A Longitudinal Perspective *on the Relationship *between Hypermedia Structure *and Comprehension

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Published on October 6, 2009

Author: pfastrez

Source: slideshare.net

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Slides from a presentation given at WCW2008 (Workshop on Cognition and the Web: information processing, comprehension and learning - University of Granada, Spain - April 22-24, 2008)

A Longitudinal Perspective on the Relationship between Hypermedia Structure and Comprehension Pierre Fastrez Communication Department Catholic University of Louvain - Belgium

Introduction The age-old question: How hypermedia structure influences the organization of knowledge acquired by users Two findings from the literature: Subjects integrate structural and semantic cues to discern information organization or “shape” (Dillon, 2000; Dillon & Vaughan, 1997; Dillon & Schaap, 1996) The influence of structural cues is mediated by navigation Hypermedia structure partly determines navigation pathways, which in turn impact understanding (Fastrez, 2005; Naumann, 2008)

The age-old question: How hypermedia structure influences the organization of knowledge acquired by users

Two findings from the literature:

Subjects integrate structural and semantic cues to discern information organization or “shape” (Dillon, 2000; Dillon & Vaughan, 1997; Dillon & Schaap, 1996)

The influence of structural cues is mediated by navigation

Hypermedia structure partly determines navigation pathways, which in turn impact understanding (Fastrez, 2005; Naumann, 2008)

Introduction Prior knowledge seems to affect how users learn with hypermedia (Mitchell et al., 2005) domain knowledge system expertise How does the influence of hypermedia structure on comprehension evolve over time, i.e. as the users’ domain knowledge and system expertise grow? System experts perform better with complex structures. Domain experts free themselves from the structure imposed by the system . Collection of longitudinal data to address this question

Prior knowledge seems to affect how users learn with hypermedia (Mitchell et al., 2005)

domain knowledge

system expertise

How does the influence of hypermedia structure on comprehension evolve over time, i.e. as the users’ domain knowledge and system expertise grow?

System experts perform better with complex structures.

Domain experts free themselves from the structure imposed by the system .

Collection of longitudinal data to address this question

Material HyperDoc: an educational hypermedia system presenting “how the Internet works” 160 nodes Two versions: same textual contents, illustrations and animations differ in terms of their structure

HyperDoc:

an educational hypermedia system presenting “how the Internet works”

160 nodes

Two versions:

same textual contents, illustrations and animations

differ in terms of their structure

Material Version A is organized thematically Version B is organized geographically

Version A is organized thematically

Version B is organized geographically

Participants and conditions 14 first-year university students majoring in communication, political science or economics 2 conditions defined by which version of HyperDoc (A or B) subjects were invited to use Condition A Condition B Total Female 5 5 10 Male 2 2 4 Total 7 7 14

14 first-year university students majoring in communication, political science or economics

2 conditions defined by which version of HyperDoc (A or B) subjects were invited to use

Task Over a period of one month, 4 consecutive sessions: a 30-minute browsing task Goal: Answer the question “How does the Internet work?” Note-taking using paper and a pen during the task Activity recorded using Morae a post-test: Answer the question verbally (audio recording) Answer the question by drawing a schematic Analysis of the schematics Global structural features of the schematics Evolution over time

Over a period of one month, 4 consecutive sessions:

a 30-minute browsing task

Goal: Answer the question “How does the Internet work?”

Note-taking using paper and a pen during the task

Activity recorded using Morae

a post-test:

Answer the question verbally (audio recording)

Answer the question by drawing a schematic

Analysis of the schematics

Global structural features of the schematics

Evolution over time

CEW Questionnaire Questionnaire adapted from the Computer-Email-Web fluency scale (Bunz, 2004) Evaluates subject prior experience with the Internet Four components, each corresponding to a number of “I can…” assertions rated by subjects on a five-point Likert scale computer fluency email fluency web browsing fluency web editing fluency Each component corresponds to an average score Additional questions frequency of use of email and the World Wide Web basic demographic questions (gender, year of birth, etc.).

Questionnaire adapted from the Computer-Email-Web fluency scale (Bunz, 2004)

Evaluates subject prior experience with the Internet

Four components, each corresponding to a number of “I can…” assertions rated by subjects on a five-point Likert scale

computer fluency

email fluency

web browsing fluency

web editing fluency

Each component corresponds to an average score

Additional questions

frequency of use of email and the World Wide Web

basic demographic questions (gender, year of birth, etc.).

Cluster analysis Classification of the participants into novice and expert web users Hierarchical cluster analysis on data from selected questions of the questionnaire Similarity scores computed using the Gower similarity coefficient for mixed data types (Gower, 1971) Complete linkage method used to cluster the cases based on these scores 3 clusters= 3 profiles of web users No significant differences between clusters in schematic analysis

Classification of the participants into novice and expert web users

Hierarchical cluster analysis on data from selected questions of the questionnaire

Similarity scores computed using the Gower similarity coefficient for mixed data types (Gower, 1971)

Complete linkage method used to cluster the cases based on these scores

3 clusters= 3 profiles of web users

No significant differences between clusters in schematic analysis

Schematic Analysis General idea: Categorize schematics based on the type of generic frame that structures them, namely: map-like drawings time sequences diagrams hierarchical outlines Track frame evolution over time Check compatibility between frame type and HyperDoc version used by subjects

General idea:

Categorize schematics based on the type of generic frame that structures them, namely:

map-like drawings

time sequences

diagrams

hierarchical outlines

Track frame evolution over time

Check compatibility between frame type and HyperDoc version used by subjects

Sample Map

Sample Sequence

Sample Diagram

Sample Outline

Schematic Analysis How to define categories to avoid ambiguous cases? Solution: Code each schematic as an array of embedded patterns Each pattern involves one or several of the following four basic semantic relationships: space items in the pattern are laid out to reflect their spatial or topological relationships time items are linked to represent consecution entailment items are linked to reflect that A entails B, i.e that if A is true than B is true category item layout represents a category and its members

How to define categories to avoid ambiguous cases?

Solution:

Code each schematic as an array of embedded patterns

Each pattern involves one or several of the following four basic semantic relationships:

space items in the pattern are laid out to reflect their spatial or topological relationships

time items are linked to represent consecution

entailment items are linked to reflect that A entails B, i.e that if A is true than B is true

category item layout represents a category and its members

Patterns

Schematic Categorization Focus on schematic top-level patterns Eight combinations of semantic relationships into top-level patterns Grouped into four frame types: maps (space, category and space, or space, time and entailment) sequences (time, or time and entailment) diagrams (entailment, or category and entailment) outlines (category)

Focus on schematic top-level patterns

Eight combinations of semantic relationships into top-level patterns

Grouped into four frame types:

maps (space, category and space, or space, time and entailment)

sequences (time, or time and entailment)

diagrams (entailment, or category and entailment)

outlines (category)

Schematic Categorization Some frame types match the metaphors underlying the two versions of HyperDoc: diagrams and outlines can be paired with HyperDoc A maps with HyperDoc B. Expectation: subjects should rely more often on the frame types that are in line with the version of HyperDoc they browsed.

Some frame types match the metaphors underlying the two versions of HyperDoc:

diagrams and outlines can be paired with HyperDoc A

maps with HyperDoc B.

Expectation: subjects should rely more often on the frame types that are in line with the version of HyperDoc they browsed.

Schematic Frame Types per Condition Whole table: χ 2 = 3.84; p = 0.279 Maps vs. all other frame types : χ 2 = 3.73; p = 0.0533   Condition A Condition B Total Outlines 11 7 20 Diagrams 2 1 21 Maps 7 14 21 Sequences 8 6 20 Total 28 28 56

Whole table: χ 2 = 3.84; p = 0.279

Maps vs. all other frame types : χ 2 = 3.73; p = 0.0533

Frame Type Evolution over Time Condition A Condition B Total Constant Frame (S 1 =S 2 =S 3 =S 4 ) 3 6 9 Temporary Change (S 1 =S 2 =S 4 ≠S 3 or S 1 =S 3 =S 4 ≠S 2 ) 1 1 2 Back and Forth Switch (S 1 =S 3 ≠S 2 =S 4 ) 1 0 1 Definite Change (S 1 ≠S 2 =S 3 =S 4 ) 2 0 2 Total 7 7 14

Frame Type Evolution over Time A majority of eleven subjects used the same frame type to structure their initial and final schematics. χ 2 = 4.57; p = 0.0325 This trend was stronger in condition B χ 2 = 3.82; p = 0.0507 Condition A Condition B Total Constant Frame and Temporary Change 4 7 11 Back and Forth Switch and Definite Change 3 0 3 Total 7 7 14

A majority of eleven subjects used the same frame type to structure their initial and final schematics.

χ 2 = 4.57; p = 0.0325

This trend was stronger in condition B

χ 2 = 3.82; p = 0.0507

Final Schematic Frame Compatibility per Subject Type One cannot conclude that subjects changed the way they framed their schematics to make them compatible with the overall organization of the hyperdocument they used. Compatible Incompatible Total Constant Subjects 6 5 11 Changing Subjects 1 2 3 Total 7 7 14

One cannot conclude that subjects changed the way they framed their schematics to make them compatible with the overall organization of the hyperdocument they used.

Conclusions HyperDoc’s organizing principles did not have any significant effect on the overall configuration of the schematic representations produced by subjects. except for the slightly more frequent use of maps by subjects in condition B. Top-level patterns were largely stable in time (at least in condition B) regardless of the growing expertise of participants on both the system and its contents.

HyperDoc’s organizing principles did not have any significant effect on the overall configuration of the schematic representations produced by subjects.

except for the slightly more frequent use of maps by subjects in condition B.

Top-level patterns were largely stable in time (at least in condition B)

regardless of the growing expertise of participants on both the system and its contents.

Future Work Further analyses of the same data: Influence of more local structural features of HyperDoc on acquired knowledge organization Evolution of this influence over time. Analysis of subjects’ verbal answers to the task question Analysis of navigation activity (video & log files)

Further analyses of the same data:

Influence of more local structural features of HyperDoc on acquired knowledge organization

Evolution of this influence over time.

Analysis of subjects’ verbal answers to the task question

Analysis of navigation activity (video & log files)

Thank you for your attention

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