharma Adhvara Veda-s In the Veda a non-injuring sacrifice consisting of preliminary preparations and duties before the sacrifice itself vide also Adhvaryu Adhvaryu $rvija-s) One of the four Vedic priests ($rvija the one who chants the hymns of the Yajur Veda while $rvija performing Adhvara Pratiprasth1t4, Unnet4. An Adhvaryu is assisted by three helper priests viz. Pratiprasth1t4 Ne=74 and Unnet4 Adhy1tma Lit. 'origin of !tma' The Supreme Spirit; the science of the Supreme Spirit as )1stra Adhy1tma Vidy1 Knowledge of the Supreme Spirit !din1tha (also !d20vara) Guru, A name of )iva as the original Guru the Primal Lord Aditi Lit. 'boundless, infinity' One of the most ancient known Mother Goddess referred to in the $g Veda as being the daughter of Dak=a, mother of the !ditya and of the gods Dak=a !ditya-s !d20vara (see !din1tha) !ditya Lit. 'primal light' A Vedic class of deities; principle sustaining nature and the universe 7

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality !ditya-s, correlating with the twelve solar months. The most Traditionally there are twelve !ditya S3rya) A%s1, Aryaman, important is Savit4 (S3rya hence the name !ditya for the Sun God. The are: A%s1 Aryaman S3rya Bhaga, Dak=a, Mitra, P3=an, )akra, Savit4, Tva=74, Varu9a, Bhaga Dak=a Mitra P3=an )akra Savit4 Tva=74 Varu9a Vi=9u and Vivasvat (ref. ra9yaka, Taittir2ya !ra9yaka I.13). vide also Antar1ditya Vidy1 !diyog1c1rya oga, The first teacher of Yoga i.e. )iva Adroha Daiv2sampat-s Absence of hatred as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Advaita Lit. 'without duality' The doctrine of non-duality in which the Supreme Soul Param1tman is identified with the human Soul J2v1tman All existence is being regarded as one reality. )a^kara is the best known writer on the subject. !dy1 Lit. 'eternal' )akti-s; )akti-s One of the Nity1 )akti the original )akti who is the source of all other Nity1 )akti Tripurasundar2, A^gi !dy1 Nity1 )akti corresponds to the full-moon. It is known also as Tripurasundar2 A^gi Nity1 and symbolizes Dev2 Herself. The Mantra for !dy1 Nity1 is Sklhr2%. !dy1 Nity1 )akti The eternal original power vide also !dy10akti, Vimar0a )akti !dy10akti Primordial power as aspect of the goddess K1l2 !dy10akti, )akti, !dy10akti !dy1 Nity1 )akti Vimar0a )akti are all the same. !gama Lit. 'coming near, approaching; studying; acquisition of knowledge' Authoritative work; testimony Tantra-s P1rvat2) Sacred works of Tantra in which )iva is Guru (spiritual teacher) and Dev2 (as P1rvat2 is )i=ya (disciple); a testimony based on a previous Pram19a and if correct imparted is one of the Pram19a-s. three Pram19a vide also Nigama !g1mikarma Action yet to be performed and its results Agastya Name of a sage, also a name of )iva Aghora Lit. 'not terrific' )iva; Dev2. A name of )iva a worshipper of )iva and Dev2 Aghori is a female Aghora 8

A vide also Aghora M1rga Aghora M1rga )aiva-s A particular sect of )aiva of non-conventional practices considered to be pure Tantra adepts T1ntrika-s) T1ntrika (T1ntrika Aghori vide Aghora !gney2 Dh1ra91 Pa6cadh1ra91 ra91-s The Dh1ra91 on fire as one of the Pa6cadh1ra91 Agni Lit. 'fire' Agnideva; The Vedic god of fire known also as Agnideva the sacrificial fire; the fire of the stomach; the N182; Devat1 of Su=umn1 N182 the power of transformation Indra-s As a Vedic god Agni was Indra brother and essential to the practice of ritual sacrifice. As Veda-s, Agni is of three kinds namely G1rhapatya Dak=i9a (or sacrificial fire in the Veda G1rhapatya, Anv1h1ryapacana) !havan2ya. Cit), Anv1h1ryapacana and !havan2ya Esoterically Agni is the consciousness (Cit the three kinds Cit Ma9ip3ra, of sacrificial fires are expressions of levels of awareness and therefore equated with Ma9ip3ra An1hata and Vi0uddhi CakraCakra-s. J1thar1gni, S3rya, Agnitraya, Cidvahni, Indra, vide also J1thar1gni S3rya Agnitraya Cidvahni Agni S3rya Indra Upakosala Vidy1 Agni B2ja The Mantra Ra% associated with Ma9ip3ra Cakra Agnicayana The act of preparing the Vedic sacrificial fireplace Agnideva vide Agni Agn2dhra In the Veda-s a helper priest assisting the Br1hma9a priest by kindling the sacrificial fire Veda Agnig4ha A place keeping the sacred fire known also as Agni01la Agni G4hapati Agni the lord of the house with the sacred fire; the fire of the body Devas3-s, Agni. It is also one of the eight Devas3 an aspect of Agni Agnihoma The oblation put into the sacrificial fire like milk, ghee, cooked cereal, etc., according to the ritual of Agnihotra Homa. It is also known as Homa Agnihotra The rite of sacrificing to Agni It is of two kinds namely Nitya (necessary) and K1mya (optional). Agnihotra rite is concluded by Agni). Agnyupasth1na (the worship of Agni Vide Hotr1 Arghya Havi for the object of oblation with 9

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality fire. As a yogic practice Agnihotra is identified with Pr191y1ma. vide also !tm1rpa9a Agnihotr1h3ti Mantra-s) The rite of sacrificing (oblation) to Agni with invocation (recitation) of sacred formulas (Mantra Mantra Agnihotrin $tvija-s) $tvija The performer of an oblation to fire; one of the four Vedic priests ($tvija the one who chants the hymns of the Rg Veda Hot4. Same as Hotrin or Hot4 Agnikha98a Cakra-s Group containing M3l1dh1ra and Sv1dhi=7h1na Cakra and Brahmagranthi Agni, The presiding deity of this Kha98a is Agni the Gu9a is Tamas and corresponds to the cosmic planes to Bh3rloka, Bhuvarloka and Svarloka. Bh3rloka Bhuvarloka Agniko9a The quarter ruled by Agni on southeast position known also as Agnidi0 Agniku98a vide Homaku98a Agnis1ra Dhauti vide Antardhauti Agni S3rya Indra Veda-s The trinity of Veda Tantra-s There is a fundamental parallel with the concept of J61t1 J61na J6eya in the Tantra in which J61t1), J61na) Agni becomes the one who knows (J61t1 S3rya the knowledge (J61na and Indra the object of J61t1 J61na J6eya). J6eya knowledge (J6eya vide also Indra Agni Soma S3rya, Sat Cit !nanda S3rya Agnis3tra Br1hma9a's The thread of fire as a rite for a young Br1hma9a investiture Agnitraya Agni) The three sacrificial (sacred) fires (vide Agni known also as Agnitret1 Agniv1din Worshipper of fire Agni Yoga The fire of Yoga generated by various techniques, Pr191y1ma being the most important It is considered that a Yoga practitioner starts the spiritual growth once touched by the fire of Yoga. Aha% Lit. 'I' Devan1gari) Devan1gari The union of A the first letter and Ha the last letter of the Sanskrit alphabet (Devan1gari M1t4k1, This union contains within all the letters of the M1t4k1 therefore as a Mantra is an expression of 10

A )abda in all its forms. Aha%brahm1smi Brahman', Upani=ad-s 'I am Brahman a celebrated statement in the Upani=ad vide also Mah1v1kya Aha%k1ra Lit. 'I am the doer' The principle of Ego-formation as kind of separation from the divine It is fundamental that Aha%k1ra has to die before the higher consciousness will emerge. The explosion of Aha%k1ra happens in !j6a Cakra Cakra. Vajre0var2, Cakra, vide also Vajre0var2 Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra !k10a Aha%k1r1kar=i92 The attractive power of Aha%k1ra vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra Aha%k1ratattva Aha%k1ratattva The Tattva of Aha%k1ra !h1ra Lit. 'food' The dietary rules as part of Yoga practices Gu9a-s. The food is divided according to the three Gu9a !havan2ya Agni One of the three sacrificial fires taken from the G1rhapatya Agni In this fire the oblation is offered. In the human body it is located in the neck area. Esoterically it Cakra. represents the level of consciousness of Vi0uddhi Cakra vide also Agni Ahi%s1 Lit. 'non-injuring' Daiv2sampat-s Yama-s Non-injury or non-violence as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat and one of the five Yama in Yoga Ahi%s1prati=7h1 A state in which Ahi%s1 is firmly established In the presence of a Yog2 possessing Ahi%s1prati=7h1 all enmities will cease. side also Vairaty1ga !h3ti Lit. 'invoking' Mantra-s) Mantra A sacred rite of offering oblation with fire accompanied by certain magic formulas (Mantra vide also Agnihotr1h3ti Ai0varya Bh1va-s Competence as one of the eight Bh1va 11

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality vide also Anai0varya !j1naja Deva Lit. 'born in the world of gods' A god by birth A person of remarkable divine qualities supposed to be inherited from previous births. Another kind of god is a Karma Deva, who is created by own actions, i.e. he/ she has to work to qualify for the name. vide also !nandamaya Vidy1 Ajap1 G1yatr2 vide Soham Ajapa Japa Mantra The recitation of Ha%sa5 Mantra or Soham Mantra with awareness of the breath, also known as Ajapajapa !j61 Lit. 'to perceive, understand' Order, command !j61 Cakra The Cakra of command Cakra-s One of the major Cakra in the human body !j61 Cakra is located at the Medulla Oblongata, the Bhr3madhya. top of the vertebral column i.e. behind the Bhr3madhya The level of awareness in !j61 Cakra is Taparloka. Taparloka Yuktatrive92, Cak=u, Cak=u, Netra, Itarali^ga, vide also Yuktatrive92 J61na Cak=u Divya Cak=u J61na Netra Itarali^ga Aha%k1ra !j61na Avidy1; Bh1va-s A synonym for Avidy1 ignorance as one of the eight Bh1va vide also J61na !k1ra !k1ra With form; manifested as a name for Sagu9a Brahman vide also Nir1k1ra !kar=a9a Siddhi The power of attracting vide also Siddhi !k10a Ether; space A%0a-s Aha%k1ra, Citta, Buddhi, The A%0a (constituent parts) of !k10a in the Pi98198a are Aha%k1ra Citta Buddhi Manas Anta5kara9a. and Anta5kara9a vide also Bh3ta !k10atattva !k10a, The Tattva of !k10a known also as Vyomatattva !k10atattva, In the !k10atattva J2v1tman resides dormant and non-manifest in the human body. 12

A !k10a Vidy1 The knowledge of !k10a Vidy1, Vidy1-s) A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1 referring to !k10a as pervading everything. This endless Tattva has to be seen in connection with the Tanm1tra of )abda and the sound of Udg2tha. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 !k102 Dh1ra91 Pa6cadh1ra91-s The Dh1ra91 on space as one of the Pa6cadh1ra91 Akha98a Without division vide also Kha98a Kha98a Akha981gni Uninterrupted fire Akrodha Krodha) Daiv2sampat-s Absence of anger (Krodha as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Krodha Ak=a vide Rudr1k=a Ak=am1 Not letting go of a negative experience as opposed to K=am1 Ak=ara Lit. 'imperishable' O%; A syllable; a name for the syllable O% a name for Brahman Ak=ar1k=ara Vidy1 Brahman) Brahman The knowledge of the imperishable (Brahman Vidy1, Vidy1-s A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 in which the knowledge of Brahman is the higher Vidy1 by which the imperishable is realized. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Ak=ayapatra Ak=ayapatra Lit. 'never ending leaf' A symbol of abundance, as the leaf could serve as plate for food Ak=i Vidy1 The knowledge of the eye Vidy1, Vidy1-s. A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 It is a Devay1na path in which Puru=a is meditated upon internally as Indra in the right eye and Indr192 in the left eye. The conjoint meditation leads to the knowledge of Sagu9a Brahman if this Vidy1 as correlated with Antar1ditya Vidy1. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Akula vide Kaula 13

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Alabdhabh3mikatva Vik=epa-s The state of lack of concentration as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa Alakhb1ra Lit. 'invisible boundary' Sanny1sin-s A place of seclusion where Paramaha%sa Sanny1sin live !lambana Object of an experience having !0raya as its basis vide also V1san1 Ala%bus1 N182 The N182 connected to the centre of the forehead Cakra, vide also Sarvasaubh1gyad1yaka Cakra Sarvasa%k=obhi92 !lasya Vik=epa-s Varjana-s Laziness as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa and one of the seven Varjana Ali^ga Lit. 'without sign' Prak4ti; Gu9a-s A synonym for Avyakta Prak4ti a stage of non-differentiation when Gu9a are in equilibrium and Asmit1 Sam1dhi is experienced (vide Gu9aparva) Gu9aparva !loka Loka-s Light as experience beyond the Loka vide also Jyoti=mat2 Prav4tti Aloluptva Daiv2sampat-s Freedom from desire as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Amanaska The knowledge of Brahman beyond the mental plane vide also Manaska Am1nitva Humility as a virtue of wisdom Ambhas2 Dh1ra91 Pa6cadh1ra91-s The Dh1ra91 on water as one of the Pa6cadh1ra91 Ambik1 Great Mother as a name of Dev2 Amla Rasa-s) Rasa Sour, one of the essential tastes (Rasa Am4ta Nectar of immortality, ambrosia vide also Soma, Soma Rasa Am4t1kar=i92 14

A The attractive power of Am4ta vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra Am4ta P1n Am4ta) Am4ta Taking of the nectar (Am4ta Tantric ritual of divine nectar. There are external and internal techniques. Am4t1p3r9a Lit. 'filled with nectar' A state of purity of mind of a Yog2 vide also A=7asiddhi A%s1 !ditya-s The share of gods, one of the twelve !ditya A%0a Constituent part of a classification An1gata Dharma Dharma-s The inherent property of future time as a potential state, one of the three Dharma (as inherent properties of time) The knowledge of An1gata Dharma and Adhvabheda will enable one to have time experiences and change the world of time as An1gata becomes Vartam1na and Vartam1na becomes At2ta. An1h1ra Varjana-s Fasting (or not eating enough) as one of the seven Varjana vide also Mit1h1ra An1hata Cakra Lit. 'un-struck Cakra' The Cakra located on the vertebral column behind the centre of the chest Tvak, P19i, This Cakra is associated with the J61nendriya of Tvak the Karmendriya of P19i the Tanm1tra Spar0a Ko0a, of Spar0a, is the centre for Pr19a V1yu and the seat of Manomaya Ko0a the level of awareness Maharloka. is Maharloka vide also K1kin2 An1hata Dhvani vide An1hata )abda An1hata )abda The un-struck, silent sound as subtle transcendental state known also as An1hata Dhvani Anai0varya Bh1va-s Incompetence as one of the eight Bh1va vide also Ai0varya !nanda Lit. 'happiness, bliss; enjoyment; sensual pleasure; delight; the act of enjoying' Pure happiness as one of the three attributes of !tman 15

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality vide also Ana^gamadan1 !nandalahar2 Lit. 'wave of enjoyment' The Tantric hymn of )a^kar1c1rya addressed to his wife P1rvat2 !nandamaya Ko0a The body of bliss as sphere of consciousness It is the expression of the balanced aspect of the inner spirit and the experience of a blissful state )ar2ra, and has its seat in the Bindu Visarga. !nandamaya Ko0a forms K1ra9a )ar2ra the causal Prak4ti. body going beyond the manifestations of Prak4ti !nandamaya Vidy1 The knowledge of bliss Vidy1-s) Ko0a A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1 refers to the knowledge of !nandamaya Ko0a and Manu=ya, Gandharva, Gandharva, various evolutionary stages namely Manu=ya Manu=ya Gandharva Deva Gandharva Pit4, Deva, Deva, Deva, Indra, B4haspati, !j1naja Deva Karma Deva Deva Indra B4haspati Praj1pati and Sagu9a Brahman. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 !nanda Sam1dhi !tmadra=7a A stage of Sam1dhi in which the !tmadra=7a is able to experience the essential nature of thought This state is known also as !nanda Asampraj61ta Sam1dhi. Ana^ga Lit. 'bodiless' )iva's Cak=u) A name of K1madeva (after he was burned to ashes by )iva third eye Cak=u as love without a body The esoteric explanation of Ana^ga is that K1ma as desire exists even without an object of desire (vide commentary on K1ma). K1ma Ana^gakusum1 The mental faculty of being attracted It corresponds to the human expressing of Vacana (speaking) symbolized by Kusuma. Sarva0a%k=obha9a vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra Ana^gamadan1 The mental faculty of loving It corresponds to the human expressing of !nanda (enjoying) symbolized by Madan1. Cakra, Madan1, vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra Madan1 Ana^ga Ana^gamadan1^ku01 The mental faculty of being attached It corresponds to the human expressing of !d1na (taking) symbolized by A^ku0a. vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra Ana^gamadan1tur1 The mental faculty of being lovesick It corresponds to the human expressing of Gamana (going) symbolized by Madan1tur1. 16

A Sarva0a%k=obha9a vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra Ana^gam1lin2 The mental faculty of wanting to be accepted It corresponds to the human attitude of Up1d1na (accepting) symbolized by M1l1. vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra Ana^gamekhal1 The mental faculty of being proud It corresponds to the human attitude of Upek=a (ignoring) symbolized by Mekhal1. vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra Ana^garekh1 The mental faculty of being detached It corresponds to the human attitude of H1na (rejecting) symbolized by Rekh1. vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra Ana^gavegan2 Ana^gavegan2 The mental faculty of being excited It corresponds to the human attitude of Visarga (excreting) symbolized by Vega. vide also Sarva0a%k=obha9a Cakra Ananta Lit. 'infinite, endless' N1gan1yaka), The name of )e=a ()e=an1ga or N1gan1yaka the snake-god (or serpent-king) of a thousand )e=an1ga Vi=9u's heads who serves as Vi=9u couch. Anantav1da The doctrine of infinity Anavasthitatva Vik=epa-s The state of instability as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa A98api98a Brahm198a) Brahm198a Pi98198a) Pi98198a Macrocosm (Brahm198a and Microcosm (Pi98198a A^ga Lit. 'limb; part; step' Mantra, A subdivision of a science or of a Mantra etc.; the body; the mind; accessory vide also A=71^ga Yoga A^gamejayatva The activity of unsteadiness of the mind Vik=epasahabh3-s As one of the four Vik=epasahabh3 it is connected to Pr19amaya Ko0a A^ga Ny1sa A^ga) A^ga Tantric rite of touching certain parts of the body (A^ga A^ga P3j1 17

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Worship with offering especially of flowers to the several parts of Lord's body A^ga Vidy1 The esoteric knowledge and interpretation of various marks on the body A^gay1ga A subordinate sacrificial rite vide also Y1ga A^gi Nity1 vide !dy1 A^giras Veda-s; Name of a $=i in the Veda seer; ray vide also Sapta4=i A^gu=7ham1tra Vidy1 J2va) J2va The knowledge of the Soul (J2va Vidy1, Vidy1-s. A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 The term A^gu=7ham1tra for the soul denotes something which is extremely fine, having residence in the heart. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Anib1dha Unobstructed, without obstacles; liberty A9im1 Lit. 'minuteness' One of the eight yogic powers of becoming as small as an atom Siddhi, vide also Siddhi A=7asiddhi A9im1di A=7asiddhi vide A=7asiddhi A6jali Reverence, salutation A6jali Mudr1 The gesture of placing side by side the open hands in front of the body as kind of reverence A6jana Siddhi The power of making clear vide also Siddhi A6janat1 The quality of identifying with the form of an object as a result of Am4t1p3r9a A^ku0a Lit. 'goad' A representation of Dve=a vide also Ana^gamadan1^ku01, P101^ku0a 18

A Anna Food Annamaya Ko0a The body of nourishment as sphere of consciousness )ar2ra, M3l1dh1ra It forms Sth3la )ar2ra the gross body having its seat in the M3l1dh1ra Cakra. This Ko0a is the expression and experience of the gross matter. Anna Yoga The Yoga of food based on !h1ra rules Anta5kara9a Lit. 'the internal organ' The thinking faculty of mind vide also !k10a Antar Inner Antar1ditya Vidy1 The knowledge of the inner sun Vidy1, Vidy1-s. A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 The right eye represents the sun, the left eye the moon, meditation on this Vidy1 has an external form leading to the knowledge of Sagu9a Brahman if correlated with Ak=i Vidy1. Dv1tri%0at vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Antar1k10a Inner space Antara^ga The internal stage, the inner expression as opposed to Bahira^ga Antar1ya vide Citta Vik=ep1 Antardhauti Yogic technique of inner purification Antardhauti-s V1tas1ra, V1ris1ra, Agnis1ra) There are four main Antardhauti viz. V1tas1ra V1ris1ra Vahnis1ra (or Agnis1ra and Bahi=k4ta. Antardhy1na Inner deep meditation Antarindriya An internal organ Antarindriya-s Manas, Citta, Buddhi, In Ved1nta there are four Antarindriya viz. Manas Citta Buddhi and Aha%k1ra. Antarj61na The knowledge coming from within Antary1ga 19

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Inner worship Y1ga ga, vide also Y1ga Bahiry1ga Antasa^kalpa A terminal spiritual stage of a Yog2 who has experienced Dharmamegha Sam1dhi when there is no urge to fulfil anything. A9u Atom Tanm1tra, vide also Tanm1tra Param19u A9ubh3ti Lit. 'perception' The generic term which describes the spiritual experience as various degrees of experience of consciousness, another term to describe Sam1dhi in Yoga Anugraha Lit. 'kindness, favour; conferring benefits' Blessing, grace Anulomaviloma Kind of Pr191y1ma as technique of alternate breathe Anusa%dh1na Lit. 'investigation, searching into; plan' Discovery Anu=7h1na Lit. 'performance; undertaking; practice' The accomplishment of an act with absolute discipline according to a definite plan; the Sa^kalpa of an act Anu=7h1na-s Japa, J61na, T1pasya, Yoga, Tantra, There is a wide range of Anu=7h1na like Japa J61na T1pasya Yoga Tantra etc. Anusv1ra vide Bindu Anv1h1ryapacana Agni vide Agni Ap Water A%0a-s Tanm1tra-s. The A%0a of Ap in the Pi98198a are the five Tanm1tra vide also Bh3ta Apai0una Daiv2sampat-s Absence of crookedness as one of the twenty-six Daiv2sampat Ap1na The V1yu which expels the life-force from the body 20

A Cakra, Sarvasampatprad1, vide also Sarv1rthas1dhaka Cakra Sarvasampatprad1 Devasu=i Ap1na Mudr1 Mudr1) The gesture (Mudr1 of acquiring (preserving) Ap1na energy Mudr1 Apara Lower or worldly knowledge Apar1jita Lit. 'invincible, unsurpassed' The palace in the Brahmaloka representing the R3pa of Brahm1 as a stage to be overcome in order to reach Parya^ka Mah10akti, vide also Mah10akti Parya^ka Vidy1 Apar1ntaj61na The knowledge of death Nirupakrama Karma-s. It is known by practicing Sa%yama on Sopakrama and Nirupakrama Karma Aparigraha Yama-s Non-receiving as one of the five Yama Aparigrahaprati=7h1 A state in which Aparigraha is firmly established A Yog2 possessing Aparigrahaprati=7h1 will get the memory of past life because the mind is purified. Aparok=1nubh3ti Lit. 'perception of the perceptible' The personal experience of the Divine with form as experience of Bhakti Apavarga Lit. 'turned off' A synonym for Mok=a Apsaras Nymph, angelic creature !ptaj61na Dharmamegha The spiritual stage of a Yog2 who has experienced Dharmamegha Sam1dhi when the veil of knowledge has been removed It allows a different kind of experience because there is nothing left to be known., thus real J61na) J61na knowledge (J61na is accomplished. !ptak1ma Dharmamegha The spiritual stage of a Yog2 who has experienced Dharmamegha Sam1dhi when there is nothing left to be desired Yog2’s Siddhi-s In this stage Yog2 desires are completely fulfilled, Siddhi do arise naturally, the complete Brahmacarya is obtained as the Yog2 does not respond to the sexual sensation of any form. Aptattva 21

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality The Tattva of Ap known also as Toyatattva Apunya Lack of merit !ra One of the lakes before entering into S1lajja city in the Brahmaloka Pa6c1gni-s. The crossing of !ra and (ya means overcoming the Pa6c1gni . vide also Parya^ka Vidy1 !r1dhana Worship, adoration; a ceremony to propitiate a deity !ra%bha Avasth1 A Yoga Avasth1 of a Yog2 after overcoming the Brahmagranthi !ra9i Piece of wood !ra9i-s Two !ra9i are used to kindle the sacred fire by attrition, they represent mind and body, heaven and earth, father and mother, i.e. the bringing together of polarities. !ra9yaka Lit. 'forest; produced in the forest' A specific kind of Vedic literature S1lajja. !ra and (ya are the two lakes as obstacles before entering in the city of Brahm1 named S1lajja vide also Parya^ka Vidy1 !ra9y1yama !ra9y1yama Lit. 'walking in the forest' Celibacy Arcan1 (also Arcana Arcana) A^ga-s One of the nine A^ga of Bhaki Yoga as the devotional act of ritual worship of the Divine Ardhan1r20vara A conjoined representation of )iva and )akti as symbol of their unity )aiva-s )1kta-s The )aiva worship the male or the right side, the )1kta the female or the left side. Arghya Offering, oblation Hotr1, Arghya, vide also Hotr1 Arghya Havi Ari=7a Apar1ntaj61na) Apar1ntaj61na The omen of knowledge of death (Apar1ntaj61na !rjava Daiv2sampat-s Straightforwardness as one of twenty-six Daiv2sampat Arjuna Mah1bh1rata, One of the five P19dava brothers in the epic Mah1bh1rata disciple and companion of the Lord 22

A K4=9a in Bhagavad G2t1 !roha9a The act of ascending as opposed to Avaroha9a Arpa9avidy1 The Para (supreme) worship of Dev2 Artha Lit. 'aim, purpose' Wealth, material gains; object of the senses Puru=1rtha, vide also Puru=1rtha Savitarka Sam1dhi Aru9a The impulsive One V1gdev2-s One of the V1gdev2 corresponding to the mental activity of Icch1 (wish). vide also Sarvarogahara Cakra Ar3pa Formless as opposed to R3pa (with form) as one of characteristics of the Self Arvan Lit. 'primal power' Veda-s In the Veda the stallion as representing the primal power Arya Lit. 'nobleman' The Aryan people and their tradition !rya Dharma Lit. 'path of noble people' vide Veda Aryaman !ditya-s Nobility as one of the twelve !ditya A=18ha The month corresponding to parts of June/ July vide also M1sa Asampraj61ta Sam1dhi Kind of Sam1dhi in which the practitioner has overcome the stage of differentiation going beyond Pratyaya, a%sk1ra-s Pratyaya but still in the presence of Sa%sk1ra Sam1dhi. It is an intermediate state of Sam1dhi !sana Lit. 'sitting' Pi98198a) Pi98198a Yogic or Tantric posture as form of integration of the human body (Pi98198a with the cosmic Brahm198a) Brahm198a body (Brahm198a 23

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality A^ga-s Pata6jali. sana-s, In Yoga one of the eight A^ga of the A=71^ga Yoga of Pata6jali Through !sana D48hat1 !sana-s. is obtained. There is an exoteric and esoteric symbolism of !sana Yog1sana, vide also Yog1sana Tantr1sana Asat The non-manifested; the state beyond Sat and the cause of Sat Avyakta, vide also Avyakta Sad Vidy1 Asatya Falsehood as opposed to Satya (truth) !0i= vide Abhinive0a Asmit1 Kle=a-s; Indriya-s) Egoism as on of the five Kle=a the material cause of the sense organs (Indriya Indriya vide also Abhim1na Asmit1 Sam1dhi A stage of Sam1dhi in which the !tmadra=7a will experience what is beyond thought and own awareness Sam1dhi. Known as Asmit1 Asampraj61ta Sam1dhi, it culminates in Nirb2ja Sam1dhi !0rama Lit. 'the abode of ascetics, a hermitage; a stage in the life of a person' Spiritual retreat !0rama-s Brahmac1rin, G4hastha tha, Traditionally there are four !0rama of a man's life as lifestyles viz. Brahmac1rin G4hastha Sa%ny1sin. !0rama, V1naprastha and Sa%ny1sin The main purpose of an !0rama as spiritual retreat for a Sa%ny1sin, Karma-s, Sa%ny1sin is to exhaust own Karma so allowing the negativity to be released, in short Karma. reinvesting own Karma !0raya !lambana Support or basis of an experience for !lambana (object of an experience) vide also V1san1 A=71^ga Yoga Lit. 'Yoga of the eight steps' S3tra-s Yama, The system of Yoga as thought in Yoga S3tra of Pata6jali as a eight-fold path, i.e. Yama Niyama, !sana Pr191y1ma, Praty1h1ra, Dh1ra9a, Dhy1na, Niyama !sana, Pr191y1ma Praty1h1ra Dh1ra9a Dhy1na and Sam1dhi A=7asiddhi A=7asiddhi Siddhi-s The eight Siddhi known also as A9im1di Siddhi-s A9im1, Mahim1, Garim1, Laghim1, Traditionally there are only eight major Siddhi namely A9im1 Mahim1 Garim1 Laghim1 Pr1pti, Pr1k1mya, Va0itva. Pr1pti Pr1k1mya I0itva and Va0itva Their acquisition is a result of mastering over the five Bh3ta-s Bh3ta and an expression of moving free in the world of Prak4ti. Asteya Yama-s Non-stealing as one of the five Yama Asteyaprati=7h1 24

A A state in which Asteya is fully established It is considered that the material goods come to a Yog2 possessing Asteyaprati=7h1. Asthi Bone vide Dh1tu !stika !stika Veda-s Believer in Veda Veda-s All the literature based on Veda is considered to be !stika. vide also N1stika Asu Lit. 'life-force, breath' Veda-s In the Veda the spirit surviving death A0uddhatattva Tattva-s The impure Tattva They consist of the twenty-four Tattva-s from Prak4titattva down to P4thiv2tattva (vide Tattva). Tattva Tattva A0uddhi Element or process which makes impure the body as opposed to )uddhi Do0a-s A0uddhi-s. All Do0a are considered to be A0uddhi A0ukl1k4=9a Karma-s The mixed Karma as one of the three accumulated Karma Asura The divine or supreme spirit; a demon A0va Lit. 'not the self' Veda-s In the Veda the swift horse as representing the mind or the manifested energy !sv1da The sense of supernatural tasting vide also Pr1tibha A0vamedha The horse sacrifice as a Vedic rite A0vattha Lit. 'under which horses stand' The sacred fig tree Ficus Religiosa, a variety of Banyan tree Guru. Esoterically it represents the Guru vide also Parya^ka Vidy1 !0vina The month that corresponds to parts of Sept./ Oct. 25

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality vide also M1sa A0vini Veda-s In the Veda the divine twin physicians (riding upon horses) said to restore health amongst mortals as well; the left and right life-force in the breath A0vini-s Veda-s A0vini hold a distinct position in the Veda they are practically equated with the energy flow N182-s. within Id1 and Pi^gal1 N182 A0vin2 Mudr1 Bhandha-s The mare Mudr1 as one of the Mudr1 Bhandha Atalaloka vide Loka Atandrita The state of being alert as a yogic state Atharva Veda The name of the fourth Veda known also as Brahmaveda vide also Tantra Atij1gara Varjana-s Not having enough sleeping as one of the seven Varjana Atikr1ntabh1van2ya The most advanced kind of Yog2 the one who has accomplished the transcendence Atisvapna Varjana-s Excessive sleeping as one of the seven Varjana At2ta Dharma Dharma-s The inherent property of past time, one of the three Dharma (as inherent properties of time) !tma vide !tman !tmabh1va Reality of the individual Soul as one's self condition and beyond any description; the self Kaivalya; consciousness leading to Kaivalya the awareness of the self consciousness !tmabh1va will be experienced only when the Vi0e=a state was transcended. !tmadar0an Vision of the Soul !tmadra=7a A witness of the self beyond the intellectual consciousness vide also Nirvic1r1 Sam1dhi !tmaj61na Knowledge of the Self !tmajyoti 26

A The light of the Soul !tm1kar=i92 The attractive power of !tma vide also Sarv101paripuraka Cakra !tman (also !tma !tma) Lit. 'the breath; what is spontaneous' The individual Soul as seed of Brahman present in all creatures Sat, !nanda The three attributes of !tman are Sat Cit and !nanda. vide also Indra Agni Soma S3rya !tma Nivedana A^ga-s One of the nine A^ga of Bhakti Yoga as the devotional act of self-offering to the Divine !tma Rati The feelings for the Self as expressions of true Bhakti Rati-s, !tma Rati as expressions of devotion and kinds of liberation, are five in number, namely S1m2pya, S1lokya, S1r3pya, S1m2pya S1lokya S1r3pya Sar=7i and S1yujya S1yujya. Rati, vide also Rati Rasa !tm1rpa9a Lit. 'offering to !tma' The attitude of offering own action as part of P3j1 (worship) to sanctify the ordinary existence It is an attitude of giving back to the Divine what really belongs to the Divine. Therefore the Mudr1, Japa, ordinary work with hands and body becomes Mudr1 the ordinary talk becomes Japa the act of eating becomes Homa or Yaj6a, the ordinary walk becomes Pradak=i9a, the act of lying down Yaj6a Pradak=i9a Pra91ma, Agnihotra, P3j1, becomes Pra91ma the act of breathing becomes Agnihotra etc. This is a high form of P3j1 a continuous awareness of the Self. !tma )akti )akti-s The transcendental awareness as one of the )akti flowing through Su=umn1 N182 as a result of balancing of Pr19a )akti and Manas )akti the union of space (!k10a and time (K1la )akti, !k10a) !k10a K1la) K1la )akti) It is the spiritual kind of energy (vide )akti allowing the occurrence of Anubh3ti experience. !tmavidy1 The knowledge of the Self Atri Name of a $=i vide also Sapta4=i Aty1h1ra Varjana-s Excessive eating as one of the seven Varjana vide also Mit1h1ra Au882y1na P27ha vide U882y1na P27ha 27

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Au% vide O% Au=adhi vide O=adhi Avadh3ta Lit. 'one who has rejected all his worldly feelings and obligations' A highly spiritual person Avair1gya Attachment as one of the eight Bh1va-s Bh1va vide also Vair1gya !vara9a Lit. 'what covers' The covering of the inner reality on the path of Yoga !vara9a is one of the two functions of M1y1 as the illusion which covers the inner reality. One of Pr191y1ma. the best ways of removing !vara9a is the practice of Pr191y1ma It is a fundamental concept that !vara9a) !vara9a only by removing the covering (!vara9a the higher awareness can be experienced. !vara9a Devat1 A deity of covering Devat1-s K1me0var2, Bhagam1lin2 agam1lin2, There are three !vara9a Devat1 namely K1me0var2 Vajre0var2 and Bhagam1lin2 the deities covering the light. vide also Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra Avaroha9a The act of descending as opposed to !roha9a Avasth1 Lit. 'condition' State of human existence Avasth1traya) There are three states (Avasth1traya viz. J1grat (waking), Svapna (dreaming) and Su=upti Avasth1traya V4tti-s. (deep sleep), each one having specific V4tti Beyond Avasth1traya there is one more state known Tur2ya. as Tur2ya Avasth1 Pari91ma Citta) Pari91ma-s Transformation of state of mind (Citta accompanying the Pari91ma as a result of Sa%yama Citta Avasth1traya vide Avasth1 Avat1ra (from Avat4i i.e. to descend) Incarnation of the Divine upon earth Avat1ra-s Vi=9u. The best known Avat1ra are the ten forms of Vi=9u Avidy1 28

A Kle0a-s; Ignorance, one of the five Kle0a an error of perception; a human experience of the cosmic M1y1 Kle0a-s, Kle0a-s. Avidy1 is regarded as the cause of Kle0a its control means the control of all other Kle0a Avirati Vik=epa-s The state of lack of due restraint as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa Avi0e0a Lit. 'without difference' Gu9aparva-s One of the four Gu9aparva in which Savic1r1 Sam1dhi is experienced Avyakta Prak4ti, The non-manifested principle of creation, the primary germ of Prak4ti the state of non- differentiation N1mar3pa. Asat, Brahman, This state is devoid of N1mar3pa Avyakta is identified with Asat Nirgu9a Brahman Parabrahman or @0vara. @0vara K1me0var2, Cakra, Vyakta, vide also K1me0var2 Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra Vyakta Ali^ga Avyakta N1da The non-manifested sound vide also N1da Avyakta Prak4ti The non-manifested nature, a synonym to Ali^ga !yam1tma Brahm1 Brahm1' Upani=ad-s 'The extension of the Self is Brahm1 is a celebrated statement in the Upani=ad vide also Mah1v1kya !yudha Devat1 A deity bearing weapons There are three deities presiding over the weapons of Dev2 Lalit1 namely P101^ku0a (noose and goad), Ik=ukoda98a (sugar-cane bow) and the B19a-s (the five flower arrows). Their weapons are B19a P10a, A^ku0a, Dhanu=) B19a-s. P10a A^ku0a Ik=ukoda98a (or Dhanu= and B19a They are being kept symbolically by the Dev2 in her four hands. The !yudha Devat1 are to be found between Sarvarogahara Cakra and Cakra. Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra !yurveda The science of the Indian medicine vide also Do=a 29

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality B Bagal1 Mukhi Mah1vidy1-s The eighth of the ten Mah1vidy1 representing the unconscious plane of existence that is the source of illusion Bahira^ga The external stage, the outer expression as opposed to Antara^ga Bahiry1ga External worship known also as B1hyay1ga vide also Y1ga, Antary1ga Y1ga Antary1ga Bahi=kara9a The body as external instrument Bahi=k4ta Dhauti Antardhauti-s One of the Antardhauti as internal purification By its practice a Deva Deha may be obtained. Bahuda Lit. 'much-giving' Sanny1sin One of the preliminary stages of Sanny1sa life-style when the Sanny1sin gives the best in the life of an !0rama B1hy1k10a Outer space B1hyap3j1 Lit. 'lower worship' A ritual practice of worship, using voice, objects or images P3j1, vide also P3j1 Devay1na B1hyay1ga vide Bahiry1ga, Y1ga Bahiry1ga Bala Sampad-s Bodily and mental strength or vitality as one of the four K1ya Sampad B1l1ki Upani=ad-s Name of a sage in the Upani=ad vide also B1l1ki Vidy1 B1l1ki Vidy1 The knowledge of B1l1ki 30

B Vidy1-s A Veda Vidy1, one of the thirty-two Vidy1 that gradually deals with the knowledge of Puru=a Agni, V1yu, from the left and right eyes to Agni V1yu !k10a and finally to the Puru=a of the sun. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Bali A gift offering as a sacrifice in the form of fruits and flowers B19a Lit. 'arrow' A flower arrow of K1ma Tanm1tra m1tra-s The five flower arrows of K1ma denoting the five Tanm1tra (subtle forms of matter) are the A0oka, lotus, the A0oka the mango blossom, the jasmine and the blue lotus. vide also !yudha Devat1 Bandha Lit. 'binding, tying; connection with; uniting; joining' Contraction as yogic technique; lock Bandha-s Bandha are techniques used to dissolve the psychic knots and redirect the resulting energy within Bandha-s. the body. There is an esoteric and exoteric symbolism of Bandha On a higher plane they are powerful and relevant Ku98alin2 yoga techniques towards )iva and )akti union in the human body Pi98198a). Bandha-s seen as Microcosm (Pi98198a There are three major Bandha namely J1landhara Bandha Pi98198a (Water-pipe lock), U882y1na Bandha (Upwards lock) and M3la Bandha (Root lock). vide also Bandhatraya Bandhatraya Bandha-s Bandha, The triple contraction using the three main Bandha namely J1landhara Bandha U882y1na Bandha and M3la Bandha. Basti Lit. 'lower belly' +atkarma-s Vasti. One of the +atkarma known also as Vasti As a yogic technique does the cleansing the abdominal area. It is of two kinds viz. Jala Basti and )u=ka Basti. Basti Bh1dra Bh1dra The day of full-moon in the month of Bh1drapada Bh1drapada The rainy month corresponding to parts of August /September vide also M1sa Bhadr1sana The gentle !sana Bhaga Gracious God; happiness; prosperity; beauty, loveliness; love, sexual pleasure; the female organ; !ditya-s one of the twelve !ditya vide also Bhaj Bhagam1lin2 31

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Lit. 'the one adorned with glory' Devat1-s One of the !vara9a Devat1 presiding over the principle of existence of Mahat )akti-s. Bhagam1lin2 is also one of the Nity1 )akti Cakra vide also Sarvasiddhiprada Cakra Bhag1sana vide Tantr1sana Bhagavad G2t1 The Song of the Lord Ved1nta, Yoga, The most famous Yoga work, a synthesis of Ved1nta Yoga S1mkhya teachings, believed to be composed in the third or fourth century BCE. Arjuna, vide also Arjuna Kuruk=etra Bhagavan Lit. 'God-like' One of God's names; a generic and popular name of God in India vide also Bhaj Bhagavat Lit. 'the adorable one' )iva's One of )iva names Bhaj, vide also Bhaj Bhaga Bhairava Lit. 'terrible, formidable' A name of )iva as a frightening aspect of the divine; a Tantric male participant Bhairav2 Dev2; Consort of Bhairava as a particular form of Dev2 a Tantric female participant Bhairav2 Cakra vide Cakra P3j1 Bhairav2 Tantra A name of a Tantra Bhaj Lit. 'to adore; enjoy; worship; bestow; share with; distribute' Bhakti, Bhaga, Bhagavan, Bhagavat, Bhajan, Sanskrit root of words like Bhakti Bhaga Bhagavan Bhagavat Bhajan Bhakta. Bhajan Devotional song vide also Bhaj Bhakta Devotee; one following the path of Bhakti Bhaj, vide also Bhaj Bh2ma Vidy1 32

B Bhakti Devotion Devotion is seen as channelling of emotions towards God in order to experience the eternal existence. In the tradition, Bhakti is the only way God can be reached, as the experience of the Brahm198a) Pi98198a). Macrocosm (Brahm198a in the Microcosm (Pi98198a The Bhakti M2m1%s1 S3tra describes Brahm198a Pi98198a devotion as being "Supreme longing for the Lord". It is said that the Lord becomes perceptible Japa, through devotion. Bh1vac381ma9i says: "Nothing is accomplished by constant Japa sacrifices Yantra-s Mantra-s and austerities which torture the body, because without deep devotion Yantra and Mantra do not yield fruit". vide also Bhaj Bhakticcheda Any decoration or marks on forehead, arms, cheeks, nose, breasts, etc. as an expression of devotion Devat1-s. to Devat1 Bhakti M1rga The path of devotion vide also Bhakti Yoga Bhakti Yoga The Yoga of Devotion Yoga, A^ga-s) The last stage in Yoga considered to be the Yoga of the 21st century. It has nine limbs (A^ga A^ga namely )r1va9a (listening to holy scriptures), K2rtana (singing devotional songs), Smarana (remembering the Divine), P1da Sev1na (service to the feet of the Lord), Arcan1 or P3j1 (ritual worship), Vandana (prostration before the image of the Lord), D1sya (slavish devotion to the Lord), S1khya (friendship) and !tma Nivedana (Self-offering to the Lord). In Bhakti Yoga Bh1va-s) there are five main states or conditions (Bh1va namely )1nta (tranquil), D1sya (slavish), Bh1va V1tsalya (affectionate), S1khya (friendly) and M1dhurya (sweet). vide also )uddha Bhakti Bhakti Yoga Sam1dhi The Sam1dhi as a result of Bhakti Yoga practice Bh1^g A drink made of Indian hemp leaves Bh1rati Veda-s Satya); In the Veda the word signifying the truth (Satya a high educational institution Satya Bhasma Ashes used for spiritual purpose Bhastrik1 Lit. 'causing the sound of bellows' In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma Bh1=ya Lit. 'an explanatory work, exposition, commentary' Work of a spiritual kind Bh1va 33

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Lit. 'attitude; true condition; reality; disposition' State, emotion, devotional sentiment Rasa-s. In Bhakti Yoga there are five states as devotional sentiments known also as Rasa As states or Bh1va-s conditions accompanying the Li^ga (as transmigratory soul) there are eight Bh1va namely Dharma, Adharma, J61na, Aj61na, Vair1gya, Avair1gya, Ai0varya, Anai0varya. Dharma Adharma J61na Aj61na Vair1gya Avair1gya Ai0varya Anai0varya As states of Bh1va-s Bh1va, human personalities there are three Bh1va namely Pa0u Bh1va V2ra Bh1va and Divya Bh1va. Bh1va vide also Tantra Bh1vana Lit. 'imagining' Contemplation, reflection; feeling; thought Y1ga). It is also a kind of worship (meditation) of Dev2 (vide Y1ga In the tradition it is said that God is Bh1vana-s captivated by the Bh1vana (feelings). Bhaya Varjana-s Fear as on of the seven Varjana Fear is seen as a product of duality vide also Abhaya Mudr1 Bhay1naka Rasa-s Terror as one of the Rasa Bheru981 )akti-s One of the Nity1 )akti Bhoga Lit. 'enjoyment' Tantra; The worldly experience as a path to spiritual growth in Tantra any worldly experience attached to Indriya riya-s the Indriya Bhog1dhi=7h1na Living organism Bhr1mar2 Lit. 'causing the sound of wasp' In Ha7ha Yoga one of the eight major kinds of Pr191y1ma This kind of Pr191y1ma will result in the experience of An1hata )abda. vide also Ras1nanda Yoga Bhr1ntidar0ana Vik=epa-s The state of wrong perception as one of the nine Citta Vik=epa Bh4gu vide Brahm1 Bh4gu V1ru9i Vidy1 The knowledge of Bh4gu V1ru9i 34

B Vidy1-s) Ko0a-s A Veda Vidy1 (one of the thirty-two Vidy1 refers to the gradual knowledge of the five Ko0a beyond which the Sagu9a Brahman can be realized. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Bhr3madhya The space between the eyebrows as Cakra K=etra of !j61 Cakra vide also )1%bhav2 Mudr1 Bhuja^g1sana The cobra !sana Bhuja^g2 Lit. 'female-serpent' A name for Ku98alin2 Bhuja^gin2 Mudr1 Bhanda-s The she-serpent Mudr1 one of the Mudr1 Bhanda Bh3ma Vidy1 The knowledge of the world Vidy1, Vidy1-s, A Veda Vidy1 one of the thirty-two Vidy1 as related to N1rada by Sanatkum1ra. The disciple V1k, Manas, Sa%kalpa, Citta, is led to understand gradual stages from V1k Manas Sa%kalpa Citta Dhy1na and finally to Pr19a. Bhakta) Satya, Pr19a Here are also enumerated the qualifications of a good devotee (Bhakta namely Satya Bhakta Vij61na, Mati, )raddh1, Vij61na Mati )raddh1 Ni=7h1 and K4ti. vide also Dv1tri%0at Vidy1 Bh3mi Earth vide also Bh3ta Bh3mik1 vide Yoga Avasth1 Bh3mitattva vide P4thiv2tattva Bh3pura Lit. 'region (plan) of earth' vide Trailokyamohana Cakra Bh3rloka The Earth plane vide Loka Bh3 Sam1dhi The underground Sam1dhi Bh3ta Lit. 'consisting of; being' Gross element of the human body; gross form of matter; animated being 35

A Sanskrit Dictionary of Spirituality Pa6cabh3ta-s, Mah1bh3ta-s Bh3ta-s. Also known as Pa6cabh3ta Mah1bh3ta or Sth3la Mah1 Bh3ta There are five Bh3ta Bh3ta-s namely: !k10a or Vyoma (ether), V1yu (air), Tejas or Agni or Vahni (fire), Ap or Toya (water), Bh3mi or P4thiv2 (earth), all produced from the Tamas Gu9a of Prak4ti and are parts of the Tattva-s. Bh3ta-s. thirty-six Tattva For the purpose of Mudr1 the five fingers correspond to the five Bh3ta The P4thiv2, Ap, Tejas, V1yu, !k10a, order of their higher and higher absorption is P4thiv2 Ap Tejas V1yu !k10a corresponding to Devat1-s Brahm1, Vi=9u, Rudra, @0vara, Sad10iva, the Devat1 such as Brahm1 Vi=9u Rudra @0vara and Sad10iva the later seen as parallel to Bindu). the five parts of O% Mantra (i.e. A, U, M, N1da and Bindu Bh3t1di Rudiment-matter, original element Source of !k10a (ether) as the first Bh3ta (gross matter) of S4=7i. Bh3ta )uddhi Bh3ta-s) Bh3ta Purification of the gross elements (Bh3ta of the body It is an essential ritual before worship or any making of

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