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A Peculiar Case of Abdominal Pain

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Information about A Peculiar Case of Abdominal Pain
Education

Published on February 29, 2008

Author: Teodora

Source: authorstream.com

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A Peculiar Case of Abdominal Pain:  A Peculiar Case of Abdominal Pain James J. Foody, MD, FACP Vice Chairman of Medicine Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine June 17, 2005 History:  History CC: abdominal pain Injury 5 days PTA-ketorolac & ibuprofen Pain, vomiting 2 days PTA Negatives: hematemesis, melena, diarrhea History:  History PMH: negative FH: negative SH: social alcohol, works as baggage handler; monogamous heterosexual; no illicit drugs ROS: negative Physical Examination:  Physical Examination BP 124/76; pulse 95; RR 18; T 37.2 Height 177 cm; weight 69 kg; BMI 22 Abdomen diffuse tenderness w/ guarding +/- diffuse rebound bowel sounds normal spleen not palpable #1 What is the most likely cause of abdominal pain in this setting?:  #1 What is the most likely cause of abdominal pain in this setting? Irritable Bowel Syndrome Appendicitis Gallstone Disease Pancreatitis Peptic ulcer #1 What is the most likely cause of abdominal pain in this setting?:  #1 What is the most likely cause of abdominal pain in this setting? B. Appendicitis Appendicitis:  Appendicitis Most common in 2nd-3rd decade Incidence 233/100,000/year in 10-19 year old Male to female ratio 1.4:1 Pain at McBurney’s point is late finding Rome II Criteria for IBS:  Rome II Criteria for IBS No structural or metabolic explanation At least 12 weeks of 2 of the following Relieved by defecation Onset with change of stool frequency Onset with change of stool consistency Supporting symptoms Stool >3/day; <3/week; abnormal form; straining Abdominal bloating Gallstone Prevalence:  Gallstone Prevalence Older age Female sex Native American > Mexican American > Non-Hispanic white > Non-Hispanic black Hemolytic anemia Pregnancy Estrogen Obesity Pancreatitis :  Pancreatitis Prevalence of appendicitis 50x greater Etiology Gallstone 35% attacks caused by gallstones 3-7% people with gallstones develop pancreatitis Small gallstones Alcohol Hypertriglyceridemia Hypercalcemia Drugs (e.g. didanosine, pentamadine, furosemide, etc.) Peptic Ulcer:  Peptic Ulcer Chronic time course Duodenal ulcer relieved by eating Gastric ulcer aggravated by eating Chronic NSAID causes exacerbation Initial test results:  Initial test results Hb 15.4 g/dL MCV 87 WBC 12,500; 86% neutrophils; 0 bands Sodium 143 Potassium 4.6 Chloride 103 Bicarbonate 29 Creatinine 3.2 BUN 29 Urinalysis:  Urinalysis Trace protein Trace blood ++ ketones SG 1.024 Microscopic: no RBC; rare hyaline cast #2 What test(s) are most appropriate now?:  #2 What test(s) are most appropriate now? CT scan abdomen without contrast CT scan abdomen with contrast Exploratory laparoscopy Sonogram (ultrasound) of abdomen Serum b-hCG #2 What test(s) are most appropriate now?:  #2 What test(s) are most appropriate now? C. CT scan abdomen without contrast Rationale :  Rationale CT contrast contraindicated in renal failure Exploratory surgery more morbidity than further testing (5% complication rate) Sonogram high positive predictive value, low negative predictive value for appendicitis Serum b-hCG??? Abdominal CT w/o contrast:  Abdominal CT w/o contrast NEGATIVE Slide18:  Paulson, E. K. et al. N Engl J Med 2003;348:236-242 Clinical Algorithm for the Evaluation of Pain in the Right Lower Quadrant #3 Is the elevated creatinine:  #3 Is the elevated creatinine Part of the disease causing abdominal pain? Unrelated to abdominal pain? Likely a laboratory error? Due to a chronic pre-existing condition? #3 Is the elevated creatinine:  #3 Is the elevated creatinine A. Part of the disease causing abdominal pain. Ockham’s Razor:  Ockham’s Razor One should not increase, beyond what is necessary, the number of entities required to explain anything. William Ockham, OFM 1330 #3 Is the elevated creatinine:  #3 Is the elevated creatinine Part of the disease causing abdominal pain? Unrelated to abdominal pain? Likely a laboratory error? Due to a chronic pre-existing condition? Hospital Course:  Hospital Course Admitted for observation & hydration Parenteral opioids in high doses for pain Surgical consultant declined to operate Serum amylase & lipase; urine amylase all normal Sonogram hepatobiliary system normal Emesis stopped; maximum temperature 37.7 Eating resumes on day #4 Hospital Course-Diagnostics:  Hospital Course-Diagnostics Transaminases all normal Serum c-ANCA & p-ANCA negative ANA negative MRA abdomen not consistent with vasculitis Urine toxicology screen negative except opiates Hemoglobin electrophoresis: A1 97.5%, A2 2.5% Differential Diagnosis:  Differential Diagnosis Appendicitis Pancreatitis Cholecystitis Peptic ulcer Perforated viscus Bowel obstruction Food poisoning Drug intoxication Hepatic hemangioma Vasculitis Celiac/mesenteric ischemia What next?:  What next? Extended Differential Diagnosis:  Extended Differential Diagnosis Henoch-Schönlein Purpura Arsenic poisoning Hereditary or acquired angioedema Henoch Schönlein Purpura:  Henoch Schönlein Purpura Arsenic in Water Supply:  Arsenic in Water Supply http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/trace/pubs/fs-063-00/fig1.gif accessed 1/30/05 Hereditary Angioedema:  Hereditary Angioedema Caused by a deficiency of C1-esterase inhibitor (C1 INH) Initial episode typically in adolescence In males, half of attacks are precipitated by trauma Painless, non-pruritic skin and mucosal urticaria usually accompany other manifestations Slide33:  http://webmed.unipv.it/immunology/complpaths.jpeg accessed 01/31/2005 C1 INH Diagnostic tests:  Diagnostic tests C1 esterase antigenic protein: normal C1 esterase protein activity: normal CH50: normal Differential Diagnosis:  Differential Diagnosis Adrenal crisis Plumbism Familial Mediterranean Fever Acute intermittent porphyria #4 What is the best test for identifying adrenal crisis? :  #4 What is the best test for identifying adrenal crisis? Serum potassium Serum cortisol at 8 AM Serum cortisol at 5 PM 24 hour urinary free cortisol Retroperitoneal MR scan #4 What is the best test for identifying adrenal crisis?:  #4 What is the best test for identifying adrenal crisis? B. Serum cortisol at 8 AM 8 AM cortisol 7.4 μg/dL Sources of lead toxicity:  Sources of lead toxicity Lead based paint (outlawed in USA 1955) NHANES 13.6% prevalence of lead toxicity in urban black children Leaded gasoline outlawed in USA 1976 Lead solder on food cans outlawed 1991 Still used in Latin America and Asia Moonshine alcohol made in lead batteries However, Chicago has plenty of liquor stores Retained bullets #5 What is the best test for lead toxicity in this case?:  #5 What is the best test for lead toxicity in this case? Serum lead Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin Radiographs of knees Urinary lead after EDTA infusion (chelation) #5 What is the best test for lead toxicity in this case?:  #5 What is the best test for lead toxicity in this case? A. Serum lead Serum lead 0.4 μg/dL (normal <10) #6 Which statement best describes Familial Mediterranean Fever?:  #6 Which statement best describes Familial Mediterranean Fever? I never heard of it. I think I might recognize the name, but I have no idea what it is. It is a recessive genetic disease due to mutations in the MEFV gene on the short arm of chromosome 16, causing recurrent episodes of polyserositis, leading to amyloidosis unless treated with colchicine. #6 Which statement best describes Familial Mediterranean Fever?:  #6 Which statement best describes Familial Mediterranean Fever? Correct answers B & C Slide45:  http://www.utmb.edu/pmch/Porphyria/Porphyria accessed 01/27/05 Slide46:  www.photodermatologie.de/ Bilder/porphyria accessed 01/27/05 #7 What is the most sensitive and specific test for AIP?:  #7 What is the most sensitive and specific test for AIP? Urinary porphobilinogen I already forgot the previous slide #7 What is the most sensitive and specific test for AIP?:  #7 What is the most sensitive and specific test for AIP? A. Urinary porphobilinogen 43 mg in 24 hours (normal 0 to 4 mg/d)

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