A Primer On Military Vehicle Mobility Vintage 2003

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Information about A Primer On Military Vehicle Mobility Vintage 2003

Published on January 17, 2009

Author: QuestSystems

Source: slideshare.net

Mobility of Ground Vehicles: US MILITARY VIEW a overview primer and reference source guide: (vintage 2003) Jim Lutz – Quest Systems Inc. June 2003 JLutz@quest-systems-inc.com

MILITARY “…ITIES” • Agility Very specific terms, each with a military usage • Deployability definition and appropriate metrics, quantification and measurement procedure. • Survivability • Maintainability Frequently expressed in an “ORD”: • Mobility (Operational Requirements Document) with • Maneuverability “Threshold” and “Objective” targets. • Sustainability • Reliability • Trafficability • Lethality • • And on & on ….. but no “motivity”… June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 2

MILITARY DEFINITIONS: • mobility. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) – A quality or capability of military forces which permits them to move from place to place while retaining the ability to fulfill their primary mission. • trafficability. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) – Capability of terrain to bear traffic. – It refers to the extent to which the terrain will permit continued movement of any and/or all types of traffic. • maneuver. [JP 1-02] (DoD, NATO) – A movement to place ships or aircraft in a position of advantage over the enemy. – A tactical exercise carried out at sea, in the air, on the ground, or on a map in imitation of war. – The operation of a ship, aircraft, or vehicle, to cause it to perform desired movements. – Employment of forces on the battlefield through movement in combination with fire, or fire potential, to achieve a position of advantage in respect to the enemy in order to accomplish the mission. • agility. – The ability of friendly forces to act faster than the enemy. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 3

MILITARY DEFINITIONS: • strategic level of war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) – The level of war at which a nation or group of nations determines national or alliance security objectives and develops and uses national resources to accomplish those objectives. Activities at this level establish national and alliance military objectives; sequence initiatives; define limits and assess risks for the use of military and other instruments of power; develop global or theater war plans to achieve those objectives; and provide armed forces and other capabilities in accordance with the strategic plan. • operational level of war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) – The level of war at which campaigns and major operations are planned, conducted, and sustained to accomplish strategic objectives within theaters or areas of operations. Activities at this level link tactics and strategy by establishing operational objectives needed to accomplish the strategic objectives, sequencing events to achieve the operational objectives, initiating actions, and applying resources to bring about and sustain these events. These activities imply a broader dimension of time or space than do tactics; they ensure the logistic and administrative support of tactical forces, and provide the means by which tactical successes are exploited to achieve strategic objectives. • tactical level of war. [JP 1-02] (DoD) – The level of war at which battles and engagements are planned and executed to accomplish military objectives assigned to tactical units or task forces. Activities at this level focus on the ordered arrangement and maneuver of combat elements in relation to each other and to the enemy to achieve combat objectives. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 4

STRATEGIC MOBILITY: … the transport of forces over continental and intercontinental distances June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 5

OPERATIONAL MOBILITY: the ability to swiftly allocate and relocate forces within a theater of crisis or war. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 6

TACTICAL MOBILITY: • needed when a force is in immediate contact with its adversary. • Direct confrontation with an enemy imposes at least two mobility requirements: • Good off-road mobility is an important precondition of being able to evade enemy action and exploit unexpected avenues of approach. • Agility -- a combination of high speed, good acceleration, and the ability to quot;zig-zagquot;--is also key to being able to respond flexibly to rapidly changing opportunities and challenges. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 7

Tactical Mobility must consider: – vehicle weight loading in combat conditions – rapid transitions from pavement to ? June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 8

MILITARY DEFINITIONS: • Combat. – The purposeful application of force by a military or paramilitary organization through fire and maneuver to destroy the capacity and will of a like organization with competing goals and objectives. • Combat Support (CS). – Fire support and operational assistance provided to combat elements. Combat support includes artillery, air defense artillery, engineer, military police, signal, and military intelligence support. • Combat Service Support (CSS). – The essential capabilities, functions, activities, and tasks necessary to sustain all elements of operating forces in theater at all levels of war. Within the national and theater logistic systems, it includes but is not limited to that support rendered by service forces in ensuring the aspects of supply, maintenance, transportation, health services, and other services required by aviation and ground combat troops to permit those units to accomplish their missions in combat. Combat service support encompasses those activities at all levels of war that produce sustainment to all operating forces on the battlefield. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 9

MILITARY WHEELED VEHICLES: vehicle size vs. “usage” Wheeled Vehicles: Usage ( primary function) Combat Combat Service Support Special Support (CS) Combat Ops (CSS) civilian commercial Tahoe & LIGHT: class 2A (6,500 Suburban to 8000lbs) class 2B H1, H2, H1 & all HD HMMWV, HMMWV, HMMWV, size - cargo capacity category (8,500 to 10,000lbs) pickups pickups CUCV HMMWV, IFAV IFAV MEDIUM: class 6 & 7 MTVR FMTV ASV FMTV (19,500 to 33,000lbs) 5-Ton MTVR 5-Ton FMTV ASV M915, M916, PLS, HEMTT, HEAVY: class 8 & up HETS LVSR HEMTT (>33,000 lbs) LVSR M871A3 M871A3 HIMARS LAC-25 Light Armored LAV-25 Stryker Stryker Heavy Armored M1977 June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 10

US MILITARY TRUCK FLEET OVER TIME 450000 400000 20244 20507 350000 300000 158661 206487 HEAVY 250000 30474 MEDIUM 200000 LIGHT 83551 150000 100000 205819 174989 124170 50000 0 1980 1987 2007 TOTALS 384,987 401,720 238,195 June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 11

Trucks Provide the Logistical Backbone to the Army The US Army has a fleet of over 246,000 tactical wheeled vehicles and drives 823 million miles annually. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 12

Key documents for all military vehicles: • Mission Needs Statement (MNS). – [TR 350-70] A broad statement of mission need for a deficiency which can only be satisfied by a materiel solution. A MNS will be prepared for all Army acquisition programs regardless of acquisition category. • Operational Requirements Document (ORD). – [TR 350-70] A formatted statement containing performance (operational effectiveness and suitability) and related operational parameters for the proposed system. The operational requirements document will be initially prepared during Phase 0, Concept Exploration and Definition. It will be updated during Phase 1, Demonstration and Validation. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 13

Distinctions for military vehicles vs. civilian/commercial practice • Fully loaded in “COMBAT trim” is the primary weight condition for military vehicle mobility! June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 14

Soldier Human Factors Criteria: • Military vehicles must accommodate 5th% female to 95th% percentile male “soldier” with “gear & equipment” • 95% soldier quot;weight with gear”: 1 Crewman 295 pounds 2 Crewmen 566 pounds 3 Crewmen 828 pounds 4 Crewmen 1080 pounds June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 15

Building Blocks for Military Mobility Analysis & Simulation Surface Topography - Vehicle Platform Terrain Classification & Mobility “profile” Visualization Modeling & Simulation tools: NRMM-II (VehDyn, OBSMOD) ADAMS-DADS Surface-Soils Tire / Track Characterization Ground Interaction June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 16

Surface Topography - Digital Terrain Terrain Classification & Visualization Elevation Data [DTED] DTED Post • In support of military applications, the # Points Level Spacing National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) has developed standard digital 1 100m 90,000 datasets (Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED®)) which is a uniform matrix of terrain elevation values which 2 30m 810,000 provides basic quantitative data for systems and applications that require 3 10m 5,000,000 terrain elevation, slope, and/or surface roughness information 4 3m 21,250,000 5 1m 506,250,000 June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 17

Surface Topography - High Resolution Data: Terrain Classification & Visualization 1-meter Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR/LADAR) June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 18

Terrain Visualization Surface Topography - Terrain Classification & (click on picture) Visualization June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 19

Definition of Terrain Types by Surface – Soils Classification “Surface Roughness” (RMS): • Super Highways: 0.1 to 0.3 inch RMS – Multi-lane, high speed, high density, limited access roads such as Autobahns and Interstate highways. • Primary Roads: 0.1 to 0.3 inch RMS – Two or more lanes, all weather, maintained, hard surface roads with good driving visibility used for heavy and high density traffic. These surface roads have lanes with a minimum width of 2.7m(9 ft) and the legal maximum GVW/gross combined weight for the country or state is assured for all bridges. • Secondary Roads: 0.1 to 0.6 inch RMS – Two Lane, all weather, occasionally maintained, hard or loose surface roads intended for medium weight, low density traffic. • Trails: 0.1 to 2.8 inch RMS – One lane, dry weather, unimproved, seldom maintained, loose surface roads intended for low density traffic. Trails have a minimum lane width of 2.4m (8 ft), no large obstacles ( boulders, stumps, logs) and no bridging. • Off-Road: 0.6 to 4.5 inch RMS – Vehicle operations over virgin terrain which has nor previous traffic and over combat and pioneer trails. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 20

Surface – Soils Surface Roughness Classification • Military expresses surface roughness in “RMS” values of inches • Operational Requirements Document (ORD) for military vehicles will express ride quality on specific test courses with measured RMS values: example from HMMWV ORD 3.12.1 Ride Limiting Speed The HMMWV shall attain no more then 6 watts average vertical absorbed power, as measured at driver's location, while negotiating the following Root Mean Square (RMS) ride courses at speeds listed below, with the tires at normal tire pressure: 6-watt speeds RMS (inches) 1 1.5 2 2.5 MPH 30 20 15 13 June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 21

Comparing Mobility Surface Topography - Terrain Classification & Visualization Test Courses: June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 22

Surface Topography - Test Courses at Terrain Classification & Visualization Nevada Auto Test Center (NATC) NATC Engineering Development Courses Roughness (RMS) Values Course Name RMS Value Gravel Oval 0.2” 1/2” RMS 0.5” 1” RMS 1” 1.4” RMS 1.4” 2.4” RMS 2.4” 3.6” RMS 3.6” Sine Wave Oval – Long Amplitude Section 0.7” Sine Wave Oval – Large Amplitude Torsional 0.9” Section Alternating Bumps (Dirt) 0.7” Perryman I 0.3” Perryman II 0.4” Perryman III 2.8” Belgian Block 0.5” 3” Spaced Bump 0.9” 2” Washboard 0.7” June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 23

Surface – Soils Basic Trafficability Factors: Classification • Factors that affect ground (soil) trafficability: – Soil Strength & Sinkage: • Load bearing & traction capacities of soils are functions of their shearing resistance • Shearing resistance is measured by cone penetrometer and expressed in terms of Cone Index(CI) – Stickiness • May seriously hamper vehicles operating in wet, fine grained soil (e.g. mud accumulation) – Slipperiness • Excess water or a layer of soft, plastic soil overlying a firm layer • Vegetation when wet on a slope, may cause immobilization of rubber tired vehicles. • Problem even on soils with high bearing capacities – Variations with Weather • Loose sands improve trafficability through an increase in adhesion during rainy periods June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 24

Surface – Soils Classification Unified Soil Classification System: June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 25

Surface – Soils Classification Rating Cone Index • In vehicle off-road mobility, soil strength is a dominating factor. • Soil strength at a given place and time is expressed in terms of its RCI (Rating Cone Index of soil strength). • The larger the RCI, the stronger the soil. • rating cone index (RCI): – The measured Cone Index multiplied by the remolding index (RCI = CI x RI). – The RCI expresses the soil-strength rating of a soil area subjected to sustained traffic. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 26

Surface – Soils Classification Wet-Season Trafficability of Soils June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 27

BOSNIA: June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 28

Golan Heights June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 29

Tire / Track Sinkage of Wheeled Vehicles Ground Interaction June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 30

Tire Sinkage vs. Tire Diameter Tire / Track Ground Interaction 9000# pickup 8.4 8.2 Rating Cone Index = 25 Tire Width = 10” 8 Tire Sinkage (in) Vehicle Weight = 9,000 lb Number of Wheels = 4 7.8 Tire Deflection = 1” Tire Section Width = 8” 7.6 Tire Diameter varied between 30” to 40” 7.4 7.2 32 34 36 38 40 Tire Diameter (in) June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 31

Tire / Track Tire Sinkage vs.Tire Width Ground Interaction 9000# pickup Rating Cone Index = 25 Tire Width varied between 8” to 16” 10 Vehicle Weight = 9,000 lb Number of Wheels = 4 Tire Sinkage (in) Tire Deflection = 1” 8 Tire Section Width = 8” Tire Diameter = 33.5” 6 10 12 14 16 Tire Width (in) June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 32

Tire / Track Vehicle Cone Index Ground Interaction • Platform’s gross vehicle weight and its footprint determine resultant ground pressure imparted on the soil • Soil strength, coupled with vehicle’s ground pressure, determine a parameter called “Vehicle Cone Index” (VCI) • The VCIN (Vehicle Cone Index for N vehicle passes) is a vehicle characteristic and is the minimum value of RCI at which that vehicle can successfully complete N passes in the same ruts, given that the vehicle is moving on level ground at a slow, steady speed and not pushing or towing. – VCIN is determined either by experiment or through calculations and is closely related to nominal unit ground pressure but incorporates other factors in the overall vehicle-soil relation. – The lower the VCIN, the better the basic performance of the vehicle in fine grained soils. – the term VCI will assume to mean VCI1, (soil rating cone index for one vehicle pass, unless otherwise specified). June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 33

Tire / Track Ground Interaction June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 34

VCI values for Tire / Track Ground Interaction US Military Vehicles weight VCI VCI # of Vehicle lbs. (one pass) (50 pass) wheels tire size 16 HTTV 6200 4 35x12.50 R17LT 19 44 M151 quot;Jeepquot; 3180 4 7.00x16 20 47 M998 HMMWV 7500 4 37x12.50x16.5 31 70 M1028 old CUCV 9300 4 LT235/85 R16 32 72 LAV-25 27700 8 12.00 R20 XML with CTI 35/29 Stryker LAV-III 38300 8 12.00 R20 XML with CTI 25 58 Tank M1A1 125000 tracks 28 64 Tank M1A2 140000 tracks June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 35

Tire / Track M1028: “old CUCV” Ground Interaction • Comments from Desert Storm: – LTC KILGORE: Okay. As far as the reliability of a CUCV, it was less than desirable, especially in this environment. The HMMWV [M-998- series High-Mobility Multi-Wheeled Vehicle], I thought, stood up very well, especially with the rocky ground and the soft sand that we had to go over. Many times, you know, they just got stuck in M1028 The M1028 is a 5/4 ton tactical truck cargo the soft sand, especially your deuce and shelter carrier, General Motors Model K30903 a halfs [2.5-ton trucks] where you had Pickup. Military tasks include carrying the S-250 Communications Shelter. Military requirements numerous problems with transfers, include all of the following: air transportability; transmissions, due to the soft sand, blackout lights; camouflage paint; engine diagnostic connector assembly; military markings; clutches, things of that nature that were multi-purpose towing/tiedown eyes; nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) warfare protection; impacted by the terrain itself. NBC kit provisions; radio mounting provisions; rear pintle hook with trailer wiring connector; slave-start capability; S-250 shelter equipment tiedowns; towing capability; weapon holders; winterization kit add-on capability. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 36

Predicted VCI for Tire / Track Ground Interaction Commercial ¾ ton Pickups: Vehicle Vehicle Vehicle Vehicle VCI @ VCI @ VCI @ VCI @ 15% 20% 25% 30% condition m odel & body tire size prod base curb 24.2 22.5 21.3 20.3 prod base at GVW 2500HD, crew cab, 4x4 (9200 #s) LT245/75R-16 28.4 26.4 25.0 23.9 Duramax, short bed BATUS quot;General 2500HD, crew cab, 4x4 Purposequot; @ 9200# Duramax, short bed LT285/75R17 24.1 22.5 21.2 20.3 COMBATT curb 20.3 18.9 17.8 17.0 2500HD, extended cab, COMBATT GVW 37x12.5LT17E 22.7 21.1 19.9 19.1 short bed, 4x4, Duramax Border Patrol quot;Enhancedquot; 2500HD, extended cab, LT285/75R16 24.6 22.9 21.7 20.7 short bed, 4x4, Border Patrol quot;SORVquot; LT315/75R16 24.0 22.4 21.1 20.2 Duramax June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 37

Tire / Track VCI & speed requirements Ground Interaction for vehicles with CTIS • From Light Tactical Vehicle ORD: – The LTV single pass cone index (VCI1, fine grained) shall have a value no greater than 22 at tire inflation pressure for cross- country. – The calculated VCI1 shall employ the deflection ratio effect algorithms as defined in NRMM version 2.5.7. – The cross-country tire pressure will allow the vehicle to maintain speeds of at least 50 mph for continuous operation on secondary roads and trails. – The sand/mud/snow tire pressure will allow the vehicle to achieve speeds of at least 15 mph – the emergency tire pressure will allow speeds of at least 5 mph. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 38

Central Tire Inflation Systems • Current & Proposed US Military Vehicles with CTI systems: – M939A2 5-Ton – M939A0, A1 5-Ton (USMC): – M1074, M1075 Palletized Loading System 20-Ton [PLS] – Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles – Light Medium Tactical Vehicle 2-1/2-Ton – Medium Tactical Vehicle 5-Ton – Heavy Equipment Transporter [HET] Tractor (only) – Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacement 7-Ton [MTVR](USMC) – LAV-III – Heavy Expanded Mobile Tactical Truck 10-Ton (new buy and rebuild??) – Logistic Vehicle System Replacement (LVSR) (USMC) – HMMWV A2: Several systems proposed, none accepted by US Army or USMC (available as an option on commercial Hummer) June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 39

Tire / Track Ground Interaction Central Tire Inflation Systems • CTIS allows a vehicle operator to maintain traction and mobility over wide variations of terrain and soil types through adjustments to tire pressure, while the vehicle is in motion. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 40

Tire / Track CTIS “Settings” Ground Interaction • Under the conditions for which the pressures were developed (usually full load) the tire pressures roughly correspond to: – Highway: 10 - 15% deflection – Cross-Country: 25 - 30% deflection – Mud, Sand, And Snow: 30 - 35% deflection – Emergency: 35 - 40% deflection. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 41

Tire / Track Tire Pressure & Deflection Ground Interaction There is a tire deflection appropriate for any load and speed. For high speed operations tire deflections should be in the 10% range. For low speed operations tire deflections can be in the 20-30% range. Increasing tire deflection increases the tire footprint. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 42

Tire Foot Print Tire / Track Ground Interaction vs. Tire Pressure June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 43

Vehicle Mobility Mobility on Slopes: “profile” • Typical ORD for Light Tactical vehicle: – Up/down on 60% grade – 40% side slope operation • NRMM will evaluate a vehicle platform operating on a given terrain profile. • Each terrain data point is tested three times in NRMM for “Go/No-Go” – Vehicle traveling up-slope – Vehicle traveling down slope – Vehicle traveling side slope • Tested at GVW & GCVW (with trailer at its GVW) June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 44

Ride Quality Requirements: Vehicle Mobility “profile” HMMWV ORD June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 45

Technology can improve military vehicle ride quality! Data courtesy of MillenWorks – Dr. Anderfaas June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 46

NATO Reference Mobility Model (NRMM) • NRMM II is an Army standard model for determining vehicle mobility performance, primarily by predicting maximum vehicle capable speeds. • The NRMM is a computer-based simulation tool that can predict a vehicle's steady- state operating capability (effective maximum speed) over specified terrain. – a set of equations and algorithms that predict a particular vehicle's performance in a prescribed terrain based on vehicle physics and terrain properties. – The main prediction module considers vehicle, terrain, and vehicle-terrain independent scenario data such as weather conditions to determine the maximum possible speed versus resisting force at which the vehicle can operate. • The primary prediction product of NRMM is the vehicle's quot;speed-made-goodquot; (i.e. effective maximum speed) per terrain unit. – Speed predictions and limiting force calculations can be determined for on-road, off-road, and obstacle crossing maneuvers. • revised and updated throughout the years: – the current version is version 2.5.9a, also known as NRMM II. – a matured technology that was developed and proven by the Waterways Experiment Station (WES) and the Tank-automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM) over several decades. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 47

June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 48

NRMM “NO-GO” Requirements: HMMWV ORD example June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 49

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NRMM treatment of “obstacles”: • The effect of a linear obstacle on maximum speed is determined by using two look-up tables. The first is a table of average and maximum (resistance to motion) forces and minimum clearances based on standard obstacle descriptions. – If the minimum clearance is greater than the vehicle clearance, the maximum force is used to determine if there is enough available traction to cross the obstacle. – If either the clearance or maximum traction tests fail, NRMM II predicts “no-go”. Otherwise, the average force is added to the total resistance, which is used to calculate the maximum vehicle capable speed across the obstacle. – The second table contains vehicle speed versus obstacle height and is used to limit speed due to vehicle and driver acceleration tolerance (2.5g). June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 51

Obstacle Crossing Performance of Vehicles (double click on pictures) June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 52

Obstacle Crossing Background NRMM II is the Army standard for determining vehicle mobility performance, and its primary output is amobility NRMM II is the Army standard for determining vehicle prediction of maximum vehicle primary output is a prediction of maximum performance, and its capable speeds. Simplified, the prediction procedure forSimplified, the prediction procedure for vehicle capable speeds. determining the speed during an obstacle crossing can during an obstaclefollows: can be determining the speed be outlined as crossing outlined as follows: 1. Develop a tractive-force speed given vehicle characteristics curve given vehicle 1. Develop a tractive-force speed curve characteristics and strength. type and strength. and terrain type and terrain 2. Determine thetotal of the the various resistances to motion 2. Determine the total of various resistances to motion (slope, vegetation, obstacle, sinkage, …). (slope, up or calculate speed. vegetation, obstacle, sinkage, …). 3. Look 3. Look up or calculate speed. 4. Limit speed based on other environmental conditions (visibility, braking ability, surface roughness, …). 4. Limit speed based on other environmental conditions (visibility, braking ability, surface roughness, …). June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 53

Notional Tractive-Force Speed Curve Maximum Traction From Soil Vehicle Operating Region TRACTIVE FORCE Maximum Speed Speed Limit Based on Obstacle Force Other Criteria Theoretical Vegetation Force Power-Train Curve Slope Motion Resistance SPEED June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 54

Resistance due to an Obstacle • Data tables of average and maximum resistance forces based on standard obstacle descriptions. • Data for these tables are produced using OBSMOD, a 2-D simplified force balance model. (subroutine within NRMM) • The tables are interpolated and the average and maximum resistance forces are used to: 1. Determine available traction to cross the obstacle. 2. Use average resistance to get predicted speed. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 55

NRMM II Standard Obstacles Approach angle > 180 Approach angle < 180 TRENCH Height BERM Width Width Obstacle Spacing Obstacle Length Diagrams of obstacle measurements June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 56

VEHDYN III Animation M1097, 3 mph (click on picture) June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 57

Terrain features Used by NRMM • Slope • Vegetation stem spacing • Obstacle geometry • Soil Type • Soil Strength • Surface Roughness (RMS) • Visibility ( line of sight) • Snow June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 58

What does all this provide the warfighter & planner? Surface Topography - Vehicle Mobility Terrain Classification & “profile” Visualization TACTICAL Modeling & DECISION Simulation tools: NRMM-II AIDS: (VehDyn, OBSMOD) ADAMS-DADS •Go–NoGo Maps Surface-Soils Tire / Track •Speed over terrain Characterization Ground Interaction June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 59

Tactical Decision Aids • The output of GIS & NRMM software can produce a “Mobility Map”: – A standardized land area in which terrain surface composition, surface geometry and vegetation are defined – GIS & NRMM will show GO & NO-GO segments for the specific vehicle over this terrain June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 60

DoD Ground Vehicle Testing: • The U.S. Army Developmental Test Command (DTC) is the “vehicle testing capital of the world.”. DTC has been designated as the Department of Defense’s (DOD) overall lead for all land vehicle testing. – Aberdeen Test Center, Maryland – Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona – Cold Regions test Center, Fort Greely, Alaska – Tropic Test Site, Hawaii June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 61

Aberdeen Mobility Test: 18 Inch Step HMMWV's Ability to Maneuver Standard Obstacles 18quot; Step June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 62

Aberdeen V-ditch Test: Typical ditches in Operation Iraqi Freedom HMMWV's Ablility to Maneuver Standard Obstacles - Aberdeen V-ditch June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 63

High Mobility Trailer (HMT) • Family of Light Cargo (M1101) – Heavy Cargo (M1102) and Chassis Type • Companion Trailers for HMMWVs • Payloads M1101 1,500 Lb. 3,400 Lb. GVW M1102 2,500 Lb. 4,200 Lb. GVW World’s Best Chassis 2,800 Lb. 4,200 Lb. GVW Cross-Country • Cross-Country Speed Trailer – Required, 15 MPH Avg. – Achieved, 18+ MPH • Enhancements – Steel Drawbar and Brake Actuator • Requires HMMWV Towing Kit June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 64

Future Military Trucks • C130 transportability • Increased survivability • 10 - 20T payload • Reduced curb weight • Improved mobility • Improved fuel economy • Improved command and control • Unit Price constraint • 2 man crew • Non-lethal capabilities • Suppress enemy troops • ISO container Where we are headed….. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 65

Tactical Wheeled Vehicle Vision FY 03 OBJECTIVE TRANSITION FROM FY03 TO OBJECTIVE FORCE FY03 FY04 FY05 FY06 FY07 FY08 FY09 FY10 FY11 FY02 CURRENT FORCE (HET, PLS, HEMTT, M915, FMTV, HMMWV) M1A2SEP TANKS IN SERVICE IN FY30 REPLACE & UNIT ACTIVATIONS (ADRS) PLS contract ends FY07 HEMTT funding linked to ESP FTTS OBJECTIVE FORCE MANEUVER SUSTAINMENT RDT&E MS MS MS UTILITY A B C INTERIM FORCE (HEMTT-LHS, FMTV, HMMWV) HEMTT ESP contract ends FY07 FMTV contract ends FY08 HMMWV contract ends FY07 June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 66

Vehicle mobility in the 3rd world… June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 67

Backup information: June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 68

Tactical Mobility in Operation Iraqi Freedom June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 69

Fuel is the Second Largest Demand on the Battlefield Clothing Package Petroleum 0.5% 0.2% Food 2.7% Bulk Petroleum 38.6% Water 51.1% Barrier Materials 2.7% Ammunition 1.6% Medical Comfort Items Major End Items Repair Parts 0.2% 1.1% 1.1% 0.2% Next to Water, Fuel has the Most Tonnage on the Battlefield: 39% of the Demand 70 June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 70

Future Combat Systems (FCS) Mobility Requirements • FCS units should be capable of traversing all anticipated land environments, to include, but not limited to, urban, complex, open and rolling terrain without compromising tactical unit integrity. An in-stride water obstacle crossing capability will be considered for selective applications. (MNS, 2.c.3.f) • This force should possess unsurpassed battlefield agility in terms of maneuver, cross-country (dash and sustained) and hard surface speeds. (MNS, 2.c.3.f) Draft MNS from Solicitation June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 71

Future Tactical Truck System Requirements: Agility % of Terrain Crossed Over Time Primary 33% / Secondary 33% / Cross Country 34% Fording Capability 48” (T) / 60” (O) without kit (MSV) 40” (T) / 60” (O) without kits (UV) Operational Environmental Range All Environment Capable in Ambient Air Temperatures - o o o o 25 F to 120 F & -50 F to 120 F with a kit (T) MAINTAIN PACE WITH THE WARFIGHTER / OPERATE WITHIN SAME ENVIRONMENT June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 72

June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 73

Soil’s “Coefficient of Traction” June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 74

Soils & Surfaces Comparison: June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 75

June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 76

Increased Importance of Wheeled Vehicles …….. ARMY VISION • RESPONSIVE • DEPLOYABLE - 1 BRIGADE IN 96 HOURS. “Soldiers on point for the - 1 DIVISION IN 120 HOURS. Nation transforming this, - 5 DIVISIONS IN 30 DAYS. the most respected Army • AGILE in the world, into a strategically responsive • VERSATILE force that is dominant • LETHAL across the full spectrum of • SURVIVABLE operations.” • SUSTAINABLE GEN ERIC K, SHINSEKI, CSA “Nothing happens until something moves” June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 77

PRIMARY MILITARY VEHICLE PRODUCTION LOCATIONS Partnering with Industry... PALLETIZED LOAD SYSTEM HMMWV HEAVY EQUIPMENT TRANSPORTER SYSTEM AM GENERAL CORP. HEAVY EXPANDED MOBILITY TACTICAL SOUTH BEND, IN TRUCK OSHKOSH TRUCK CORP (OTC) OSHKOSH, WI PLS TRAILERS OTC TRAILER BRADENTON, FL HETS SEMITRAILER SYSTEMS & ELECTRONICS, INC. ST LOUIS, MO ASV PLS FLATRACKS FAMILY OF MEDIUM TACTICAL VEHICLES (FMTV) TEXTRON NEW ORLEANS, LA SUMMA CORP STEWART & STEVENSON SERVICES, INC. HUNTSVILLE, AL SEALY, TX June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 78

AMERICA’S ARMY BY COMPONENT FY2001 National Guard (NG) 44% Army Reserve (USAR) 18% Active Component (AC) 38% *Combat *Combat Support *Combat Service Support NG 54% USAR 31% NG 39% USAR 44% NG 26% USAR <1% AC 45% AC 30% AC 29% June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 79

Light Fleet - USMC Potential Industry Involvement Ongoing Acquisition Initiatives June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 80

HMMWV • Description: Light, highly mobile, diesel-powered, four wheel drive vehicle that uses a common chassis. • Units Affected: The majority of Combat, CS, CSS. • Qty Req: 41,654 • Programmed: 1,926 (FY03 - FY07) • Qty OH: 29,240 • Short: 10,488 • Unit Cost: $77K Note: There is a shortage of 2,699 up-armored HMMWV’s (included in the above shortage), at per unit cost of $185K. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 81

Medium Fleet - USMC Potential Industry Involvement Ongoing Acquisition Initiatives June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 82

HEMTT • Description: Performs line and local haul, unit resupply, and related missions in a tactical environment. • Units Affected: A majority of Combat, CS and CSS units. • Tanker: Qty Req: 2,077 • Programmed: 502 (FY03-07) • Qty OH: 1,303 • Short: 272 • Unit Cost: $305K • Wrecker: Qty Req: 1,023 • Programmed: 55 (FY03-07) • Qty OH: 609 • Short: 359 • Unit Cost: $360K •Note: The ARNG HEMTT cargo fleet is well. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 83

Heavy/Special Fleet -USMC Ongoing Acquisition Initiatives June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 84

Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles (FMTV) • Description: Consists of a common truck chassis that is used for several vehicle configurations in two payload classes and two tactical trailers. • Units Affected: The majority of Combat, CS & CSS. • Qty Req: 34,287 • Programmed: 2,113 – (FY03=467, FY04=1163, FY05=483) • Qty OH: 501 • Short: 31,673 • Unit Cost: $180K June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 85

22 1/2T Semi Trailer (M871A3) • Description: A commercially designed 22-1/2 ton semi- trailer used where a limited degree of off-road mobility is required. Prime mover is the FMTV 5 ton tractor. • Units Affected: CS & CSS units. • Qty Req: 5,057 • Programmed: 639 (Thru FY05) • Qty OH: 2,495 • Short: 1,923 • Unit Cost: $35K Note: Normally purchased for the FMTV at a ratio of 2 trailers to 1 truck. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 86

HMMWV tire change in Iraqi Freedom • Note tire tread pattern • Note tire size and section width June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 87

21ST CENTURY TRUCK June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 88

Future Military Trucks: ORD Starting Point Threshold Capabilities: Sustainability • Reliability – MTBF > duration of Pulsed Operations • Maintainability – Self-reporting, no special tools, No TMDE, and No Spares Agility • Higher Mobility Rated Speed: 50% increase • Must be able to go where Deployability FCS goes and bypass built up • C130 Roll on/Roll off w/load Areas to deliver support • Ready to support off the ramp Lethality Without vehicle preparation or Transportability waivers Survivability Versatility • Designed upfront to provide • Advanced Load Handling time definite and assured • Interchangeable/Intermodal Operation delivery • On Board Power & water Generation • Reduced Emissions and • Deliver integrated, common, formed Signature Packaging Responsiveness • Greater Fuel Efficiency 100 - 200% • Dynamic Movement Tracking and Re-routing • Greater Range 600 – 900 miles • Integrated C4ISR June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 89

Future Tactical Truck System (FTTS): Concept Design Goals Deployability • C130J • Rail envelopes GIC, B, AAR, British Rail gauge W5 • Meets US and NATO highway requirements • Transport an 8’6” ISO container under a 4m overhead obstruction Mobility • Improved fuel economy • Improved cross-country traversing characteristics • Increased range June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 90

USMC HMMWV A2 Fielding Status: • In Production • Fielding Began December 1999 • MPF-E Fielding to begin Jan 2002 • Fielding to Complete Oct 2010 The HMMWVA2 is scheduled to replace the aging fleet of more than 17,000 HMMWVs that were originally fielded to Marine Corps units in the mid-1980s. System upgrades include: microprocessor-controlled engine electrical start system; improved braking system; more powerful EPA certified engine; electronically controlled transmission; 15-year corrosion prevention and access panels to facilitate maintenance. The use of hot dip galvanization and electro- deposition coating of selected parts improves system durability in the highly corrosive environment that Marines often train and operate in. June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 91

Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacement: MTVR Schedule • Low Rate Production On-going • IOT&E Completed • FOT&E Started • Milestone III Pending • Variant Development 2000 - 2003 • Initial Fielding 2001 • Full Fielding 2004 Replaces the 5-ton Fleet and Provides: • Greater off-road mobility 70% vs. 30% • Greater off-road speed 30 vs 15 mph • Greater lift capacity •Cross Country 7.1 tons vs. 5 •Highway 15 tons vs. 10 • Improved RAM-D 4,000 MMBOMF June 2003 Prepared by Jim Lutz - Quest Systems Inc. 92

FMTV A1 Description Strategically Responsive Technical Onboard Material Handling A0 & A1 Share Equipment Available Characteristics Same Basic Capabilities • Incorporates Proven Program Events Commercial Components (CAT, Allison, Arvin Meritor, • FUE JUL ‘00 Da

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