Published on March 10, 2014
Study and Quantification of TunnelA Case Study of IV Mumbai water Supply Tunnel Project Guide-Prof V.R.K Murthy Presented by Krunal Bhannare(93054) Nilesh Waghmare(93075) Piyush Gajbhiye (93082)
Introduction and history of tunnels DefinitionTunnels- The underground passages which are constructed without disturbing or removing the ground surface are known as Tunnels. Shafts- The vertical wells or passages constructed along the alignment of the tunnel are known as shafts. •In ancient times Egyptians led the world into the art of tunneling. •The art of tunneling in ancient times was very laborious difficult and dangerous. It involved chipping off rock inch by inch with hand tools. •At present, with modern tunneling techniques and equipment at our disposal, we are in a position to undertake such tunneling projects which in the past might have seemed impossible.
Scope of the Project • Construction of shaft at Gundovali and Kapurbawdi 1. Excavation and concreting of RCC well 2. Excavation of shaft 3. Excavation of tail tunnel 4. Excavation of TBM Assembly area 5. Concrete lining of shaft • Tunneling from Gundovali to Kapurbawdi 1. TBM Lowering and assembling 2. Excavation of tunnel from Gundovali to Kapurbawdi 3. TBM dismantling and removal 4. RCC lining of tunnel from creek towards kapurbawdi 5. Steel lining in creek area 6. RCC lining from creek end to Gundovali shaft
Objective of our Project Work The excavation through drilling and blasting technique is used for the excavation of both the shafts (Gundovali and Kapurbawdi) and the TBM assembling and dismantling tunnel. •To study various techniques, different types of drilling patterns, blasting techniques, explosive requirements, work procedures for various tunneling activities, boring of tunnel through TBM and safety measures to be adopted during tunnel excavation works etc. •Quantification of major items to be executed for the excavation of shaft and tunnel through drilling, blasting technique and through TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) viz. excavation, rock bolting, shotcreting, cutting edge concreting, well steining concreting, shaft lining, tunnel lining etc.
Literature review 1. Big tunnels in bad rock by Evert Hoek • • • • At a distance of approximately one diameter ahead of the tunnel the rock mass is not influenced by the presence of the tunnel. The tunnel face and the walls behave in a similar manner therefore proper supports has to be provided for the stability of both. The presence of water can cause significant problems during tunneling as a result of strength reduction due to physical deterioration of the rock mass. In water transmission tunnels the concept of the leaky lining is sometimes accepted in the areas where very high external ground water pressure is their.
Literature review 2. Tunnel Blasting- Emulsion explosives and proper blast design are the prerequisites for better efficiency by Partha Das Sharma •The blasting engineers ultimate challenge is to provide desired fragmentation with sufficient advance and at the same time keeping gorund vibrations level within limit as per law. •The case study focuses on best possible explosives available for undertaking such a job and various blast designs sequence of excavation, sequence of delays to be used in blasting, regarding controlled blast for carrying blast in tunnel so that minimum over break is their. •The development of tunneling has been impressive due to the introduction of high power emulsion explosives. •It is important that the blast holes are drilled at right locations and with right inclination. The type of explosives drilling pattern, spacing, number of holes to be drilled per round are to be planned very cautiously. contd.
The different types of drilling patterns generally used are •Wedge cut •Parallel holes •Burn cut method The tunnel driving methods can be divided as •Full face tunneling method •Top heading and benching method Depending upon the area of cross section the above methods can be finalised •For tunnels generally smaller than 60 – 70 m² cross-section, full-face excavation gives maximum economy and efficiency. •For medium tunnel more than 60 – 70 m² area of cross section, normally top heading and benching sequence are adopted. •For excavation of very large underground cavern etc., more number of stages is employed.
• Number of Blast holes: There are number of Thumb Rules available for deciding number of blast holes to be drilled for techno-economy purpose. One of them is given below: Swedish Rule: N=37.6 + 1.36 S ( In tough rocks) N = 30.9 + 1.0 S ( In Medium tough rocks Where S=Cross-section of tunnel. However, requirement of number of hole, specific charge etc. are site specific and vary from site to site, which depend on Ground strata, Cross section of opening and many more factors. The optimum number of holes, specific charge etc., required are to be established by conducting number of trials at the site.
Literature review 3. Tunnel Boring Machines •A tunnel boring machine (TBM) also known as a "mole", is a machine used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of soil and rock strata. They can bore through hard rock, sand, and almost anything in between. Tunnel diameters can range from a metre (done with micro-TBMs) to almost 16 metres to date. •Tunnel boring machines are used as an alternative to drilling and blasting (D&B) methods in rock and conventional 'hand mining' in soil. TBMs have the advantages of limiting the disturbance to the surrounding ground and producing a smooth tunnel wall. This significantly reduces the cost of lining the tunnel, and makes them suitable to use in heavily urbanized areas. •The major disadvantage is the upfront cost
Hard rock TBMs •In hard rock, either shielded or open-type TBMs can be used. All types of hard rock TBMs excavate rock using disc cutters mounted in the cutter head. •The disc cutters create compressive stress fractures in the rock, causing it to chip away from the rock in front of the machine, called the tunnel face. •The excavated rock, known as muck, is transferred through openings in the cutter head to a belt conveyor, where it runs through the machine to a system of conveyors or muck cars for removal from the tunnel. Soft ground TBMs •In soft ground, there are two main types of TBMs: Earth Pressure Balance Machines (EPB) and Slurry Shield (SS). Both types of machines operate like Single Shield TBMs, using thrust cylinders to advance forward by pushing off against concrete segments. •In soft ground with very high water pressure and large amounts of ground water, Slurry Shield TBMs are needed. These machines offer a completely enclosed working environment. Soils are mixed with bentonite slurry, which must be removed from the tunnel through a system of slurry tubes that exit the tunnel
Back-up systems •Behind all types of tunnel boring machines, inside the finished part of the tunnel, are trailing support decks known as the back-up system. • Support mechanisms located on the back-up can include: conveyors or other systems for muck removal, slurry pipelines if applicable, control rooms, electrical systems, dust removal, ventilation and mechanisms for transport of pre-cast segments. Urban tunnelling and near surface tunnelling •Urban tunnelling has the special challenge of requiring that the ground surface be undisturbed. This means that ground subsidence must be avoided. •The normal method of doing this in soft ground is to maintain the soil pressures during and after the tunnel construction. •There is some difficulty in doing this, particularly in varied strata (e.g., boring through a region where the upper portion of the tunnel face is wet sand and the lower portion is hard rock).
Construction of shaft at Gundovali • • Excavation at the Gundovali shaft was done by full face sinking method. The cutting edge was prepared on ground by 10 mm thick MS plates. Cutting edge/well curb has to be of mild steel plates filled with reinforced concrete and shall be placed truly in position and level. • After it hardens fully the RC well will be lowered gradually by excavation at its bottom. The sinking of the well shall commence only after the steining below it has been cured for at least 48 hours. This method will continue till the firm rock stratum is obtained. Excavation of Shaft • The method of drilling and blasting was followed for the excavation of remaining depth of shaft up to RL (-) 63.375 m. • Mucking was carried out with the help of two muck buckets and will be lifted out by EOT from the shaft. EX-110 will be used for loading the muck in muck buckets.
Drilling Work •Jackhammers 5 no’s will be used for drilling of holes. The diameter of the holes will be 28mm. •The length of each hole will be 1.25m and the expected pull is 1.1m. At the outer most periphery of the shaft line drilling will be carried out in which alternate dummy holes will be drilled. •The total no. of holes to be drilled will be 296 out of which 246 will be charged and 50 will be dummy holes. •It should be noted that the spacing and inclination of the holes should be strictly followed and blasting should not be taken up without line drilling. •The drilling pattern to be followed is as shown in the figure below. •The c/c spacing of holes for the outermost periphery will be 0.375m but on this outer most periphery only alternate holes will be charged i.e. the spacing between charge holes for the outer most periphery will be 0.75m
Loading, blasting mats laying, lifting and blasting Work •Loading of explosives in the holes should be done properly and proper packing should be given after the loading of explosive sticks in the holes. •For proper compaction, PVC loading sticks of dia 20mm and length 3m shall be used. Soil or gunny bags goli may be used for proper compaction to get proper pull. •The explosives used for loading of holes has dia of 25mm, length 25 cm and weight 125 gm. The lead of LDD used shall not be greater than 3m. •The provision for ventilation duct along with steel bend shall be implemented after 50-55m depth of shaft is excavated. Mucking Work •After blasting 30 minutes will be given for defuming and then mucking will start immediately. The shaft muck will be lifted out in 6 cum Buckets by EOT Crane erected on top of the Shaft. •The bucket will be loaded by 0.65 cum. capacity Hydraulic Excavator (EX – 110/ equivalent) working inside the shafts. Two buckets will be used for mucking in each Shaft so that when one bucket is hoisted and being moved on the gantry for unloading, the other will be at the bottom being loaded by the Excavator.
Cycle Time for shaft excavation Activity Unit Duration Surveying min. Equipment Placing min. Drilling min. 360 Loading min. 180 Min. 240 Defuming min. 30 Lowering Equipment & labour. min. 120 Mucking min. 360 Blasting mats laying and lifting (For starting 40m only) Wiremesh and shotcreting (After every 4 blasts) min. 30 60 300 Rockbolting min. 240 Shift Change min. 30 Total Cycle Time Including (Upto 40 m only) shotcreting Total Cycle Time Including (upto 40 m only) shotcreting 1950 Hrs 33.00 Total Cycle Time Excluding shotcreting(Upto 40 m only) Total Cycle Time Excluding (Upto 40 m only) min. min. 1650 shotcreting Hrs 28.00
Machinery outline Sr No. Equipment Output Population At each shaft 1 Jack Hammers with Pusher Leg. 2 Hydraulic excavator – 0.65 cum 7m/ Hr 5 +(3 stand by) 14/10 cum/hr 1 EOT Crane - 15T + 15T 5.8 /10 cum/hr 1 Muck buckets 6 Cum 2 Dumpers 20T 5 Aliva-282 Shotcrete Machine 5 cum/hr 1 Concrete mixer 3 cum/hr 1 Electric Compressor 607 Cfm 1 Dewatering Pump 35 HP 1 Welding Machine 40 Kva 1 Ventilation fan motor 50 Kva 1 bucket 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Manpower outline Sr No. Activity Category of labours No. of Total no. of labours labours D/Foreman H/Driller 1 Driller 5 Khalasi or D/Helper 15 D/Foreman 1 H/Driller 1 Driller 5 Khalasi or D/Helper 15 Blaster 1 1 1 For drilling activity total 22 labours required Drilling work 2 Loading, connection and blasting For loading, connection and blasting activity total 23 labours required For mucking activity total 3 9 labours required Khalasi 9 D/Foreman 1 H/Driller 1 For rock bolting activity Driller 3 total 11 labours required Khalasi or D/Helper 4 Mucking work 6 Rockbolting work 5 For mucking activity total Shotcreting(Dry) work Khalasi 22 22 labours required Always 2 labours for this 6 Goli making M/C 2 activity
Excavation of Tail Tunnel and TBM Assembly Area • • • • Height of TBM Assembly Chamber, Tail Tunnel near shaft is 12.0m. Because of restrictions in equipment selection/usage, it is proposed to excavate the same using Heading and benching methods. Heading will be excavated in 6.0m height and thereafter benching in balance 6.0m height. Initially Shaft will be excavated up to 6.0 m below the crown on the Tail Tunnel/ TBM assembly chamber. This is in order to proceed with Heading in TBM Assembly and Tail tunnel area. Thereafter the excavation of Tail Tunnel and TBM assembly area will commence. The excavation will be done in two stages viz. Heading & Benching. In the first stage, central Pilot of 6.0m (w) x 6.0m (H) will be excavated, followed by side slashing of 3.0m (w) x 6.0m (H) on both sides, to complete the heading excavation. In second stage, benching will proceed in two steps by drilling 3m holes using vertical/ bench drilling techniques. The side slashing in heading area will proceed only after the pilot has excavated up to 30m. The activities at two fronts will be staggered in such a way that during drilling at one face, mucking will be done at other face and vice-versa.
Heading 1 Pilot •The pilot tunnel is the having x-sectional area of 32.14 m2 and circumference (excl. invert) of 15.42m. •Initial excavation up to 35m length will be carried out by jackhammer and thereafter hydraulic drill jumbo will be used. The depth of drilling will be 3.0m (32mm dia.) in Jackhammer area and 3.6m (45mm dia.) Drill Jumbo area. •The depth of drilling will be 3.0m (32mm dia.) in Jackhammer area and 3.6m (45mm dia.) Drill Jumbo area. •Considering a pull of 90%, pull length will be approximately 2.7m. After providing appropriate time for de-fuming, the mucking activity is carried by a side tilting loader and will be cleared by the help of 20MT Hyva tipper (1+1 standby only after preceding for 50m till then the work will be carried out by the side tilting loader having 3.0 cum. bucket capacity). •Then rock bolt is carried out as it is very essential to give a proper roof support as the blast for the next portion may cause roof fall. The rock bolts used should be of 6m in length (Mechanical, resin, swellex bolts). The rock bolts should be placed evenly at a proper spacing of 1m each throughout the arch and the side walls. •Shotcrete will also form part of the cycle and will be carried out after two blasts have been taken place. •The grade should be of M35 and wet in nature. Shotrete should be done with Top shot machine having a capacity of 12m3/hr.
Sideslashing •When the excavation of pilot reaches to around 30m length the excavation of side slashing of any particular side shall be started. •The side slash will have area of 16.11m2 and a circumference of 10.44m. again the same procedure needs to be followed of drilling, loading, blasting, de fuming, mucking, rock bolting and shot Crete as performed in pilot. Benching •The completion of excavation, rock bolt as well as shot Crete of section 1, 2, 3 (Pilot and Side slashing) the benching activity will be started. •The benching activity is subdivided into two parts. In this procedure vertical holes are drilled as per to the specified pattern of drill depth 3m and 45mm diameter and an area of 100m2 is blasted generating a muck of around 270m3. •After defuming and mucking the procedure is repeated and rock bolt along with shot Crete is carried at regular intervals as done in previous sections. The sections 4 and 5 are excavated in same specified procedure.
Excavation Of Tail Tunnel • Including time for Survey, Drilling, Blowing, Loading, Blasting, De fuming and Scaling, lowering and lifting of Equipment, Mucking, Shot Crete, Rock Bolt and wire mesh, the total cycle time for Tail Tunnel Heading Pilot (6.0m x 6.0m) in all classes will be 20 Hrs. Activity Unit Surveying min. Equipment Placing min. Duration 20 30 Drilling min. 360 Loading min. 120 Defuming min. 20 Lowering Equipment & labour. min. 30 Mucking min. 380 Shotcreting min. 120 Rockbolting min. 90 Shift Change min. 30 Total Cycle Time min. 1200
Cycle Time for tail tunnel benching portion Activity Unit Surveying min. Equipment Placing min. Drilling min. Loading min. De fuming min. Lowering Equipment & labor. Min. Mucking min. Rock bolting min. Shotcreting min. Shift Change min. Total Cycle Time min. Duration 30 30 420 180 30 60 300 90 150 30 1320
D – Shaped Tunnel • • • • • The completion of the assembly tunnel leads to the beginning of the driving of a D shaped tunnel of 110m in length and 6.5m (W) x 6.875m (H). The driving of D Shaped tunnel is done so as to accommodate the remaining TBM (Tunnel boring machine) for the .excavation of the further length. The driving of the D Shaped tunnel is done by full face blasting. The rock bolt is done by 3.0m long mechanical, resin or swellex bolts throughout the arch portion and the bottom level. The shotcrete is done after rock bolt by.M35 grade mix. Including the time required for Survey, Drilling, Blowing, Loading, Blasting, .De fuming and Scaling, lowering and lifting of Equipment, Mucking, Rock Bolt, Shot Crete and wire mesh the total cycle time for D Shaped tunnel is 20Hrs. The length of D Shaped tunnel is 110 m. At the time of drilling the length of drilled holes in all classes will be 3.6 m. The diameter of cut holes will be 64mm and the diameter of the charged .holes will be 45mm. The no. of holes including dummy will be 136. Considering the pull of 85% of the drilled depth the pull for one blast will be 3.06m.
Activity Unit Duration Surveying min. Equipment Placing min. 30 Drilling min. 420 Loading min. 180 Defuming min. 30 Lowering Equipment & labour. Min. 60 Mucking min. 300 Rockbolting min. 90 Shotcreting min. 150 Shift Change min. 30 Total Cycle Time min. 1320 30
Concrete Lining of Shaft • • • • • Concrete Lining in Shafts is executed after excavation of shaft, Tail Tunnel and assembling chambers before the commencement of TBM assembly. Slipform type of shuttering is used to carry out the concreting. After fabrication and erection of Slipform shuttering to the required dimensions of finished surfaces of Shaft, the concrete will be placed into the formed wall by using concrete bucket. One platform moving on rails will be attached to the Slipform shuttering. Person with needle vibrator will utilise this movable platform for compacting the concrete placed all round. 25T capacity EOT crane will lower and lift the concrete bucket. The thickness of lining concreting in Gundovali shaft from EL (-) 63.375m to EL 26.66 m is 0.40 m. For 1.5 m height pour for the Shaft, quantity of concrete is 21.5 cum and cycle time required is 15 hours including 4 hours concreting, 1 hours for rising of Slipform shuttering and 10 hours initial setting of concrete.
Tunneling From Gundovali To Kapurbawdi 1. TBM lowering and assembling •The TBM assembling was carried out as soon as the Shaft lining work was completed. Various parts of the TBM were lowered through the shaft into assembly cavern with the help of 120 tons Gantry Crane. •Proper care was taken at the time of lowering the various parts of TBM because the weights of the parts as well as the depth of the shaft both were considerably high. The picture given below illustrates the procedure. •Also as soon as these parts were lowered into the tunnel through shaft, these parts were assembled with the help of 25(Tons) Gantry crane having 4 winches. •This crane was installed into the tunnel for the purpose of carrying these heavy parts to the required location. When all the parts of the TBM were assembled then the TBM boring has started.
Excavation of Tunnel from Gundovali to Kapurbawdi By TBM • The boring activity will consist of excavation, mucking through conveyor belts, rock bolting, shotcreting and laying of rail track along the center line. TBM Dismantling and Removal • The main parts of the TBM will be dismantled at the Kapurbawdi shaft area and lifted up through the Kapurbawdi shaft. • At the same time, dismantling of vertical conveyor will be started at the Gundovali shaft area and will be completed within a week. All the backup cars will be detached from the main TBM and transported towards the Gundovali shaft where they will be stationed on the secondary track. • After the dismantling of vertical conveyor these backup cars will be lifted out through Gundovali shaft i.e. the TBM dismantling work will be carried out through both the shafts. • During the dismantling work of TBM only one activity i.e. MS pipes fixing and concreting will be carried out. The transportation of men and material from Gundovali to Kapurbawdi shaft required for the dismantling activity will be done through road. The transportation inside the tunnel through the Gundovali shaft will be allowed only for the pipe liner activity related men and material.
• • • Immediately after the boring of tunnel by TBM, the work of MS pipe alignment, fixing and concreting will be started from CH 3913m moving towards the Gundovali shaft. The work of concrete lining will also be started from CH 3913m but moving towards the Kapurbawdi shaft. During the dismantling work of TBM only one activity i.e. MS pipes fixing and concreting will be carried out. The transportation of men and material from Gundovali to Kapurbawdi shaft required for the dismantling activity will be done through road. The transportation inside the tunnel through the Gundovali
Steel lining in Creek area • The M.S pipe erection work below the Kasheli creek area will be started. The M.S. Pipes are 32mm thk, 4.9m dia. having length of 4m each. • The MS pipes will be transported to the required place with the help of open cars. 2 no’s of open cars will be required for transportation of MS pipes, when one open car will be engaged at the unloading place, the other car will load the MS pipe at the loading point so that the work can be carried out continuously. • In a single stretch three MS pipe each having a length of 4m will be aligned, fixed with proper supports throughout its periphery and welded at the joints of two pipes throughout the periphery will be made ready for concreting.
• As the steel liners are having diameter of 4.9m and for rest of the tunnel, diameter of the concrete lining will be 5.5m therefore a welded tapered section will be their which will transform the 4.9m diameter gradually into 5.5m diameter on either sides i.e. towards Gundovali and kapurbawdi. The tapered section is as shown in the figure below
RCC lining from Creek end to Gundovali and Kapurbawdi shaft area • • • • After the completion of dismantling of TBM through the Kapurbawdi shaft is completed, the erection of concrete gantry will be started. This gantry will consists of two main parts viz. invert and overt. The invert is the base part of the gantry which will be laid down first and will be resting firm on the ground with the help of pins provided in it. The overt is the remaining part of the concrete gantry which will acquire the actual shape of lining. The invert part of gantry will always have length greater than that of an overt. In this case 3 sections of invert each having a length of 15m is available i.e. 45 m of invert is available. The overt section is 1 in nos and 30m length. The concrete gantry will have in it the hydraulic jack system for stretching and collapsing the overt section according to the profile of the tunnel and also for transportation of the overt section from one place to another
Major Equipment outline for RCC lining Sr. no Name of Equipments 1 No's 2 Concrete Pump (30 cum/hr) with Concrete pipe line (50m for steel liner concrete) with bends 3 Concrete Pump (30 cum/hr) with Concrete pipe line (100m for RCC lining ) manifold based 4 1 3 Open cars 5 2 Passenger cars 6 3 Locomotives 7 2 Concrete cars 8 1 Concrete Gantry
Explosive Loading Details for Gundovali Shaft Explosive Loading Details for Gundovali Shaft Circle Delay (in Sec) Total No of Charge Holes Loading % Gelatine Stick per Hole Total No of Sticks 1 0 5 90 5 25 2 1 90 5 50 3 2 85 4 64 4 3 85 4 88 5 4 80 4 108 6 5 75 3 99 7 6 75 3 117 8 7 85 4 176 9 8 85 4 200 Total 10 16 22 27 33 39 44 50 246 927 Weight of Explosive per cycle in Kgs(25 mm dia Gelatine) 116 Kg Detonators (LDD) No’s 246
Quantification of the major items to be excavated by TBM
Rate analysis for one blast cycle i.e 124 cum Machinery SN Type of machinery No,s Rate Usage Amount 1 Jackhammers 5 500/day 3 1500 2 Compressor GA 90 1 200/hr 5 1000 3 hours for drilling and 2 hours for blowering 3 EOT crane 4 Excavator 200 1 1 2000/hr 200/hr 7 7 14000 1400 It is used for mucking after blast It is used for mucking operation 8 2600 20500 Including the fuel charges for the lead of 2 km 5 Dumper 2 1300/day Subtotal Remarks Manpower SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 SN Category of labour Driller Head Driller D/foreman M/c Blaster M/c Materials 1 Gelatin sticks 2 L DD No,s 5 1 1 7 1 7 Subtotal unit Kg Nos Subtotal Rate 350 400 450 250 400 250 Amount 1750 400 450 1750 400 1750 6500 Materials Rate Quantity Amount 75 116 8700 14 246 3444 12144 Total cost for 124 Cum =I+II+III= 39144 Remark Remarks Therefore Per cum rate of excavation in hard rock using jackhammers including transportation of muck to a lead of 2 km is ₹ 315.67
Rate Analysis for M25 concrete for 1 M 3 Materials Quantity Rate Unit Amount (Rs) Aggregate 0.906 1020 Cum 924.12 Sand 0.455 1550 Cum 705.25 Cement 350.000 6.4 Kg's 2240.00 Steel Remarks 55 Sub Total 3869.37 Wastage @ 2.5 % of (I) 96.73 Sub Total 3966.10 I II Labour for conveying and pouring Category Constant Rate Amount Mason 0.2 400 80 mazdoor 2.5 250 625 Bhisti 0.8 200 160 Vib. Operator 0.07 250 17.5 882.50 Labour for reinforcement work Category Constant Rate Amount Blacksmith 0.15 400 60 Mazdoor 0.15 250 37.5 97.50 Labour for formwork/shuttering Category Constant Rate Amount Carpenter 0.13 400 52 Mazdoor 0.13 250 32.5 84.50 T&P's and sundries @ 4 % of (II) 158.64 Water Charges @ 0.4% of (II) 15.86 Sub Total 5205.11 Contractor Profit @ 10 % of (III) 520.51 Rate for for 1 Cum of M-20 Concrete 5725.62 III
Safety Measures 1. Any construction worker engaged where in excavation is exposed to hazard of falling or sliding material or article from any bank or side of such excavation which is more than 1.5 m above his footing, such worker is protected by adequate piling and bracing against such bank or side. 2. Where banks of an excavation are undercut, adequate shoring is provided to support the material or article overhanging such bank. 3. Excavated material is not stored at least 0.65 m from the edge of an open excavation or trench and banks of such excavation or trench are stripped of loose rocks and the banks of such excavation or trench are stripped of loose rocks and other materials which may slide, roll or fall upon a construction building worker working below such bank 4. Metal ladders and staircases or ramps are provided, as the case may be, for safe access to and egress from excavation where, the depth of such excavation exceeds 1.5 m and such ladders, staircases or ramps comply with the IS 3696 Part 1&2 and other relevant national standards.
Ventilation, fire protection and emergencies • • • • Fresh air is to be supplied to all underground work areas in sufficient quantities to prevent dangerous or harmful accumulation of dusts, fumes, mists, vapors, or gases. Mechanical ventilation is to be provided in all under groundwork areas, except when the management can demonstrate that natural ventilation provides the necessary air quality through sufficient air volume and airflow. Illumination requirements, applicable to underground construction operations, must be employed. Only acceptable portable lighting equipment is to be used within 15m of any underground heading during explosives handling. Fire prevention and protection requirements, applicable to underground construction operations, are to be followed. Open flames and fires are to be prohibited in all underground construction operations, except as permitted for welding, cutting, and other hot work operations. Readily visible signs prohibiting smoking and open flames are to be posted in areas having fire explosion hazards.
• • • • • • CONCLUSION We have studied the work sequence of various tunneling related activities by both the methods viz. drilling, blasting method and by TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine). The quantification of major items of work in shaft and tunnel excavation work including shaft and tunnel lining were also carried out. The major study items include Various type of drilling patterns for shafts and tunnel Calculation of requirement of explosives Rock bolting work Shotcreting work Shaft lining using Slipform work The major quantification items include • Excavation quantities • Rockbolting and shotcreting • Concrete quantity for shaft lining • Concrete quantity for tunnel lining We came to know about various types of modern machineries, equipment and materials used for the construction of shaft and tunnel at the site. Also the various safety measures which were followed at the site during the execution of various underground activities were also studied in detail.
REFERENCES 1. Rune Gustafsson, Blasting Technique, Dynamite Noble Wien Gesellschaft, Vienna 1981. 2. Guidelines For Preparation Of Project Estimates For River Valley Projects Second Edition -Government Of India Central Water Commission, New Delhi, 1997. 3. Tender Documents -Municipal Corporation Brihan Mumbai IV Mumbai Water Supply Project, Contract No. MVP-16, 2009. 4. Evert Hoek, Big Tunnels In Bad Rock, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, Http://www.rocscience.com/hoek/references, 2011. 5. Arora N L, Transportation Engineering, Twenty first edition, New India Publishing House, Delhi 2008. 6. Joglekar P T, Practical information for quantity surveyors, Sixth edition, Pune Vidyarthi Gruha Prakashan, April 2010
THANK YOU Special thanks to Mr. V D Sharma (Project Manager, MV-16 Tunnel Project)
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