Published on March 13, 2014
Dr Barbara Newland
“The aim of teaching is simple: it is to make student learning possible” (Ramsden, 2003)
Constructivism Constructive alignment - Biggs Conversational framework – Laurillard Approaches to Learning - deep, surface, strategic – Marton, Entwistle Threshold concepts – Meyer and Land Bloom’s taxonomy Salmon’s 5 steps to eModerating
Learner “constructs” knowledge and understanding Social constructivism – Vygotsky, Wenger
What I can do with help? Stretching http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/ social-development.html
“groups of people who share a concern or a passion for something they do and learn how to do it better as they interact regularly.” a combination of the 3 characteristics: 1. domain – an identity defined by a shared domain of interest, a commitment to the domain and a shared competence that distinguishes them from non-members 2. community - “members engage in joint activities and discussions, help each other, and share information. They build relationships that enable them to learn from each other 3. practice – “practitioners. They develop a shared repertoire of resources: experiences, stories, tools, ways of addressing recurring problems—in short a shared practice. This takes time and sustained interaction.” “it is by developing these three elements in parallel that one cultivates such a community” (Wenger, 2006)
“Twin principles of constructivism in learning and alignment in teaching” “A good teaching system aligns teaching method and assessment to the learning activities stated in the objectives, so that all aspects of this system are in accord in supporting appropriate student learning.” (Biggs, 1999)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Ngc9ihb 35g http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcybQlLA V2k http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ggThtInFt nM
“Academic learning is different from other kinds of learning in everyday life because it is not directly experienced, and is necessarily mediated by the teacher” Academic knowledge – descriptions of the world eg theories, symbols
Students need learning that is efficient and enjoyable in a supportive environment Media are well matched to learning objectives Active learning is supported through feedback An appropriate balance of media is achieved across the range Methods are matched to logistics and resources
Teacher’s Theory, ideas Student’s Concepts Questions, ideas specific concept Adaptation Adaptation of learners’ of actions in activities light of theory Reflection Reflection on learners’ in light of actions experience Teacher’s Goal Student’s Constructed Feedback specific Environment Actions actions Revisions
Narrative ◦ valuable for transmitting ideas - telling the story ◦ student has no control ◦ need more for active learning process Interactive ◦ under student control ◦ eg click and obtain information ◦ Communicative ◦ academic discussion part of university education ◦ eg – synchronous with shared data and feedback from peers and tutor but small numbers Adaptive ◦ teacher response adapts to the students Collaborative ◦ communicative and productive but between students, as well as student and teacher
Learning through Digital technology Acquisition Reading, listening, watching Inquiry Using digital tools to collect, analyse and evaluate data Practice Using simulations, online field trips etc Production Producing and storing documents, photos, videos etc Discussion Synchronous and asynchronous Collaboration Online forums, wikis building joint output
Interactive e.g. communication, feedback, simulation Integral part of the curriculum Enjoyable Media are well matched to learning objectives Balance Logistics and resources
Atherton J S (2013) Learning and Teaching; Deep and Surface learning [On-line: UK] retrieved 26 November 2013 from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learnin g/deepsurf.htm
Individual’s likelihood of making use of new technology in learning- related context ◦ Effectiveness Educational effectiveness Solve educational problems Provide new forms of learning Support existing curriculum ◦ Ease of use Software Ownership by staff and students Support Network connections - access ◦ Engagement Personal engagement with using technology for learning Relates to their beliefs about the learning process Levels of confidence ◦ Environment Institution’s profile with respect to technological use Vision Strategy Funding (Collis and Moonan, 2001)
Context – relevant, flexible (start from where they are at) Collis also found at the University of Twente that “instructors are most likely to begin by choosing aspects of a system that reflect their current ways of teaching, and then gradually move to new instructional approaches and new features.” (Collis and Messing, 2001)
Threshold concepts may be: transformative irreversible integrative bounded troublesome
Transformative as once a student has understood one there may be a significant shift in their perception of the subject Irreversible as they are unlikely to be forgotten, or unlearned because of this change in perspective Integrative as they expose the previously hidden interrelatedness of a subject Bounded as they may help to define the boundaries of a subject area Troublesome which Perkins defines as counter-intuitive, alien or incoherent (Perkins, 1999). Threshold concepts are inherently problematic for learners as “they demand an integration of ideas and this requires the student to accept a transformation of their own understanding.” (Land, Cousin et al, 2004) Once a student has a threshold concept it is necessary to re-interpret current ideas.
In the process of acquiring a threshold concept the student is sometimes stuck in state of “liminality” An in-between state in which “they oscillate between earlier, less sophisticated understandings, and the fuller appreciation of a concept.” (Land, Cousin et al, 2004) Often uncomfortable for the learner as they struggle for understanding and may affect their levels of confidence and sense of identity. Related to Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development, which is the distance between the student’s actual and potential level of development. Appropriately stretching learners in this zone with the support of scaffolding may lead them to fresh understandings (Vygotsky, 1978). Students may need support to learn threshold concepts and help them move through a liminal state to deep understanding and this support may be online or face to face in a blended learning situation.
Links between the concepts and students learn to use more than one concept. Different types of threshold concepts ◦ personal - “relationship between learners’ everyday understanding and the distinctions suggested by the discipline.” ◦ discipline - “an integrated understanding that draws in a range of concepts” ◦ modelling thresholds - “deeply embedded in the process of reasoning taken for granted in the discipline.” (Davis and Mangan, 2005)
Atherton J S (2011) Learning and Teaching; Bloom's taxonomy [On-line: UK] retrieved 14 January 2012 from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/bloomtax.htm#Cognitive:
Definition - frameworks for online active and interactive learning E-tivities are • Motivating, engaging and purposeful • Based on interaction between learners/students/participants mainly through written message contributions • Designed and led by an e-moderator • Asynchronous (i.e. take place over time) • Cheap and easy to run
• A small piece of information, stimulus or challenge (the ‘spark’) • Online activity which includes individual participants posting a contribution • An interactive or participative element- such as responding to the postings of others • Summary, feedback or critique from an e- moderator (the ‘plenary’)
Father Guido Sarducci's Five Minute University http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kO8x8eo U3L4
Atherton J S (2011) Learning and Teaching; Bloom's taxonomy [On-line: UK] retrieved 10 December 2012 from http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/bloomtax.htm#Cognitive: Brabrand, C and Jacob Andersen, J "Teaching Teaching & Understanding Understanding“, Aarhus University Press, University of Aarhus, Denmark, 2006 19 minute award-winning short-film (DVD) about Constructive Alignment. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Ngc9ihb35g http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcybQlLAV2k http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ggThtInFtnM Biggs, J. Tang, C. (2007) Teaching for Quality Learning at University: What the Student Does, McGraw-Hill Collis, B. and Messing, J. (2001) Usage, attitudes and workload implications for a web-based learning environment, Association of Learning Technology Journal 9 (1) Collis, B. and Moonen, J. (2001) Flexible Learning in a Digital World, London, Kogan Page Laurillard, D. (2002). Rethinking University Teaching: a Framework for the Effective Use of Learning Technologies. London: Routledge. Meyer, J. F. H., and Land, R., (2006), Threshold Concepts and Troublesome Knowledge: an Introduction, in Meyer, J. F. H., and Land, R., (eds) Overcoming Barriers to Student Understanding: Threshold Concepts and Troublesome Knowledge, Routledge, London Ramsden, P., (2003) Learning to Teach in Higher Education, 2nd edition, Routledge Falmer, London Salmon, G. (2011). E-moderating: the Key to Teaching and Learning Online. London: Routledge Salmon, G. (2013). E-tivities. London: Routledge Wenger, E., (1998), Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press Vygotsky, L.S., (1978), Mind and Society: the Development of Higher Mental Processes Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press
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